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Ruimei Zhang, Xiangyu Xi, Chunying Wang, Yong Pan, Changhua Ge, Liying Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Huimei Liu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine secreted by activated T cells. Studies exploring recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhuIL-2) as an adjunctive immunotherapeutic agent to treat tuberculosis (TB) have shown variable results; however, the true therapeutic efficacy of rhuIL-2 administration in TB patients has not been determined. METHODS: A systematic review to identify publications exploring the association between rhuIL-2-based immunotherapy for TB and outcomes (sputum culture conversion, sputum smear conversion, radiographic changes, and leukocyte phenotype changes) in patients with pulmonary TB published before June 8, 2018 was performed...
2018: PloS One
Mrittika Barua, Francien Van Driel, Willy Jansen
When they do not meet norms related to sexuality and reproduction, Bangladeshi women often face abandonment and are thus deprived of an active sexual life, a marital relationship, and motherhood. Little is known about how a stigmatised disease such as tuberculosis (TB) may constrain the reproductive health and sexual lives of women. This article, derived from a larger study on the impact of TB on women's sexual and reproductive health and rights in Narsingdi district and Dhaka, Bangladesh, aims to fill this gap...
2018: PloS One
Paul Meyvisch, Chrispin Kambili, Koen Andries, Nacer Lounis, Myriam Theeuwes, Brian Dannemann, An Vandebosch, Wim Van der Elst, Geert Molenberghs, Ariel Alonso
The emergence of multidrug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with in vitro resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, has necessitated evaluation and validation of appropriate surrogate endpoints for treatment response in drug trials for MDR-TB. The trial that has demonstrated efficacy of bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline that inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase, possesses the requisite features to conduct this evaluation. Approval of bedaquiline for use in MDR-TB was based primarily on the results of the controlled C208 Stage II study (ClinicalTrials...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Parriott, Mohsen Malekinejad, Amanda P Miller, Hacsi Horvath, Suzanne M Marks, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: Contact investigation is an important strategy for maintaining control of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, testing and treatment outcomes specifically to foreign-born populations are poorly understood. We reviewed literature on testing and LTBI identified during contact investigations in foreign-born populations living in the US. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature using Cochrane systematic review methods...
2018: PloS One
S Orlando, I Triulzi, F Ciccacci, I Palla, L Palombi, M C Marazzi, M Giuliano, M Floridia, S Mancinelli, E Mutemba, G Turchetti
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) represents the ninth leading cause of death worldwide. In 2016 are estimated 1.3 million TB deaths among HIV negative people and an additional 374,000 deaths among HIV positive people. In 2016 are estimated 1.4 million new cases of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV), 74% of whom were living in Africa. In light of these data, the reduction of mortality caused by TB in PLHIV is strongly required specially in low-income countries as Mozambique. According to international guidelines, the initial TB screening in HIV+ patients should be done with the four symptoms screening (4SS: fever, current cough, night sweats and weight loss)...
2018: PloS One
Y-T Duan, K-Y Bi, Y-S Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of PKC δ gene on the anti-tuberculosis activity of macrophages and the mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone marrow cells of PKC δ knockout mice and wild-type mice were cultured and L929 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) were used to stimulate macrophages respectively. After 24 and 96 hours, cells and the supernatant were collected to evaluate the inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages using ELISA method...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Shan Gao, Zhiling Wang, Yongmei Xie
RATIONALE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. The TSC1 and TSC2 genes have been identified as pathogenic genes. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we are discussing a novel frameshift mutation and a novel missense mutation in the TSC2 gene. DIAGNOSES: The two cases discussed in this study met the latest diagnostic criteria for TSC published by the International Tuberculosis Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference in 2012...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emanuela Caraffa, Gianluca Russo, Serena Vita, Miriam Lichtner, Anna Paola Massetti, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Camilla Ajassa
RATIONALE: Tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. PATIENT CONCERN: We describe a case of an Italian child. DIAGNOSES:: we diagnosed early a Tuberculous meningitis complicated by the occurrence of hydrocephalus, stroke, and paradoxical reaction with brain pseudo-abscesses. INTERVENTIONS: The child started readily a specific therapy associated with steroids and thalidomide was introduced few month later. OUTCOMES: the patient had a favorable outcome without neurologic sequelae...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kristine M Schmit, Mark N Lobato, Simona G Lang, Sherri Wheeler, Newton E Kendig, Sarah Bur
CONTEXT: Correctional facilities provide unique opportunities to diagnose and treat persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Studies have shown that 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine (INH-RPT) to treat LTBI resulted in high completion rates with good tolerability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate completion rates and clinical signs or reported symptoms associated with discontinuation of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: During July 2012 to February 2015, 7 Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities participated in an assessment of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment among 463 inmates...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Niketa Bhawsinghka, Arkajyoti Dutta, Jayanta Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy K Das Gupta
Mycobacteriophage D29 is a lytic phage that infects various species of Mycobacterium including M. tuberculosis. Its genome has 77 genes distributed almost evenly between two converging operons designated as left and right. Transcription of the phage genome is negatively regulated by multiple copies of an operator-like element known as stoperator that acts by binding the phage repressor Gp71. The function of the D29 genes and their expression status are poorly understood and therefore we undertook a transcriptome analysis approach to address these issues...
July 19, 2018: Microbiology
Chi Chiu Leung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Arif Emre, Mehmet Sertkaya, Sami Akbulut, Ozan Erbil, Nursel Yurttutan, İlhami Taner Kale, Ertan Bülbüloğlu
Objective: The aim of the present study was to share our experiences of the use of self-expandable metallic stent for the upper gastrointestinal tract disease. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 18 patients who underwent self-expandable metallic stent implantation procedure for anastomosis stricture, anastomosis leak, or spontaneous fistula of the upper gastrointestinal tract at two different surgery clinics. Self-expandable metallic stent implantation procedures were performed while keeping the patient under sedation and the correct stent localization was verified using fluoroscopy...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Joshua Odingo, Mai A Bailey, Megan Files, Julie V Early, Torey Alling, Devon Dennison, Julie Bowman, Suryakanta Dalai, Naresh Kumar, Jeffrey Cramer, Thierry Masquelin, Philip A Hipskind, Tanya Parish
Nitazoxanide has antiparasitic and antibiotic activities including activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . We prepared and evaluated a set of its analogues to determine the structure-activity relationship, and identified several amide- and urea-based analogues with low micromolar activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro. Pharmacokinetics in the rat suggested a path forward to obtain bioavailable compounds. The series had a good microbiological profile with bactericidal activity in vitro against replicating and nonreplicating M...
September 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Padam Singh, Shashi Kant Kumar, Vineet Kumar Maurya, Basant Kumar Mehta, Hafsa Ahmad, Anil Kumar Dwivedi, Vinita Chaturvedi, Tejender S Thakur, Sudhir Sinha
A synthetic molecule S006-830, belonging to the class of thiophene-containing trisubstituted methanes, had shown good in vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The molecule had also shown good druglike pharmacokinetic properties. However, S006-830 is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers, one of which could possess a better pharmacological profile than the other. We purified both the enantiomers on a chiral column and observed that S-enantiomer has a significantly higher inhibitory and cidal activity against Mtb than the R-enantiomer...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farahnaz Joukar, Alireza Samadi, Sara Mavaddati, Arash Daryakar, Fatemeh Gharibpour
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the endemic diseases with a challenging diagnosis in the absence of pulmonary disease. On the other hand, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with extra-articular manifestations that occur at any age after onset, such as nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, anemia of chronic disease, and pulmonary manifestations, which are more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease. Here we present a case of RA with intestinal TB...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Durga Prasanna Misra, Aman Sharma, Vikas Agarwal
The practice of rheumatology in a country like India presents its own unique challenges, including the need to manage patients in a cost-constrained setting, where the lack of uniform government funding for healthcare merits the need to optimize the use of cheaper medicines, as well as devise innovative strategies to minimize the use of costlier drugs such as biologic disease-modifying agents. Use of immunosuppressive agents is also associated with increased risks of infectious complications, such as the reactivation of tuberculosis...
July 19, 2018: Rheumatology International
Paul K Drain, Kristina L Bajema, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Kogieleum Naidoo, Samuel G Schumacher, Shuyi Ma, Erin Meermeier, David M Lewinsohn, David R Sherman
SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide, due in part to a limited understanding of its clinical pathogenic spectrum of infection and disease. Historically, scientific research, diagnostic testing, and drug treatment have focused on addressing one of two disease states: latent TB infection or active TB disease. Recent research has clearly demonstrated that human TB infection, from latent infection to active disease, exists within a continuous spectrum of metabolic bacterial activity and antagonistic immunological responses...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Li Yuan Zhang, Fu Jing Huang, Jun Qi Xu, Zhen Gong, Jian Ping Xie
The molecular mechanisms of pathogen persistence within host cells are emerging hotspots, and one of the causes of its persistence is the acid resistance of bacteria. Currently, tuberculosis remains a serious threat to global public health and it is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In particular, acid resistance of M. tuberculosis and its persistence within macrophages contribute significantly to tuberculosis. Investigations have uncovered three major mechanisms underlying its acid resistance: the control of proton entry, metabolic regulation of intracellular acid-base balance and regulation of the two-component signaling system...
July 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Alejandro Benítez-Guzmán, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Julio Morán, José A Gutiérrez-Pabello
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis encodes different virulence mechanisms to survive inside of host cells. One of the possible outcomes in this host-pathogen interaction is cell death. Previous results from our group showed that M. bovis induces a caspase-independent apoptosis in bovine macrophages with the possible participation of apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1 (AIFM1/AIF), a flavoprotein that functions as a cell-death regulator. However, contribution of other caspase-independent cell death mediators in M...
July 18, 2018: Veterinary Research
Cari Courtenay-Quirk, Sherri Pals, Andrea A Howard, Dawud Ujamaa, Chris Henjewele, Godwin Munuo, Peris Urasa, Mwanaisha Nyamkara
Couples HIV testing for tuberculosis (TB) patients and their partners may be an effective means to identify HIV-positive persons and strengthen linkage to HIV care. We evaluated an intervention to increase HIV testing and linkage to care (LTC) of newly diagnosed persons and re-linkage for TB/HIV patients in Pwani, Tanzania. In 2014, 12 TB settings within two regional clusters participated; each cluster included ≥1 referral hospital, health center, and directly observed therapy center. Three months after introducing tools to record HIV service delivery, TB clinic staff and peer education volunteers in Cluster 1 received training on HIV partner testing and linkage/re-linkage, and staff in the second cluster received training 3 months thereafter...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Care
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