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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422495/patterns-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-horseshoe-bats-testing-rensch-s-rule-and-potential-causes
#1
Hui Wu, Tinglei Jiang, Xiaobin Huang, Jiang Feng
Rensch's rule, stating that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) becomes more evident and male-biased with increasing body size, has been well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD. Bats, primarily having female-biased SSD, have so far been tested for whether SSD allometry conforms to Rensch's rule in only three studies. However, these studies did not consider phylogeny, and thus the mechanisms underlying SSD variations in bats remain unclear. Thus, the present study reviewed published and original data, including body size, baculum size, and habitat types in 45 bats of the family Rhinolophidae to determine whether horseshoe bats follow Rensch's rule using a phylogenetic comparative framework...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412309/-intersexuality-between-knowledge-and-interventions
#2
Paula Gaudenzi
This study proposes to reflect on the links between knowledge production and its daily effects on the field of sexuality, based on intersexuality as a contemporary issue. Intersexuality is an interesting object of analysis for such reflection, since it allows exploring the interfaces between knowledge production on sexuality, power relations between professionals, intersex persons, and their families, use of embodiment technologies, conceptions of the normal and natural body, formation of subjectivities, and the shaping of a new social, political, and moral order heavily associated with subjects' biological constitution...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377549/effects-of-energy-and-thermoregulation-time-on-physiological-state-and-sexual-signal-in-a-lizard
#3
Boglárka Mészáros, Gábor Herczeg, Katalin Bajer, János Török, Orsolya Molnár
Theory of sexual selection states that males often develop showy signals, which reduce their survival but increase their reproductive success. During mate choice, these conspicuous signals can be honest indicators of individual quality conveying information about the signaler's physiological state. Sexually selected signals are influenced by many environmental factors; however, whether signals and physiological state are affected together is rarely studied. The ultraviolet-blue throat color of male Lacerta viridis is an intra- and intersexually selected signal connected to blood parasite infection and influenced by environmental factors...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361847/intrasexual-competition-and-height-in-adolescents-and-adults
#4
P Polo, A Fernandez, J A Muñoz-Reyes, M Dufey, A P Buunk
Intrasexual competition can be defined as the struggle between members of one sex to increase their access to members of the other sex as sexual partners. In our species, height is a sexually dimorphic trait probably involved in both intrasexual and intersexual selective processes. In the present research, we examined the relationship between height and individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness (i.e., the tendency to view same-sex interactions in general in competitive terms) in two populations of adolescents and adults of both sexes in Chile...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301175/whole-spine-disc-degeneration-survey-according-to-the-ages-and-sex-using-pfirrmann-disc-degeneration-grades
#5
Chang Hyun Oh, Seung Hwan Yoon
OBJECTIVE: Pfirrmann disc grade is a useful scoring tool for evaluating disc degeneration, but normal values according to aging process has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and pattern of whole spine disc degeneration according to ages and gender differences. METHODS: Total 653 patients (336 male and 317 female patients, 48.1±58.7 years old) who took whole spine magnetic resonance images were enrolled in this study. There were 19 cases in their 2nd decades and 74 cases in 3rd decades, 141 cases in 4th decades, 129 cases in 5th decades, 139 cases in 6th decades, and 93 cases in 7th decades, 58 cases in over 8th decades...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242456/taxonomic-status-of-i-parotia-i-i-berlepschi-i-kleinschmidt-1897-based-on-analysis-of-external-appearance-voice-and-behavior-aves-paradisaeidae
#6
Edwin Scholes, Bruce M Beehler, Timothy G Laman
Described from trade-skins of unknown origins, Parotia berlepschi Kleinschmidt, 1897 was the subject of a longstanding ornithological mystery that remained unresolved for well over a century. With few specimens and no known wild population, most taxonomic assessments over the last century have treated P. berlepschi as a subspecies of Parotia carolae Meyer, 1894. Following discovery of its geographical home in 2005, most authorities returned to giving P. berlepschi full species status. However, evidence supporting the delineation of P...
October 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241416/culture-masculine-honor-and-violence-toward-women
#7
Ryan P Brown, Kiersten Baughman, Mauricio Carvallo
Prior research has connected the cultural ideology of honor to intrasexual violence between men and to attitudes supporting intersexual aggression in response to perceived honor violations by female romantic partners. We extend this research to show that honor ideology is also associated with an increased likelihood of men actually engaging in violent and sexually coercive behaviors toward women. Extending previous research on honor-based schemas and scripts linked to relationship violence, comparisons between honor states and non-honor states in the United States show that official rape and domestic homicide rates by White male perpetrators (Study 1) and experiences of rape and violence in relationships anonymously reported by White female teenagers (Study 2) were higher in honor states, controlling for a variety of potential confounds...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236762/quantifying-male-and-female-pheromone-based-mate-choice-in-caenorhabditis-nematodes-using-a-novel-microfluidic-technique
#8
Flora Borne, Katja R Kasimatis, Patrick C Phillips
Pheromone cues are an important component of intersexual communication, particularly in regards to mate choice. Caenorhabditis nematodes predominant rely on pheromone production for mate finding and mate choice. Here we describe a new microfluidic paradigm for studying mate choice in nematodes. Specifically, the Pheromone Arena allows for a constant flow of odorants, including pheromones and other small molecules, to be passed in real time from signaling worms to those making a choice without any physical contact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196828/space-use-and-social-mating-system-of-the-hantavirus-host-oligoryzomys-longicaudatus
#9
Ernesto E Juan, Maria Cecilia Provensal, Andrea R Steinmann
The long-tailed mouse, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), is the major host of Andes hantavirus, the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the south of Argentina and Chile. Studying the ecology of this species is necessary to understand how Andes hantavirus is maintained in nature. In this study, we examine the home range size and intra- and intersexual overlap degree of male and female O. longicaudatus in order to elucidate the mating system of this species. To our knowledge, this research provides the first documentation, obtained from a specific design, of spacing and mating systems in this species in Argentina...
December 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158976/intraspecific-variation-in-the-diet-of-the-mexican-garter-snake-thamnophis-eques
#10
Javier Manjarrez, Martha Pacheco-Tinoco, Crystian S Venegas-Barrera
The Mexican Garter Snake (Thamnophis eques) is a terrestrial-aquatic generalist that feeds on both aquatic and terrestrial prey. We describe size-related variation and sexual variation in the diet of T. eques through analysis of 262 samples of identifiable stomach contents in snakes from 23 locations on the Mexican Plateau. The snake T. eques we studied consumed mostly fish, followed in lesser amounts by leeches, earthworms, frogs, and tadpoles. Correspondence analysis suggested that the frequency of consumption of various prey items differed between the categories of age but not between sex of snakes, and the general pattern was a reduction of prey item diversity with size of snake...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043052/evolution-of-a-mating-preference-for-a-dual-utility-trait-used-in-intrasexual-competition-in-genetically-monogamous-populations
#11
Caitlin A Stern, Maria R Servedio
The selection pressures by which mating preferences for ornamental traits can evolve in genetically monogamous mating systems remain understudied. Empirical evidence from several taxa supports the prevalence of dual-utility traits, defined as traits used both as armaments in intersexual selection and ornaments in intrasexual selection, as well as the importance of intrasexual resource competition for the evolution of female ornamentation. Here, we study whether mating preferences for traits used in intrasexual resource competition can evolve under genetic monogamy...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036352/environmental-plasticity-in-the-intersexual-correlation-and-sex-bias-of-gene-expression
#12
Changde Cheng, Mark Kirkpatrick, Melissa Wilson Sayres
Intersexual genetic correlations are expected to constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphic traits, including the degree of sex-biased gene expression. Consistent with that expectation, studies in fruit flies and birds have reported that genes whose expression has a strong intersexual genetic correlation (rMF) show a lower level of sex-biased expression (SBE). However, it is known that both rMF and SBE can be affected by the environment. It is therefore unclear whether there is a consistent relationship between these 2 quantities across multiple environments...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983864/modeling-sexual-selection-in-t%C3%A3%C2%BAngara-frog-and-rationality-of-mate-choice
#13
Esteban Vargas Bernal, Camilo Sanabria Malagon
The males of the species of frogs Engystomops pustulosus produce simple and complex calls to lure females, as a way of intersexual selection. Complex calls lead males to a greater reproductive success than what simple calls do. However, the complex calls are also more attractive to their main predator, the bat Trachops cirrhosus. Therefore, as M. Ryan suggests in (The túngara frog: a study in sexual selection and communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1985), the complexity of the calls lets the frogs keep a trade-off between reproductive success and predation...
October 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959033/temperature-dependent-sex-reversal-by-a-transformer-2-gene-edited-mutation-in-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#14
Jianwei Li, Alfred M Handler
Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. Ds-tra-2 (ts2) mutants developed as normal fertile XX and XY adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °C, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °C) chromosomal XX females developed as sterile intersexuals with a predominant male phenotype, while XY males developed with normal morphology, but were sterile...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942752/multiple-origins-of-parasitic-feminization-thelygeny-and-intersexuality-in-beach-hoppers-are-caused-by-paramyxid-parasites-not-microsporidia
#15
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#16
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917944/tetrabromoethylcyclohexane-affects-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#17
Peng-Yan Liu, Tan Meng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Man Cai, Xing-Hong Li, Juan Chen, Zhan-Fen Qin
Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), an additive brominated flame retardant, has been shown to have an androgenic activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of TBECH on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, an amphibian species sensitive to androgenic chemicals, and to assess the androgenic activity of TBECH in vivo. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles were exposed to TBECH (1, 10, 100nM) from Gosner stage 24 to complete metamorphosis, and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a positive control...
September 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861681/in-vivo-estimation-of-normal-amygdala-volume-from-structural-mri-scans-with-anatomical-based-segmentation
#18
Achilleas Siozopoulos, Vasilios Thomaidis, Panos Prassopoulos, Aliki Fiska
PURPOSE: Literature includes a number of studies using structural MRI (sMRI) to determine the volume of the amygdala, which is modified in various pathologic conditions. The reported values vary widely mainly because of different anatomical approaches to the complex. This study aims at estimating of the normal amygdala volume from sMRI scans using a recent anatomical definition described in a study based on post-mortem material. METHODS: The amygdala volume has been calculated in 106 healthy subjects, using sMRI and anatomical-based segmentation...
August 31, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826812/gonadal-development-and-expression-of-sex-specific-genes-during-sex-differentiation-in-the-japanese-eel
#19
Shan-Ru Jeng, Guan-Chung Wu, Wen-Shiun Yueh, Shu-Fen Kuo, Sylvie Dufour, Ching-Fong Chang
The process of gonadal development and mechanism involved in sex differentiation in eels are still unclear. The objectives were to investigate the gonadal development and expression pattern of sex-related genes during sex differentiation in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. For control group, the elvers of 8-10 cm were reared for 8 months; and for feminization, estradiol-17β (E2) was orally administered to the elvers of 8-10 cm for 6 months. Only males were found in the control group, suggesting a possible role of environmental factors in eel sex determination...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760664/effect-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrostenedione-on-european-whitefish-coregonus-lavaretus-linnaeus-1758
#20
Jarosław Król, Piotr Hliwa, Adam Polewacz, Agnieszka Stabińska, Stefan Dobosz, Konrad Ocalewicz
The goal of the present research was to evaluate the efficiency of 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (OHA) applied in the diet to achieve sex reversal in the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). At 32day post-hatching, fish were reared in four groups: fish fed with 10ppm of OHA (10 OHA), fish fed with 20ppm of OHA (20 OHA), fish fed without OHA (C) and fish fed without OHA and reared in the water from 20 OHA group (R). The experimental groups were conducted in separate recirculation systems and the first phase of the experiment lasted 63days...
July 25, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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