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Superoxide AND Tempol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938336/arterial-stiffness-induced-by-carotid-calcification-leads-to-cerebral-gliosis-mediated-by-oxidative-stress
#1
Nataliya Sadekova, M Florencia Iulita, Diane Vallerand, Gervais Muhire, Mohamed Bourmoum, Audrey Claing, Hélène Girouard
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. However, its precise effects on the brain remain unexplored. Using a mouse model of carotid stiffness, we investigated its effect on glial activation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Arterial stiffness was induced by the application of calcium chloride to the adventitial region of the right carotid. Superoxide anion production, NADPH activity and levels, as well as glial activation were examined with immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, 2-week postcalcification...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925291/isolation-of-a-novel-compound-mimo2-from-the-methanolic-extract-of-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protective-effects-against-vanadium-induced-cytotoxity
#2
Olumayowa O Igado, Jan Glaser, Mario Ramos-Tirado, Ezgi Eylül Bankoğlu, Foluso A Atiba, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Helga Stopper, James O Olopade
Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid-liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to determine the fraction with the highest antioxidative power. Chemical structure was elucidated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890952/oxidative-stress-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-placental-malaria
#3
Demba Sarr, Caitlin A Cooper, Tara C Bracken, Omar Martinez-Uribe, Tamas Nagy, Julie M Moore
Placental malaria, characterized by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum in the maternal placental blood space and associated inflammatory damage, contributes to poor birth outcomes and ~200,000 infant deaths annually. Specific mechanisms that contribute to placental damage and dysfunction during malaria are not completely understood. To investigate a potential role for oxidative stress, antioxidant genes and markers for oxidative damage were assessed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected pregnant mice...
June 1, 2017: Immunohorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842207/central-administration-of-tert-butylhydroquinone-attenuates-hypertension-via-regulating-nrf2-signaling-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-hypertensive-rats
#4
Juan Bai, Xiao-Jing Yu, Kai-Li Liu, Fang-Fang Wang, Gui-Xia Jing, Hong-Bao Li, Yan Zhang, Chan-Juan Huo, Xiang Li, Hong-Li Gao, Jie Qi, Yu-Ming Kang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that modulates cell antioxidant defense response against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of PVN administration of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a selective Nrf2 activator, in hypertensive rats. 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used in this study...
October 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754499/fructose-induced-neurogenic-hypertension-mediated-by-overactivation-of-p38-mapk-to-impair-insulin-signaling-transduction-caused-central-insulin-resistance
#5
Pei-Wen Cheng, Yu-Te Lin, Wen-Yu Ho, Pei-Jung Lu, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chi-Cheng Lai, Gwo-Ching Sun, Tung-Chen Yeh, Michael Hsiao, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Chun-Peng Liu
Type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of complications related to hypertension, and reports have indicated that insulin levels may be associated with blood pressure (BP). Fructose intake has recently been reported to promote insulin resistance and superoxide formation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether fructose intake can enhance superoxide generation and impair insulin signaling in the NTS and subsequently elevate BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with fructose for 4 weeks increased the BP, serum fasting insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and reduced the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in the fructose group...
July 25, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750563/high-dose-ascorbic-acid-induces-carcinostatic-effects-through-hydrogen-peroxide-and-superoxide-anion-radical-generation-induced-cell-death-and-growth-arrest-in-human-tongue-carcinoma-cells
#6
Ryouhei Ohwada, Yu Ozeki, Yasukazu Saitoh
High-dose ascorbic acid (AsA) treatment, known as pharmacological AsA, has been shown to exert carcinostatic effects in many types of cancer cells and in vivo tumour models. Although pharmacological AsA has potential as a complementary and alternative medicine for anticancer treatment, its effects on human tongue carcinoma have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of AsA treatment on human tongue carcinoma HSC-4 cells compared with non-tumourigenic tongue epithelial dysplastic oral keratinocyte (DOK) cells...
July 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712765/losartan-reverses-cox-2-dependent-vascular-dysfunction-in-offspring-of-hyperglycaemic-rats
#7
Diego Barbosa de Queiroz, Fernanda Elizabethe Ramos-Alves, Juliana Santos-Rocha, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Fabiano Elias Xavier
AIMS: This study examined whether chronic treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, might reverse COX-2-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from offspring of hyperglycaemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male 12-month-old offspring of hyperglycaemic (O-DR) and normoglycaemic (O-CR) rats were treated with losartan (15mg·kg·day(-1)) during 2months. Third order MRA of untreated and losartan-treated O-DR and O-CR were mounted in wire myograph for isometric tension measurements...
September 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674038/genetic-interference-with-endothelial-ppar-%C3%AE-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-augments-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-while-impairing-responses-to-angiotensin-1-7
#8
T Michael De Silva, Chunyan Hu, Dale A Kinzenbaw, Mary L Modrick, Curt D Sigmund, Frank M Faraci
Pharmacological activation of PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) protects the vasculature. Much less is known on the cell-specific impact of PPAR-γ when driven by endogenous ligands. Recently, we found that endothelial PPAR-γ protects against angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction. Here, we explored that concept further examining whether effects were sex dependent along with underlying mechanisms. We studied mice expressing a human dominant-negative mutation in PPAR-γ driven by the endothelial-specific vascular cadherin promoter (E-V290M), using nontransgenic littermates as controls...
September 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673614/ros-dependent-activation-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-in-pulmonary-artery-role-of-src-family-kinases-and-arhgef1
#9
Charles E MacKay, Yasin Shaifta, Vladimir V Snetkov, Asvi A Francois, Jeremy P T Ward, Greg A Knock
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in smooth muscle contraction is poorly understood. We hypothesised that G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and hypoxia induce Rho-kinase activity and contraction in rat intra-pulmonary artery (IPA) via stimulation of ROS production and subsequent Src-family kinase (SrcFK) activation. The T-type prostanoid receptor agonist U46619 induced ROS production in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). U46619 also induced c-Src cysteine oxidation, SrcFK auto-phosphorylation, MYPT-1 and MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction in IPA, and all these responses were inhibited by antioxidants (ebselen, Tempol)...
September 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666030/contribution-of-reactive-oxygen-species-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Nikki L Jernigan, Jay S Naik, Laura Weise-Cross, Neil D Detweiler, Lindsay M Herbert, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Thomas C Resta
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with a decreased antioxidant capacity. However, neither the contribution of reactive oxygen species to pulmonary vasoconstrictor sensitivity, nor the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant strategies in this setting are known. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species play a central role in mediating both vasoconstrictor and arterial remodeling components of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We examined the effect of the chemical antioxidant, TEMPOL, on right ventricular systolic pressure, vascular remodeling, and enhanced vasoconstrictor reactivity in both chronic hypoxia and hypoxia/SU5416 rat models of pulmonary hypertension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659507/pressor-response-to-angiotensin-ii-is-enhanced-in-aged-mice-and-associated-with-inflammation-vasoconstriction-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Quynh Nhu Dinh, Grant R Drummond, Barbara K Kemp-Harper, Henry Diep, T Michael De Silva, Hyun Ah Kim, Antony Vinh, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew A Cooper, Ashley Mansell, Sophocles Chrissobolis, Christopher G Sobey
Aging is commonly associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and hypertension but it is unknown whether a cause-effect relationship exists between them. We compared the sensitivity of young adult (8-12 w) and aged (23-31 mo) male C57Bl6J mice to develop hypertension in response to a slow-pressor dose of angiotensin II (Ang II; 0.28 mg/kg/d; 28 d). In young mice, the pressor response to Ang II was gradual and increased to 142±8 mmHg over 28 d. However, in aged mice, Ang II promptly increased SBP and reached 155±12 mmHg by 28 d...
June 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626074/a-type-potassium-channels-contribute-to-prorenin-increase-of-firing-activity-in-hypothalamic-vasopressin-neurosecretory-neurons
#12
Soledad Pitra, Javier E Stern
Recent studies support an important contribution of prorenin (PR) and its receptor (PRR) to the regulation of hypothalamic sympathetic and neurosecretory outflows to the cardiovascular system, including systemic release of vasopressin (VP), both under physiological and cardiovascular disease conditions. Still, the identification of precise cellular mechanisms and neuronal/molecular targets remain unknown. We recently showed that PRR is expressed in VP neurons, and that their activation increases neuronal activity...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603016/rapid-repeatable-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-retinal-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
Ning Fan, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F Clark, Xuyang Liu, Iok-Hou Pang
Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes...
August 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600985/nox2-contributes-to-hyperinsulinemia-induced-redox-imbalance-and-impaired-vascular-function
#14
Abeer M Mahmoud, Mohamed M Ali, Edwin R Miranda, Jacob T Mey, Brian K Blackburn, Jacob M Haus, Shane A Phillips
Insulin resistance promotes vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. Previously we found that skeletal muscle arteriolar flow-induced dilation (FID) was reduced following a hyperinsulinemic clamp in healthy adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of insulin resistance, contributes to microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction via inducing oxidative stress that is mediated by NADPH oxidase (Nox) system. We examined the effect of insulin, at levels that are comparable with human hyperinsulinemia on 1) FID of isolated arterioles from human skeletal muscle tissue in the presence and absence of Nox inhibitors and 2) human adipose microvascular endothelial cell (HAMECs) expression of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and Nox-mediated oxidative stress...
June 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589150/tempol-a-superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-agent-inhibits-superoxide-anion-induced-inflammatory-pain-in-mice
#15
Catia C F Bernardy, Ana C Zarpelon, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Cássia Calixto-Campos, Thacyana T Carvalho, Victor Fattori, Sergio M Borghi, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the superoxide dismutase mimetic agent tempol in superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with tempol (10-100 mg/kg) 40 min before the intraplantar injection of a superoxide anion donor, potassium superoxide (KO2, 30 μg). Mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia, paw edema, and mRNA expression of peripheral and spinal cord mediators involved in inflammatory pain, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-10, COX-2, preproET-1, gp91(phox), Nrf2, GFAP, and Iba-1, were evaluated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575410/enhanced-endothelin-1-rho-kinase-signalling-and-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-hypertensive-myocardial-hypertrophy
#16
Shu-Huai Tsai, Guangrong Lu, Xin Xu, Yi Ren, Travis W Hein, Lih Kuo
Aims: Hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is associated with reduced coronary flow reserve, but its impact on coronary flow regulation and vasomotor function remains incompletely understood and requires further investigation. Methods and results: Left ventricular hypertrophy was induced in mice by transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) for 4 weeks. The left coronary artery blood velocity (LCABV) and myocardium lactate level were measured following the metabolic activation by isoproterenol...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574428/reduced-dietary-selenium-impairs-vascular-function-by-increasing-oxidative-stress-in-sprague-dawley-rat-aortas
#17
Ana Stupin, Anita Cosic, Sanja Novak, Monika Vesel, Ivana Jukic, Brigita Popovic, Krunoslav Karalic, Zdenko Loncaric, Ines Drenjancevic
This study aimed to determine whether low dietary Se content affects the function and mechanisms mediating the vascular relaxation of rat aortas, and to test the role of oxidative stress in observed differences. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were maintained for 10 weeks on low Se (low-Se group; N = 20) or normal Se content (norm-Se group; N = 20) rat chow. Dose responses to acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-9)-10(-5)M) and the response to reduced pO₂ were tested in noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings in the absence/presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), the cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1, 2) inhibitor Indomethacin, and the antioxidative agent Tempol in tissue bath...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556994/hyperglycaemia-in-pregnant-rats-causes-sex-related-vascular-dysfunction-in-adult-offspring-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#18
Francine Gomes de Sá, Diego Barbosa de Queiroz, Fernanda Elizabethe Ramos-Alves, Juliana Santos-Rocha, Odair Alves da Silva, Hicla Stefany Moreira, Geórgia Andrade Leal, Marcelo Aurélio da Rocha, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Fabiano Elias Xavier
What is the central question of this study? Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring. Given that female offspring from other fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, the present study investigated whether there are sex differences in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension only in male offspring...
May 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544543/acute-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-impairs-rat-renal-microvascular-autoregulatory-behaviour
#19
Justin P Van Beusecum, Shali Zhang, Anthony K Cook, Edward W Inscho
AIM: Little is known about how toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) influences the renal microvasculature. We hypothesized that acute TLR4 stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour, partially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: We assessed afferent arteriole autoregulatory behaviour after LPS treatment (1 mg kg(-1) ; i.p.) using the in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Autoregulatory behaviour was assessed by measuring diameter responses to step-wise changes in renal perfusion pressure...
May 25, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533261/the-superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-tempol-does-not-alleviate-glucocorticoid-mediated-rarefaction-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-capillaries
#20
Erin R Mandel, Emily C Dunford, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Patrick C Turnbull, Christopher G R Perry, Michael C Riddell, Tara L Haas
Sustained elevations in circulating glucocorticoids elicit reductions in skeletal muscle microvascular content, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress contributes to this phenomenon. In rats that were implanted with corticosterone (CORT) or control pellets, CORT caused a significant decrease in muscle glutathione levels and a corresponding increase in protein carbonylation, an irreversible oxidative modification of proteins. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increased endothelin-1 mRNA levels were detected after 9 days of CORT, and blood flow to glycolytic muscles was diminished...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
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