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Jo S Hermansen, Jostein Starrfelt, Kjetil L Voje, Nils C Stenseth
Intralocus sexual conflicts arise whenever the fitness optima for a trait expressed in both males and females differ between the sexes and shared genetic architecture constrains the sexes from evolving independently towards their respective optima. Such sexual conflicts are commonplace in nature, yet their long-term evolutionary consequences remain unexplored. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic comparative framework, we studied the macroevolutionary dynamics of intersexual trait integration in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) spanning a time frame of more than 25 Myr...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Qiuping Wu, Yun Tang, Tingfa Dong, Yongmei Liao, Dadong Li, Xinhua He, Xiao Xu
Sex-specific responses to mycorrhiza have been reported in dioecious plant species, but little attention has been paid to the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on competitive ability under intersexual competition. To further address whether this competition is affected by an additional AM fungi supply, Populus cathayana saplings were chosen and subjected to two mycorrhizal treatments [inoculated and non-inoculated (control) with an additional AM fungi Funneliformis mosseae ] while growing with the opposite sex for 3 months...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nicolás E Tamburi, María E Seuffert, Pablo R Martín
Temperature has a great influence on the life-history traits of freshwater snails. In this study we investigated the long term effects of a range of temperatures on shell morphology of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive species and an important pest of rice. Analysis of shells using geometric morphometrics showed that the main source of morphological variation was allometry, which was detected in males but not in females. This intersexual divergence in allometric trajectories generates much of the morphological variation evidenced...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
M Florencia Camus, Damian K Dowling
Theory predicts that maternal inheritance of mitochondria will facilitate the accumulation of mtDNA mutations that are male biased, or even sexually antagonistic, in effect. While there are many reported cases of mtDNA mutations conferring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, historically it was assumed such mutations would not persist in the streamlined mitochondrial genomes of bilaterian metazoans. Intriguingly, recent cases of mitochondrial variants exerting male biases in effect have come to light in bilaterians...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Megan Petersdorf, Constance Dubuc, Alexander V Georgiev, Sandra Winters, James P Higham
Exaggerated male traits can evolve under intra- or intersexual selection, but it remains less clear how often both mechanisms act together on trait evolution. While the males of many anthropoid primate species exhibit colorful signals that appear to be badges of status under intrasexual selection, the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) appears to have evolved primarily under intersexual selection and female mate choice. Nonetheless, experiments show that red color is salient to males, raising the question of whether the signal may also be under intrasexual selection...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Danielle M Cholewiak, Salvatore Cerchio, Jeff K Jacobsen, Jorge Urbán-R, Christopher W Clark
The function of song has been well studied in numerous taxa and plays a role in mediating both intersexual and intrasexual interactions. Humpback whales are among few mammals who sing, but the role of sexual selection on song in this species is poorly understood. While one predominant hypothesis is that song mediates male-male interactions, the mechanism by which this may occur has never been explored. We applied metrics typically used to assess songbird interactions to examine song sequences and movement patterns of humpback whale singers...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Rachel Dale, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Friederike Range
While food sharing among related individuals can be explained by kin selection, food sharing between unrelated individuals has been more of an evolutionary puzzle. The food-for-sex hypothesis provides an explanation for the occurrence of food sharing among nonkin. However, little is known about the socio-ecological factors that can promote such a commodity exchange. A species mating system is a factor potentially influencing food-for-sex patterns of behavior. Here, we compared wolves, which form pair-bonds, with dogs, which are typically promiscuous in free-ranging contexts, to investigate the effect of reproductive stages on the behavior around a food source in 2 different contexts...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Hui Wu, Tinglei Jiang, Xiaobin Huang, Jiang Feng
Rensch's rule, stating that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) becomes more evident and male-biased with increasing body size, has been well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD. Bats, primarily having female-biased SSD, have so far been tested for whether SSD allometry conforms to Rensch's rule in only three studies. However, these studies did not consider phylogeny, and thus the mechanisms underlying SSD variations in bats remain unclear. Thus, the present study reviewed published and original data, including body size, baculum size, and habitat types in 45 bats of the family Rhinolophidae to determine whether horseshoe bats follow Rensch's rule using a phylogenetic comparative framework...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paula Gaudenzi
This study proposes to reflect on the links between knowledge production and its daily effects on the field of sexuality, based on intersexuality as a contemporary issue. Intersexuality is an interesting object of analysis for such reflection, since it allows exploring the interfaces between knowledge production on sexuality, power relations between professionals, intersex persons, and their families, use of embodiment technologies, conceptions of the normal and natural body, formation of subjectivities, and the shaping of a new social, political, and moral order heavily associated with subjects' biological constitution...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Boglárka Mészáros, Gábor Herczeg, Katalin Bajer, János Török, Orsolya Molnár
Theory of sexual selection states that males often develop showy signals, which reduce their survival but increase their reproductive success. During mate choice, these conspicuous signals can be honest indicators of individual quality conveying information about the signaler's physiological state. Sexually selected signals are influenced by many environmental factors; however, whether signals and physiological state are affected together is rarely studied. The ultraviolet-blue throat color of male Lacerta viridis is an intra- and intersexually selected signal connected to blood parasite infection and influenced by environmental factors...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
P Polo, A Fernandez, J A Muñoz-Reyes, M Dufey, A P Buunk
Intrasexual competition can be defined as the struggle between members of one sex to increase their access to members of the other sex as sexual partners. In our species, height is a sexually dimorphic trait probably involved in both intrasexual and intersexual selective processes. In the present research, we examined the relationship between height and individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness (i.e., the tendency to view same-sex interactions in general in competitive terms) in two populations of adolescents and adults of both sexes in Chile...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Chang Hyun Oh, Seung Hwan Yoon
OBJECTIVE: Pfirrmann disc grade is a useful scoring tool for evaluating disc degeneration, but normal values according to aging process has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and pattern of whole spine disc degeneration according to ages and gender differences. METHODS: Total 653 patients (336 male and 317 female patients, 48.1±58.7 years old) who took whole spine magnetic resonance images were enrolled in this study. There were 19 cases in their 2nd decades and 74 cases in 3rd decades, 141 cases in 4th decades, 129 cases in 5th decades, 139 cases in 6th decades, and 93 cases in 7th decades, 58 cases in over 8th decades...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
Edwin Scholes, Bruce M Beehler, Timothy G Laman
Described from trade-skins of unknown origins, Parotia berlepschi Kleinschmidt, 1897 was the subject of a longstanding ornithological mystery that remained unresolved for well over a century. With few specimens and no known wild population, most taxonomic assessments over the last century have treated P. berlepschi as a subspecies of Parotia carolae Meyer, 1894. Following discovery of its geographical home in 2005, most authorities returned to giving P. berlepschi full species status. However, evidence supporting the delineation of P...
October 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Ryan P Brown, Kiersten Baughman, Mauricio Carvallo
Prior research has connected the cultural ideology of honor to intrasexual violence between men and to attitudes supporting intersexual aggression in response to perceived honor violations by female romantic partners. We extend this research to show that honor ideology is also associated with an increased likelihood of men actually engaging in violent and sexually coercive behaviors toward women. Extending previous research on honor-based schemas and scripts linked to relationship violence, comparisons between honor states and non-honor states in the United States show that official rape and domestic homicide rates by White male perpetrators (Study 1) and experiences of rape and violence in relationships anonymously reported by White female teenagers (Study 2) were higher in honor states, controlling for a variety of potential confounds...
April 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Flora Borne, Katja R Kasimatis, Patrick C Phillips
Pheromone cues are an important component of intersexual communication, particularly in regards to mate choice. Caenorhabditis nematodes predominant rely on pheromone production for mate finding and mate choice. Here we describe a new microfluidic paradigm for studying mate choice in nematodes. Specifically, the Pheromone Arena allows for a constant flow of odorants, including pheromones and other small molecules, to be passed in real time from signaling worms to those making a choice without any physical contact...
2017: PloS One
Ernesto E Juan, Maria Cecilia Provensal, Andrea R Steinmann
The long-tailed mouse, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), is the major host of Andes hantavirus, the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the south of Argentina and Chile. Studying the ecology of this species is necessary to understand how Andes hantavirus is maintained in nature. In this study, we examine the home range size and intra- and intersexual overlap degree of male and female O. longicaudatus in order to elucidate the mating system of this species. To our knowledge, this research provides the first documentation, obtained from a specific design, of spacing and mating systems in this species in Argentina...
December 1, 2017: EcoHealth
Javier Manjarrez, Martha Pacheco-Tinoco, Crystian S Venegas-Barrera
The Mexican Garter Snake ( Thamnophis eques) is a terrestrial-aquatic generalist that feeds on both aquatic and terrestrial prey. We describe size-related variation and sexual variation in the diet of T. eques through analysis of 262 samples of identifiable stomach contents in snakes from 23 locations on the Mexican Plateau. The snake T. eques we studied consumed mostly fish, followed in lesser amounts by leeches, earthworms, frogs, and tadpoles. Correspondence analysis suggested that the frequency of consumption of various prey items differed between the categories of age but not between sex of snakes, and the general pattern was a reduction of prey item diversity with size of snake...
2017: PeerJ
Caitlin A Stern, Maria R Servedio
The selection pressures by which mating preferences for ornamental traits can evolve in genetically monogamous mating systems remain understudied. Empirical evidence from several taxa supports the prevalence of dual-utility traits, defined as traits used both as armaments in intersexual selection and ornaments in intrasexual selection, as well as the importance of intrasexual resource competition for the evolution of female ornamentation. Here, we study whether mating preferences for traits used in intrasexual resource competition can evolve under genetic monogamy...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Changde Cheng, Mark Kirkpatrick
Intersexual genetic correlations are expected to constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphic traits, including the degree of sex-biased gene expression. Consistent with that expectation, studies in fruit flies and birds have reported that genes whose expression has a strong intersexual genetic correlation (rMF) show a lower level of sex-biased expression (SBE). However, it is known that both rMF and SBE can be affected by the environment. It is therefore unclear whether there is a consistent relationship between these 2 quantities across multiple environments...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Esteban Vargas Bernal, Camilo Sanabria Malagon
The males of the species of frogs Engystomops pustulosus produce simple and complex calls to lure females, as a way of intersexual selection. Complex calls lead males to a greater reproductive success than what simple calls do. However, the complex calls are also more attractive to their main predator, the bat Trachops cirrhosus. Therefore, as M. Ryan suggests in (The túngara frog: a study in sexual selection and communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1985), the complexity of the calls lets the frogs keep a trade-off between reproductive success and predation...
December 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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