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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043052/evolution-of-a-mating-preference-for-a-dual-utility-trait-used-in-intrasexual-competition-in-genetically-monogamous-populations
#1
Caitlin A Stern, Maria R Servedio
The selection pressures by which mating preferences for ornamental traits can evolve in genetically monogamous mating systems remain understudied. Empirical evidence from several taxa supports the prevalence of dual-utility traits, defined as traits used both as armaments in intersexual selection and ornaments in intrasexual selection, as well as the importance of intrasexual resource competition for the evolution of female ornamentation. Here, we study whether mating preferences for traits used in intrasexual resource competition can evolve under genetic monogamy...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036352/environmental-plasticity-in-the-intersexual-correlation-and-sex-bias-of-gene-expression
#2
Changde Cheng, Mark Kirkpatrick
Intersexual genetic correlations are expected to constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphic traits, including the degree of sex-biased gene expression. Consistent with that expectation, studies in fruit flies and birds have reported that genes whose expression has a strong intersexual genetic correlation (rMF) show a lower level of sex-biased expression (SBE). However, it is known that both rMF and SBE can be affected by the environment. It is therefore unclear whether there is a consistent relationship between these two quantities across multiple environments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983864/modeling-sexual-selection-in-t%C3%A3%C2%BAngara-frog-and-rationality-of-mate-choice
#3
Esteban Vargas Bernal, Camilo Sanabria Malagon
The males of the species of frogs Engystomops pustulosus produce simple and complex calls to lure females, as a way of intersexual selection. Complex calls lead males to a greater reproductive success than what simple calls do. However, the complex calls are also more attractive to their main predator, the bat Trachops cirrhosus. Therefore, as M. Ryan suggests in (The túngara frog: a study in sexual selection and communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1985), the complexity of the calls lets the frogs keep a trade-off between reproductive success and predation...
October 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959033/temperature-dependent-sex-reversal-by-a-transformer-2-gene-edited-mutation-in-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#4
Jianwei Li, Alfred M Handler
Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. Ds-tra-2 (ts2) mutants developed as normal fertile XX and XY adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °C, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °C) chromosomal XX females developed as sterile intersexuals with a predominant male phenotype, while XY males developed with normal morphology, but were sterile...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942752/multiple-origins-of-parasitic-feminization-thelygeny-and-intersexuality-in-beach-hoppers-are-caused-by-paramyxid-parasites-not-microsporidia
#5
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#6
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917944/tetrabromoethylcyclohexane-affects-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#7
Peng-Yan Liu, Tan Meng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Man Cai, Xing-Hong Li, Juan Chen, Zhan-Fen Qin
Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), an additive brominated flame retardant, has been shown to have an androgenic activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of TBECH on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, an amphibian species sensitive to androgenic chemicals, and to assess the androgenic activity of TBECH in vivo. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles were exposed to TBECH (1, 10, 100nM) from Gosner stage 24 to complete metamorphosis, and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a positive control...
September 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861681/in-vivo-estimation-of-normal-amygdala-volume-from-structural-mri-scans-with-anatomical-based-segmentation
#8
Achilleas Siozopoulos, Vasilios Thomaidis, Panos Prassopoulos, Aliki Fiska
PURPOSE: Literature includes a number of studies using structural MRI (sMRI) to determine the volume of the amygdala, which is modified in various pathologic conditions. The reported values vary widely mainly because of different anatomical approaches to the complex. This study aims at estimating of the normal amygdala volume from sMRI scans using a recent anatomical definition described in a study based on post-mortem material. METHODS: The amygdala volume has been calculated in 106 healthy subjects, using sMRI and anatomical-based segmentation...
August 31, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826812/gonadal-development-and-expression-of-sex-specific-genes-during-sex-differentiation-in-the-japanese-eel
#9
Shan-Ru Jeng, Guan-Chung Wu, Wen-Shiun Yueh, Shu-Fen Kuo, Sylvie Dufour, Ching-Fong Chang
The process of gonadal development and mechanism involved in sex differentiation in eels are still unclear. The objectives were to investigate the gonadal development and expression pattern of sex-related genes during sex differentiation in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. For control group, the elvers of 8-10 cm were reared for 8 months; and for feminization, estradiol-17β (E2) was orally administered to the elvers of 8-10 cm for 6 months. Only males were found in the control group, suggesting a possible role of environmental factors in eel sex determination...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760664/effect-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrostenedione-on-european-whitefish-coregonus-lavaretus-linnaeus-1758
#10
Jarosław Król, Piotr Hliwa, Adam Polewacz, Agnieszka Stabińska, Stefan Dobosz, Konrad Ocalewicz
The goal of the present research was to evaluate the efficiency of 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (OHA) applied in the diet to achieve sex reversal in the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). At 32day post-hatching, fish were reared in four groups: fish fed with 10ppm of OHA (10 OHA), fish fed with 20ppm of OHA (20 OHA), fish fed without OHA (C) and fish fed without OHA and reared in the water from 20 OHA group (R). The experimental groups were conducted in separate recirculation systems and the first phase of the experiment lasted 63days...
July 25, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#11
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679725/the-physical-environment-mediates-male-harm-and-its-effect-on-selection-in-females
#12
Li Yun, Patrick J Chen, Amardeep Singh, Aneil F Agrawal, Howard D Rundle
Recent experiments indicate that male preferential harassment of high-quality females reduces the variance in female fitness, thereby weakening natural selection through females and hampering adaptation and purging. We propose that this phenomenon, which results from a combination of male choice and male-induced harm, should be mediated by the physical environment in which intersexual interactions occur. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we examined intersexual interactions in small and simple (standard fly vials) versus slightly more realistic (small cages with spatial structure) environments...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480519/a-complete-survey-of-normal-pores-on-a-smooth-shell-ostracod-crustacea-landmark-based-versus-outline-geometric-morphometrics
#13
Ivana Karanovic, Vesna Lavtižar, Marko Djurakic
Pores and sensilla on ostracod shell have often been used in studies of ontogeny, taxonomy, and phylogeny of the group. However, an analysis of sexual dimorphism and variation between valves in the number and distribution of pores is lacking. Also, such studies have never been done on a widely distributed, morphologically variable, and weakly ornamented freshwater ostracod. Here, we survey pores in one such species, Physocypria kraepelini. We choose 27 homologous pores as landmarks for 2D-geometric morphometric analysis, with the aim to assess intersexual and between valves variation in size and shape relative to the Fourier outline analysis...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451434/a-few-long-versus-many-short-foraging-trips-different-foraging-strategies-of-lesser-kestrel-sexes-during-breeding
#14
Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Carlos Rodríguez, Javier Bustamante
BACKGROUND: In species with biparental care both members of the breeding pair cooperate to raise the offspring either by assisting each other in every reproductive task or by specializing in different ones. The latter case is known as reproductive role specialization. Raptors are considered one of the most role-specialized groups, but little is known about parental behavior away from the nest. Until the advent of biologgers, avian role specialization was traditionally studied with direct observations at the nest because of the difficulties of following and recording the behavior of free-ranging individuals...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430382/mixed-evidence-for-the-erosion-of-intertactical-genetic-correlations-through-intralocus-tactical-conflict
#15
K N Pike, J L Tomkins, B A Buzatto
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings, are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, in this context, genetic correlations between male morphs could result in intralocus tactical conflict (ITC). We investigated the genetic architecture of male dimorphism in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus echinopus) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362847/sexual-and-individual-foraging-segregation-in-gentoo-penguins-pygoscelis-papua-from-the-southern-ocean-during-an-abnormal-winter
#16
José C Xavier, Philip N Trathan, Filipe R Ceia, Geraint A Tarling, Stacey Adlard, Derren Fox, Ewan W J Edwards, Rui P Vieira, Renata Medeiros, Claude De Broyer, Yves Cherel
Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the "Intersexual Competition Hypothesis" for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures) in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#17
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318651/postmating-female-control-20-years-of-cryptic-female-choice
#18
REVIEW
Renée C Firman, Clelia Gasparini, Mollie K Manier, Tommaso Pizzari
Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated...
May 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298468/selective-attention-in-peacocks-during-assessment-of-rival-males
#19
Jessica L Yorzinski, Gail L Patricelli, Siarhei Bykau, Michael L Platt
Males in many species compete intensely for access to females. In order to minimize costly interactions, they can assess their rivals' competitive abilities by evaluating traits and behaviors. We know little about how males selectively direct their attention to make these assessments. Using Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a model system, we examined how males visually assess their competitors by continuously tracking the gaze of freely moving peacocks during the mating season. When assessing rivals, peacocks selectively gazed toward the lower display regions of their rivals, including the lower eyespot and fishtail feathers, dense feathers, body and wings...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#20
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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