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Superoxide AND Tempol

Akram Ranjbar, Nejat Kheiripour, Hassan Ghasemi, Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei, Farahnaz Dadras, Farhad Khoshjou
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress has a well-known role in diabetic nephropathy, and mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species production. This study aimed to assess the effect of tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, on mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and cell viability in diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 animals. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of streptozotocin in 2 groups, the rat in one of which were also treated with tempol for 4 weeks...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Niccole Schaible, Young Soo Han, Torkjel Tveita, Gary C Sieck
Rewarming following accidental hypothermia is associated with circulatory collapse due primarily to impaired cardiac contractile (systolic) function. Previously, we found that reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity underlies hypothermia/rewarming (H/R)-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. This reduced Ca2+ sensitivity is associated with troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation. We hypothesize that H/R induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cardiomyocytes, which leads to cTnI phosphorylation and reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Douglas Vq Nunes, Cristiane A Costa, Graziele F De Bem, Viviane Sc Cordeiro, Izabelle B Santos, Lenize Crm Carvalho, Alessandro K Jordão, Anna C Cunha, Vitor F Ferreira, Roberto S Moura, Angela C Resende, Dayane T Ognibene
Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, has been shown to attenuate radical-induced damage, exerting beneficial effects in the animal models of oxidative stress and hypertension. This study evaluated the effect of Tempol on renal structural and functional alterations in two-Kidney, one-Clip hypertensive rats. In this study, young male Wistar rats had the left kidney clipped (2K1C), and sham-operated animals (Sham) were used as controls. Animals received Tempol (1mmol/L in drinking water) or vehicle for 5 weeks...
January 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Fumin Chang, Sheila Flavahan, Nicholas A Flavahan
Endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation is impaired in aging arteries. The dysfunction reflects increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is reversed by inhibiting superoxide with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, and is assumed to reflect superoxide-mediated inactivation of NO. However, the dysfunction also reflects Src-dependent degradation and loss of VE-cadherin from adherens junctions, resulting in a selective impairment in the ability of the junctions to amplify endothelial dilatation...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jia-Pu Wang, Rui-Fang Chi, Ke Wang, Teng Ma, Xiao-Fei Guo, Xiao-Li Zhang, Bao Li, Fu-Zhong Qin, Xue-Bin Han, Bian-Ai Fan
Insufficient or excessive myocyte autophagy is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Reactive oxygen species mediate myocyte hypertrophy in vitro and pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy in vivo. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress induces autophagy impairment that results in myocyte hypertrophy. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 and 50 μm hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 48 h pretreated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes
We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium-hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure...
2018: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Cai-Shuo Ji, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Guang-Xia Shi, Marc Fisher, Cun-Zhi Liu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where the sympathetic nervous control center is located, contributes to neural mechanisms of hypertension. Acupuncture was previously reported to favorably affect high blood pressure. However, little is known about the effect of acupuncture on oxidative stress-modulated mechanisms in hypertension. This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via ameliorating oxidative stress and the redox-sensitive pathway in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
February 2018: Hypertension
David P Burns, Izza Ali, Clement Rieux, James Healy, Greg Jasionek, Ken D O'Halloran
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ke-Qiang He, Wei-Zu Li, Xiao-Qing Chai, Yan-Yan Yin, Yan Jiang, Wei-Ping Li
Diabetic patients are able to manage their blood glucose with exogenous insulin but, ultimately, remain at risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Long‑term use of insulin may lead to iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia, which has been suggested to cause kidney injury. However, there are no effective interventions for iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia leading to kidney damage. In the present paper, the hypothesis that astragaloside IV (AS‑IV), a novel saponin purified from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, may prevent DN in iatrogenic hyperinsulinemic diabetic rats through antioxidative and anti‑inflammatory mechanisms was investigated...
February 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Daigo Ikegami, Wan Huang, Hirotsugu Kanda, Takafumi Iida, Ching-Hang Liu, Keiya Takahashi, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the CNS. C/EBPβ, one of the C/EBPs, is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Takayuki Kamiya, Taiji Nagaoka, Tsuneaki Omae, Shinji Ono, Shinichi Otani, Akitoshi Yoshida
Purpose: To investigate whether benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), a toxicant in cigarette smoke, affects the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasodilation of the retinal arterioles, and whether oxidative stress, distinct protein kinase signaling pathways, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with the B(e)P-induced effect on the retinal arterioles. Methods: In this in vitro study, porcine retinal arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized without flow...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Li Zou, Valerie Linck, Yu-Jia Zhai, Laura Galarza-Paez, Linda Li, Qiang Yue, Otor Al-Khalili, Hui-Fang Bao, He-Ping Ma, Tiffany L Thai, Jundong Jiao, Douglas C Eaton
It has been suggested that voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) control the release of superoxide from mitochondria. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2 ̇̄ ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) stimulate epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in sodium-transporting epithelial tissue, including cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that VDACs could regulate ENaC by modulating cytosolic ROS levels. Herein, we find that VDAC3-knockout(KO) mice can maintain normal salt and water balance on low-salt and high-salt diets...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
J-P Wang, R-F Chi, J Liu, Y-Z Deng, X-B Han, F-Z Qin, B Li
Autophagy is implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Autophagy is activated in heart failure, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Exogenous ROS have been shown to induce cardiomyocyte autophagy alterations. However, little is known about the influences of physiological levels of endogenous ROS on cardiomyocyte autophagy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous ROS in cardiomyocytes play an important role in inducing autophagy. Cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes or Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or the superoxide dismutase mimic tempol under the basal or nutrient deprivation conditions...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
Nicholas M Negretti, Christopher R Gourley, Geremy Clair, Joshua N Adkins, Michael E Konkel
Bile plays an important role in digestion, absorption of fats, and the excretion of waste products, while concurrently providing a critical barrier against colonization by harmful bacteria. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut pathogens react to bile by adapting their protein synthesis. The ability of pathogens to respond to bile is remarkably complex and still incompletely understood. Here we show that Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide, responds to deoxycholate, a component of bile, by altering global gene transcription in a manner consistent with a strategy to mitigate exposure to reactive oxygen stress...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Larissa Pernomian, Lilian R Gimenes, Mayara S Gomes, Bruno N do Vale, Cristina R B Cardoso, Ana M de Oliveira, Josimar D Moreira
Temporal consequences of neurocompensation to balloon injury on endothelinergic functionality in rat contralateral carotid were evaluated. Rats underwent balloon injury in left carotid and were treated with CP-96345 (NK1 antagonist). Concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were obtained in contralateral (right) carotid at 2, 8, 16, 30, or 45 days after surgery in the absence or presence of BQ-123 (ETA antagonist), BQ-788 (ETB antagonist), or Tempol (superoxide-dismutase mimic). Endothelin-1-induced calcium mobilization was evaluated in functional assays carried out with BQ-123, BQ-788, or Tempol...
2017: BioMed Research International
Yan Zhang, Yaolei Zhang, Wei Li, Peijian Wang, Rui Gu, Yaxing Feng, Shujie Wei, Ke Peng, Yunrong Zhang, Linan Su, Qiang Wang, De Li, Dachun Yang, Wing Tak Wong, Yongjian Yang, Shuangtao Ma
BACKGROUND: Intracoronary stent restenosis, characterized by excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and myointimal hyperplasia, remains a clinical challenge. Mitochondrial membrane potential has been linked to the proliferative rate of SMCs. This study aimed to screen a critical gene regulating mitochondrial potential and to confirm its effects on myointimal formation in preclinical animal models. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed transcriptome screening for genes differentially expressed in ligated versus unligated mouse carotid arteries...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Nataliya Sadekova, M Florencia Iulita, Diane Vallerand, Gervais Muhire, Mohamed Bourmoum, Audrey Claing, Hélène Girouard
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. However, its precise effects on the brain remain unexplored. Using a mouse model of carotid stiffness, we investigated its effect on glial activation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Arterial stiffness was induced by the application of calcium chloride to the adventitial region of the right carotid. Superoxide anion production, NADPH activity and levels, as well as glial activation were examined with immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, 2-week postcalcification...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Olumayowa O Igado, Jan Glaser, Mario Ramos-Tirado, Ezgi Eylül Bankoğlu, Foluso A Atiba, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Helga Stopper, James O Olopade
Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid-liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to determine the fraction with the highest antioxidative power. Chemical structure was elucidated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Demba Sarr, Caitlin A Cooper, Tara C Bracken, Omar Martinez-Uribe, Tamas Nagy, Julie M Moore
Placental malaria, characterized by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum in the maternal placental blood space and associated inflammatory damage, contributes to poor birth outcomes and ~200,000 infant deaths annually. Specific mechanisms that contribute to placental damage and dysfunction during malaria are not completely understood. To investigate a potential role for oxidative stress, antioxidant genes and markers for oxidative damage were assessed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected pregnant mice...
June 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
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