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hbv vaccine

Ahmed E Arafa, Amel A Mohamed, Manal M Anwar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV] pose a considerable infectious risk for nurses, resulting in unwanted health outcomes and psychological stress. AIM OF THE WORK: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of nurses and define administrative roles regarding in BBP and infection control (IC) measures in selected Beni-Suef Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Siddhartha Sankar Datta, Edna Moturi, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Phanmanisone Philakong, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Vansy Vilayvone, Minal K Patel
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in 2008; high coverage is challenging since only 38% of births occur in a health facility. Healthcare workers report being unaware of home births and thus unable to conduct timely postnatal care (PNC) home visits. A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted wherein mobile phones and phone credits were provided to village health volunteers (VHV) and healthcare workers (HCWs) to assess whether this could improve HepB-BD administration, as well as birth notification and increase home visits...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Bertram Bengsch, Kyong-Mi Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health challenge. HBV can cause significant morbidity and mortality by establishing acute and chronic hepatitis. Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected, and more than 2 billion people have been exposed to HBV. Since the discovery of HBV, the advances in our understanding of HBV virology and immunology have translated into effective vaccines and therapies for HBV infection. Although current therapies successfully suppress viral replication but rarely succeed in viral eradication, recent discoveries in HBV virology and immunology provide exciting rationales for novel treatment strategies aiming at HBV cure...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Noele P Nelson, Philippa J Easterbrook, Brian J McMahon
Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunization programs has resulted in substantial reductions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in previously high endemic countries. The key strategy for control of the HBV epidemic is birth dose and infant vaccination. Additional measures include use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and diagnosis of mothers at high risk of transmitting HBV and use of antiviral agents during pregnancy to decrease maternal DNA concentrations to undetectable concentrations...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Chuoji Huang, Hui Heng Lin, Jian-Bo Wan, Chengwei He, Yuanjia Hu
Despite the existence of available therapies, the Hepatitis B virus infection continues to be one of the most serious threats to human health, especially in developing countries such as China and India. To shed light on the improvement of current therapies and development of novel anti-HBV drugs, we thoroughly investigated 212 US patents of anti-HBV drugs and analyzed the technology flow in research and development of anti-HBV drugs based on data from IMS LifeCycle databases. Moreover, utilizing the patent citation method, which is an effective indicator of technology flow, we constructed patent citation network models and performed network analysis in order to reveal the features of different technology clusters...
2016: PloS One
Bo-Ram Lee, Ho Kyung Ko, Ju Hee Ryu, Keum Young Ahn, Young-Ho Lee, Se Jin Oh, Jin Hee Na, Tae Woo Kim, Youngro Byun, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Jeewon Lee
Efficient delivery of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) to lymph nodes (LNs) is essential to eliciting robust immune response for cancer immunotherapy but still remains unsolved. Herein, we evaluated the direct LN-targeting performance of four different protein nanoparticles with different size, shape, and origin [Escherichia coli DNA binding protein (DPS), Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome (PTS), hepatitis B virus capsid (HBVC), and human ferritin heavy chain (hFTN)] in live mice, using an optical fluorescence imaging system...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kolade M Owolabi
Evolution systems containing fractional derivatives can result to suitable mathematical models for describing better and important physical phenomena. In this paper, we consider a multi-components nonlinear fractional-in-space reaction-diffusion equations consisting of an improved deterministic model which describe the spread of hepatitis B virus disease in areas of high endemic communities. The model is analyzed. We give some useful biological results to show that the disease-free equilibrium is both locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity...
2016: SpringerPlus
John D Campbell
The development of aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants was an empirical process with little understanding of the mechanism of action and, with decades of use, it has become clear that there is a need for alternatives where alum-based adjuvants are suboptimal. Oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG sequences represent one alternative as they are potent stimulators of the vertebrate innate immune system through activation of Toll-like receptor-9. This chapter outlines the methods used by Dynavax Technologies to progress a CpG-containing oligonucleotide sequence termed 1018 through preclinical and clinical testing as an adjuvant for immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martin Feuchtenberger, Arne Schäfer, Axel Philipp Nigg, Michael Rupert Kraus
BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available on the prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with proven rheumatic diseases and thus the risk of reactivation under immunosuppressive therapy. OBJECTIVE: To analyse hepatitis B serology in patients with rheumatic diseases prior to therapy. METHOD: In total, 1,338 patient records were analysed for HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb in a cross-sectional, single-centre study between 2011 and 2015 at first presentation...
2016: Open Rheumatology Journal
Laura Cummins Meals, Stephen R Ross, Curtis Eng, Kathryn C Gamble
Hepatitis B virus causes horizontally transmitted infectious hepatopathy of primates and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. However, the overall status for this population and the interpretation of these individual test results have not been established previously. The current U.S. zoo-housed population (n = 259) was assessed serologically for hepatitis B by surface protein antigen (HbsAg) and surface antibodies (anti-Hbs)...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
I-Cheng Lu, Mei-Chu Yen Jean, Chi-Wei Lin, Wei-Hung Chen, Daw-Shyong Perng, Chih-Wen Lin, Hung-Yi Chuang
In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL)...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kübra Altinel, Kosuke Hashimoto, Yu Wei, Christine Neuveut, Ishita Gupta, Ana Maria Suzuki, Alexandre Dos Santos, Pierrick Moreau, Tian Xia, Soichi Kojima, Sachi Kato, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Isao Hidaka, Masahito Shimizu, Tomokazu Matsuura, Akihito Tsubota, Hitoshi Ikeda, Sumiko Nagoshi, Harukazu Suzuki, Marie-Louise Michel, Didier Samuel, Marie Annick Buendia, Jamila Faivre, Piero Carninci
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and more than 650,000 people die annually due to HBV-associated liver failure. Extensive studies of individual promoters have revealed that heterogeneous RNA 5' -ends contribute to the complexity of HBV transcriptome and proteome. Here we provide a comprehensive map of HBV transcription start sites (TSSs) in human liver, HCC and blood, as well as several experimental replication systems, at single nucleotide resolution...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jose Ignacio Vargas, Juan Pablo Arab, Daniela Jensen, Francisco Fuster
HBV and HIV coinfection is common and entails important morbi-mortality. Vaccination and anti-HBs seroconvertion is a desirable goal in HIV infected patients. New strategies are necessary to predict seroconversion and clinical endpoints. More studies, in the subgroup of HIV patients with poor immunovirological status are needed.
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
P Pumpens, E Grens
This review article is a continuation of the paper "Hepatitis B core particles as a universal display model: a structure-function basis for development" written by Pumpens P. and Grens E., ordered by Professor Lev Kisselev and published in FEBS Letters, 1999, 442, 1-6. The past 17 years have strengthened the paper's finding that the human hepatitis B virus core protein, along with other Hepadnaviridae family member core proteins, is a mysterious, multifunctional protein. The core gene of the Hepadnaviridae genome encodes five partially collinear proteins...
July 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Xiaoyan Li, Runzhou Ni
There are over 350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world, of whom about a third eventually develop severe HBV-related complications. HBV contributes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma development. Remarkable progress has been made in selective inhibition of HBV replication by nucleoside analogs. However, how to generate protective antibody of HBsAb in HBV-infected patients after HBV-DNA becomes negative still remains a challenge for scientists. In this study, we show that OmpC-HBsAg 'a' epitope chimeric protein vaccine can break HBV tolerance and induce protective immunity in HBV transgenic mice based on mimicking T cell-independent antigen to bypass T cells from the adaptive immune system...
September 23, 2016: Viral Immunology
Martina Filippelli, Maria Teresa Garozzo, Antonino Capizzi, Massimo Spina, Sara Manti, Lucia Tardino, Carmelo Salpietro, Salvatore Leonardi
AIM: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response and correlation with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and/or gluten intake in celiac patients at diagnosis. METHODS: Fifty-one patients affected by celiac disease, diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics of the University of Catania (Italy), were recruited. All patients were tested at admission for immunization against HBV, according to findings from analysis of quantitative HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs)...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Sukriti Sukriti, Nirupma Trehanpati, Manoj Kumar, Chandana Pande, Syed S Hissar, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) promote pathogen recognition, uptake and presentation of antigen through DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and toll-like receptors (TLRs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study temporal changes in DCs, TLRs and DC-SIGN during acute viral hepatitis B (AVHB) infection and compare them to chronic (CHB) and to investigate the earliest time point of activated pathogen recognition receptors in hepatitis B viral infection...
September 22, 2016: Hepatology International
Modhusudon Shaha, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly contagious and causes liver diseases. Globally more than 350 million people are chronically infected and among them above 80 % are from developing countries like Bangladesh. Resistance to existing drugs and vaccines are common phenomenon due to mutations in HBsAg 'a' determinant. Due to lack of data about mutations and subtypes of HBV in Bangladesh, this study strongly demands to be documented. Here, we determined the genotypes and subtypes of HBV prevalent in Bangladesh, and their genomic mutations associated with vaccine and drug resistance...
2016: SpringerPlus
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