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Intersexuality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480519/a-complete-survey-of-normal-pores-on-a-smooth-shell-ostracod-crustacea-landmark-based-versus-outline-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Ivana Karanovic, Vesna Lavtižar, Marko Djurakic
Pores and sensilla on ostracod shell have often been used in studies of ontogeny, taxonomy, and phylogeny of the group. However, an analysis of sexual dimorphism and variation between valves in the number and distribution of pores is lacking. Also, such studies have never been done on a widely distributed, morphologically variable, and weakly ornamented freshwater ostracod. Here, we survey pores in one such species, Physocypria kraepelini. We choose 27 homologous pores as landmarks for 2D-geometric morphometric analysis, with the aim to assess intersexual and between valves variation in size and shape relative to the Fourier outline analysis...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451434/a-few-long-versus-many-short-foraging-trips-different-foraging-strategies-of-lesser-kestrel-sexes-during-breeding
#2
Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Carlos Rodríguez, Javier Bustamante
BACKGROUND: In species with biparental care both members of the breeding pair cooperate to raise the offspring either by assisting each other in every reproductive task or by specializing in different ones. The latter case is known as reproductive role specialization. Raptors are considered one of the most role-specialized groups, but little is known about parental behavior away from the nest. Until the advent of biologgers, avian role specialization was traditionally studied with direct observations at the nest because of the difficulties of following and recording the behavior of free-ranging individuals...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430382/mixed-evidence-for-the-erosion-of-intertactical-genetic-correlations-through-intralocus-tactical-conflict
#3
K N Pike, J L Tomkins, B A Buzatto
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings, are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, in this context, genetic correlations between male morphs could result in intralocus tactical conflict (ITC). We investigated the genetic architecture of male dimorphism in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus echinopus) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362847/sexual-and-individual-foraging-segregation-in-gentoo-penguins-pygoscelis-papua-from-the-southern-ocean-during-an-abnormal-winter
#4
José C Xavier, Philip N Trathan, Filipe R Ceia, Geraint A Tarling, Stacey Adlard, Derren Fox, Ewan W J Edwards, Rui P Vieira, Renata Medeiros, Claude De Broyer, Yves Cherel
Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the "Intersexual Competition Hypothesis" for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures) in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#5
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318651/postmating-female-control-20-years-of-cryptic-female-choice
#6
REVIEW
Renée C Firman, Clelia Gasparini, Mollie K Manier, Tommaso Pizzari
Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated...
May 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298468/selective-attention-in-peacocks-during-assessment-of-rival-males
#7
Jessica L Yorzinski, Gail L Patricelli, Siarhei Bykau, Michael L Platt
Males in many species compete intensely for access to females. In order to minimize costly interactions, they can assess their rivals' competitive abilities by evaluating traits and behaviors. We know little about how males selectively direct their attention to make these assessments. Using Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a model system, we examined how males visually assess their competitors by continuously tracking the gaze of freely moving peacocks during the mating season. When assessing rivals, peacocks selectively gazed toward the lower display regions of their rivals, including the lower eyespot and fishtail feathers, dense feathers, body and wings...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#8
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250102/sex-pheromone-of-a-coccoid-insect-with-sexual-and-asexual-lineages-fate-of-an-ancestrally-essential-sexual-signal-in-parthenogenetic-females
#9
Jun Tabata, Ryoko T Ichiki, Chie Moromizato, Kenji Mori
Sex pheromones play a central role in intersexual communication for reproduction in many organisms. Particularly in insects, reproductive isolation that leads to speciation is often achieved by shifts of pheromone chemistries. However, the divergence and evolution of pheromones remain largely unknown. This study reveals a unique evolutionary consequence for terpenoid pheromones in coccoid insects. Coccoids, such as mealybugs, show clear sexual dimorphism: males are dwarf and short-lived, whereas females are wingless and almost immobile...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243524/intersexual-differences-of-heat-shock-response-between-two-amphipods-eulimnogammarus-verrucosus-and-eulimnogammarus-cyaneus-in-lake-baikal
#10
Daria Bedulina, Michael F Meyer, Anton Gurkov, Ekaterina Kondratjeva, Boris Baduev, Roman Gusdorf, Maxim A Timofeyev
Acute temperature fluctuations are common in surface waters, and aquatic organisms may manifest physiological responses to punctuated temperature spikes long before behavioral responses. Ectotherms, especially cryophilic stenotherms such as those endemic to Lake Baikal (Siberia), may demonstrate specialized physiological responses to acute temperature increases because their proteomes have evolved to function most efficiently at lower temperatures (e.g., <10 °C). Therefore, our study questioned the nature and degree of variation in physiological response to acute thermal stress in two congenerous, endemic Baikal amphipod species, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240757/-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
G Ozzola
BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein, which was originally identified because of its role in male sexual differentiation. In fact, AMH is expressed by the Sertoli cellsof the foetal testes and induces the regression of the Müllerian ducts. In the absence of AMH, the Müllerian ducts evolve in the uterus, fallopian tubes and in the upper part of the vagina. In women AMH is produced by granulose cells, pre-antral and antral follicles and its major physiological role in the ovaries seems to be limited to inhibiting the development of the earliest stages of follicular development...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225021/characterisation-of-urinary-wfdc12-in-small-nocturnal-basal-primates-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-spp
#12
Jennifer Unsworth, Grace M Loxley, Amanda Davidson, Jane L Hurst, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Nicholas I Mundy, Robert J Beynon, Elke Zimmermann, Ute Radespiel
Mouse lemurs are basal primates that rely on chemo- and acoustic signalling for social interactions in their dispersed social systems. We examined the urinary protein content of two mouse lemurs species, within and outside the breeding season, to assess candidates used in species discrimination, reproductive or competitive communication. Urine from Microcebus murinus and Microcebus lehilahytsara contain a predominant 10 kDa protein, expressed in both species by some, but not all, males during the breeding season, but at very low levels by females...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187606/mycophagous-gall-midges-diptera-cecidomyiidae-lestremiinae-micromyinae-winnertziinae-porricondylinae-first-records-in-sweden-and-descriptions-of-closely-related-new-species-from-elsewhere
#13
Mathias Jaschhof, Catrin Jaschhof
Thirty species of gall midges, Cecidomyiidae, of the mycophagous subfamilies Lestremiinae, Micromyinae, Winnertziinae, and Porricondylinae are reported from Sweden for the first time, including several extremely seldom collected species. Genera newly found in Sweden are Allaretella Meyer & Spungis (in Lestremiinae), Tekomyia Möhn (in Micromyinae), Nikandria Mamaev (in Winnertziinae), Arctepidosis Mamaev, Dallaiella Mamaev, Epicola Spungis, and Lamellepidosis Mamaev (all in Porricondylinae). Peromyia trimera (Edwards, 1938) stat...
January 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187229/protein-deprivation-decreases-male-survival-and-the-intensity-of-sexual-antagonism-in-southern-field-crickets-gryllus-bimaculatus
#14
C S Han, N J Dingemanse
Recent theory predicts that the magnitude of sexual antagonism should depend on how well populations are adapted to their environment. We tested this idea experimentally by comparing intersexual genetic correlations for adult survival in pedigreed populations of southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) raised on naturally balanced (free-choice) vs. imbalanced (protein-deprived) diets. We tested for (1) sex differences in nutritional intake and preference, (2) sex-specific effects of protein deprivation on survival and (3) diet dependence of the level of sexual antagonism...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166714/cross-generational-comparison-of-reproductive-success-in-recently-caught-strains-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Trinh T X Nguyen, Amanda J Moehring
BACKGROUND: Males and females often have opposing strategies for increasing fitness. Males that out-compete others will acquire more mating opportunities and thus have higher lifetime reproductive success. Females that mate with a high quality male receive either direct benefits through productivity or acquisition of additional resources or indirect benefits through the increased fitness of offspring. These components may be in conflict: factors that increase offspring fitness may decrease a female's productivity, and alleles that are beneficial in one sex may be detrimental in the opposite sex...
February 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123090/intra-and-intersexual-differences-in-parasite-resistance-and-female-fitness-tolerance-in-a-polymorphic-insect
#16
Beatriz Willink, Erik I Svensson
To understand host-parasite interactions, it is necessary to quantify variation and covariation in defence traits. We quantified parasite resistance and fitness tolerance of a polymorphic damselfly (Ischnura elegans), an insect with three discrete female colour morphs but with monomorphic males. We quantified sex and morph differences in parasite resistance (prevalence and intensity of water mite infections) and morph-specific fitness tolerance in the females in natural populations for over a decade. There was no evidence for higher parasite susceptibility in males as a cost of sexual selection, whereas differences in defence mechanisms between female morphs are consistent with correlational selection operating on combinations of parasite resistance and tolerance...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105722/charting-the-neglected-west-the-social-system-of-guinea-baboons
#17
Julia Fischer, Gisela H Kopp, Federica Dal Pesco, Adeelia Goffe, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Urs Kalbitzer, Matthias Klapproth, Peter Maciej, Ibrahima Ndao, Annika Patzelt, Dietmar Zinner
OBJECTIVES: Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#18
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867075/sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-are-regulated-by-doublesex
#19
Jun Xu, Shuai Zhan, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Zhiqian Li, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775042/male-food-defence-as-a-by-product-of-intersexual-cooperation-in-a-non-human-primate
#20
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L Taucher, Carel P van Schaik, Erik P Willems
Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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