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Francislaine Aparecida Lívero, Jacqueline Vergutz Menetrier, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
Heart failure, hypertension, cirrhosis and nephritic syndrome are among conditions that alter volume and composition of body fluids and are modulated by diuretics. Natural products are important source of diuretics and have been considered remarkable alternative with greater effectiveness and fewer side effects. However, many of these plants used in traditional medicine must be scientifically assessed about their efficacy and toxicity. Despite the large number of published articles claiming that plants or plant-derived components may act as diuretic agents, few studies have addressed the mechanism of action of medicinal plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jinlong Li, Xiaoxu Duan, Dandan Dong, Yang Zhang, Lu Zhao, Wei Li, Jinli Chen, Guifan Sun, Bing Li
Groundwater contaminated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) is the main source of human exposure to arsenic and generates a global health issue. In this study, the urinary excretion, as well as the time-course distributions of various arsenic species in murine tissues, especially in different brain regions were determined after a single oral administration of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). Our data showed that the peak times of urinary, hepatic and nephritic total arsenic (TAs) were happened at about 1h, then TAs levels decreased gradually and almost could not be observed after 72h...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Debrabata Chanda, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Arjun Singh, Hina Iqbal, Pankaj Yadav, Vladimir Snetkov, Philip I Aaronson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glabridin is a major flavonoid in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root, a traditional Asian medicine. Glabridin is reported to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nephritic properties; however its effects on vascular tone remain unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined the effect of glabridin on rat main mesenteric artery using isometric myography and also ELISA to measure cGMP levels. KEY RESULTS: Glabridin (30μM) relaxed arteries pre-constricted with the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (0...
September 26, 2016: Life Sciences
Elaine V Lourenço, Aijing Liu, Giuseppe Matarese, Antonio La Cava
Leptin is an adipocytokine that plays a key role in the modulation of immune responses and the development and maintenance of inflammation. Circulating levels of leptin are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, but it is not clear whether this association can reflect a direct influence of leptin on the propathogenic events that lead to SLE. To investigate this possibility, we compared the extent of susceptibility to SLE and lupus manifestations between leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and H2-matched leptin-sufficient (wild-type, WT) mice that had been treated with the lupus-inducing agent pristane...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mingde Ji, Yanlai Lu, Chenhui Zhao, Wenxing Gao, Fengxia He, Jing Zhang, Dan Zhao, Wen Qiu, Yingwei Wang
Inflammatory response has been reported to contribute to the renal lesions in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) as an animal model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). Besides C5b-9 complex, C5a is also a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and correlated to severity of various nephritic diseases. However, the role of C5a in mediating pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rats with Thy-1N is poorly defined. In the present studies, the levels of C5a, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were first determined in the renal tissues of rats with Thy-1N...
2016: PloS One
María C De Paoli, Dino Moretti, Carlos M Scolari Pasinato, Martín G Buncuga
The Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel vasculitis with IgA immune complex deposition. The presentation in adults is rare and severe. Reported cases of HSP in patients infected with HIV are scarce. Neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are commonly found in other systemic vasculitis, but rarely in HSP and even more unusual the perinuclear pattern. Beside small vessel vasculitis, positivity of ANCA can be detected in a number of different pathological conditions in association with infectious processes, including HIV, or cocaine use, and especially the pattern of ANCA-p, associated with drugs, inflammatory bowel or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Medicina
Manel Jellouli, Sonia Fitouhi, Kamel Abidi, Yousra Hammi, Ouns Naija, Chokri Zarrouk, Tahar Gargah
OBJECTIVES: To establish the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and to determine the predictive factors for a good response. METHODS: retrospective hospital-based cohort study in the department of pediatric of Charles Nicolle hospital, between 2005 and 2012 included 30 children with steroid-dependent nephritic syndrome who were treated with MMF. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients (20 boys and 10 girls) were included...
March 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
M Mizerska-Wasiak, A Turczyn, A Such, K Cichoń-Kawa, J Małdyk, M Miklaszewska, J Pietrzyk, A Rybi-Szumińska, A Wasilewska, A Firszt-Adamczyk, R Stankiewicz, M Szczepańska, B Bieniaś, M Zajączkowska, A Pukajło-Marczyk, D Zwolińska, K Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, M Tkaczyk, K Gadomska-Prokop, R Grenda, U Demkow, M Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis in pediatric population. The clinical presentation of the disease in children ranges from microscopic hematuria to end-stage kidney disease. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess clinical and kidney biopsy features in children with IgAN. We assessed a cohort of 140 children, 88 boys, 52 girls with the diagnosis of IgAN in the period of 2000-2015, entered into the national Polish pediatric IgAN registry. The assessment included the following: proteinuria, hematuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), arterial blood pressure, and the renal pathological changes according to the Oxford classification and crescents formation, as modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors...
August 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nuntawan Piyaphanee, Chompoonut Ananboontarick, Suroj Supavekin, Achra Sumboonnanonda
BACKGROUND: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), a clinical diagnosis defined as acute nephritic syndrome with dramatic loss of renal function within few months, is associated with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CresGN), which requires ≥50% crescents in pathology. The percentage of crescents in children with RPGN may vary, however, determining disease characteristics and renal outcome. METHODS: To evaluate the renal outcomes and factors associated to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), this retrospective cohort study assessed children aged ≤15 years with RPGN at a tertiary medical center...
August 20, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Yuxuan Zhen, Stephen O Priest, Wen-Hai Shao
Glomerulonephritis is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, with considerable morbidity and mortality. There remains a major unmet need for successful management of lupus nephritis. TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases (Mer and Axl) play an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the kidney. Mer is constitutively expressed in the glomeruli; Axl expression is inducible in glomeruli under inflammatory conditions. To investigate the distinct functions of Axl and Mer in lupus nephritis, we compared the severity of nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis in wild-type (WT), Axl-knockout (KO), Mer-KO, and Axl/Mer-KO mice...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Syed Sajid Hussain Shah, Farkhanda Hafeez
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine (Calcineurin Inhibitors) in the management of childhood steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome (SRNS). STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Nephrology at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from August 2014 to September 2015. METHODOLOGY: Patients of either gender aged 1 - 12 years, with the diagnosis of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesangioPGN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or minimal-change disease (MCD) were included...
July 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Anika Klingberg, Anja Hasenberg, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Anna Medyukhina, Linda Männ, Alexandra Brenzel, Daniel R Engel, Marc Thilo Figge, Christian Kurts, Matthias Gunzer
The total number of glomeruli is a fundamental parameter of kidney function but very difficult to determine using standard methodology. Here, we counted all individual glomeruli in murine kidneys and sized the capillary tufts by combining in vivo fluorescence labeling of endothelial cells, a novel tissue-clearing technique, lightsheet microscopy, and automated registration by image analysis. Total hands-on time per organ was <1 hour, and automated counting/sizing was finished in <3 hours. We also investigated the novel use of ethyl-3-phenylprop-2-enoate (ethyl cinnamate) as a nontoxic solvent-based clearing reagent that can be handled without specific safety measures...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Zoltán Prohászka, Bo Nilsson, Ashley Frazer-Abel, Michael Kirschfink
In recent years, complement analysis of body fluids and biopsies, going far beyond C3 and C4, has significantly enhanced our understanding of the disease process. Such expanded complement analysis allows for a more precise differential diagnosis and for critical monitoring of complement-targeted therapy. These changes are a result of the growing understanding of the involvement of complement in a diverse set of disorders. To appreciate the importance of proper complement analysis, it is important to understand the role it plays in disease...
November 2016: Immunobiology
Rona Dagan, Roxana Cleper, Miriam Davidovits, Levana Sinai-Trieman, Irit Krause
BACKGROUND: The incidence of post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) has decreased over the last decades. As a result, recent epidemiological data from industrialized countries are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patterns of PIGN in children and detect possible predictors of disease severity. METHODS: We collected clinical and laboratory data of patients with PIGN admitted to Schneider Children's Medical Center during 1994-2011. Diagnostic criteria included presence of hematuria with/without other features of nephritic syndrome along with hypocomplementemia and/or microbiological/serological evidence of streptococcal infection...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Vincenzo Pellicanò, Antonio Lacquaniti, Michele Buemi, Domenico Santoro
Renal biopsy was performed for the first time more than one century ago, but its clinical use was routinely introduced in the 1950s. It is still an essential tool for diagnosis and choice of treatment of several primary or secondary kidney diseases. Moreover, it may help to know the expected time of end stage renal disease. The indications are represented by nephritic and/or nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive acute renal failure of unknown origin. Nowadays, it is performed mainly by nephrologists and radiologists using a 14-18 gauges needle with automated spring-loaded biopsy device, under real-time ultrasound guidance...
July 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Panpan Yang, Wen Hu, Zhenzhen Fu, Luning Sun, Ying Zhou, Yingyun Gong, Tao Yang, Hongwen Zhou
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with the incident, progression and prognostic of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of BCAAs in metabolic dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides (TG) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate 1) the association of serum BCAAs with total cholesterol (TC), TG, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and 2) the association between serum BCAAs levels and risk of metabolic dyslipidemia in a community population with different glucose homeostasis...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Bonny L Dickinson
Immune-mediated damage to glomerular structures is largely responsible for the pathology associated with the majority of glomerular diseases. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the basic immune mechanisms responsible for glomerular damage is needed to inform the design of novel intervention strategies. Glomerular injury of immune origin is complex and involves both inflammatory and non-inflammatory processes driven by elements of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review summarizes the basic immune mechanisms that cause glomerular injury leading to the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes...
August 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Rolf Ak Stahl, Elion Hoxha
Glomerulonephritis encompasses a group of diseases that are characterized by inflammatory glomerular processes and clinically usually present with a nephritic and / or a nephrotic syndrome, as well as a deterioration of the renal function. Often, the diseases are accompanied by arterial hypertension and severe edema. In many cases however, the clinical symptoms are very mild or missing in the early phase of disease and therefore lead to a delayed diagnosis only after an impairment of renal function has developed...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
A Morand, F Cornu, M Tsimaratos, J-C Lagier, S Khelaifia, D Raoult
Here, we report the main characteristics of Actinomyces urinae strain Marseille-P2225(T) (CSURP2225) isolated from a human urine sample.
September 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Luz Maria De-Regil, Cristina Palacios, Lia K Lombardo, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished...
May 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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