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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724955/mushroom-lectin-overcomes-hepatitis-b-virus-tolerance-via-tlr6-signaling
#1
Meina He, Dan Su, Qinghong Liu, Wenjuan Gao, Youmin Kang
Currently, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health problem in the world. Recombinant HBV vaccine, as a preventive strategy against HBV infection, generates high antibody level, but it is not effective to activate innate and cellular immunity for chronic HBV infection therapy. Lectins from mushroom are natural and active proteins which have been shown important biological functions. However, little is known about the immunological mechanism engaged by mushroom lectins. Here we report that, lectin from Pleurotus ostreatus (POL) stimulated innate response by activating Toll-like receptor 6 signal pathway of dendritic cells...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724049/hepatitis-b-status-in-hemodialysis-patients
#2
Maia Nogueira Crown Guimarães, Tila Facincani, Sigrid De Sousa Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721342/hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-e-infection-among-egyptian-health-care-workers
#3
Reem Elmaghloub, Ashraf Elbahrawy, Gamal El Didamony, Ahmed Elwassief, Abdel-Gawad Saied Mohammad, Ahmed Alashker, Hendawy Zedan, Abdallah Mahmoud Abdallah, Mahmoud Haddad Hemidah, Amr Elmestikawy, Mohamed El Fayoumei, Hossam Shahba, Ahmed Gawish, Mohamed Hanafy Morsy, Alaa Hashim, Mohamed Ali Abdelbaseer, Yoshihide Ueda, Tsutomu Chiba, Hafez Abdelhafeez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of needle stick injuries and HBV infection in Egypt; this problem is further aggravated by low Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination coverage. Limited data are available on the prevalence of HBV infection in Egyptian HCWs. In this study, we aimed to assess the HBV infection rate and genotypes among Egyptian HCWs. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-four (564) HCWs were included. Of them, 258 (45.74%) were health care providers and 306 (54...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716576/tlr9-mediated-conditioning-of-liver-environment-is-essential-for-successful-intrahepatic-immunotherapy-and-effective-memory-recall
#4
Marcin Cebula, Mathias Riehn, Upneet Hillebrand, Ramona F Kratzer, Florian Kreppel, Georgia Koutsoumpli, Toos Daemen, Hansjörg Hauser, Dagmar Wirth
Immune defense against hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) poses a major challenge for therapeutic approaches. Intrahepatic cytotoxic CD8 T cells that are crucial for an immune response against these viruses often become exhausted resulting in chronic infection. We elucidated the T cell response upon therapeutic vaccination in inducible transgenic mouse models in which variable percentages of antigen-expressing hepatocytes can be adjusted, providing mosaic antigen distribution and reflecting the varying viral antigen loads observed in patients...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710874/association-between-universal-hepatitis-b-prison-vaccination-vaccine-uptake-and-hepatitis-b-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
Norah E Palmateer, David J Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Alan Yeung, Lesley A Wallace, Alan Mitchell, Samantha J Shepherd, Rory N Gunson, Celia Aitken, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Scotland, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for all prisoners was introduced in 1999; here, we examine the impact of this programme among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the community. This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705230/changes-in-hepatitis-b-virus-antibody-titers-over-time-among-children-a-single-center-study-from-2012-to-2015-in-an-urban-of-south-korea
#6
Kyeong Hun Lee, Kyu Seok Shim, In Seok Lim, Soo Ahn Chae, Sin Weon Yun, Na Mi Lee, Young Bae Choi, Dae Yong Yi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of liver disease in endemic areas such as South Korea. After HBV vaccination, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers gradually decrease. Trends in HBsAb titers have not been evaluated among children in South Korea over the past decade. METHODS: We screened 6155 patients (aged 7 months to 17 years) who underwent HBV antigen/antibody testing at Chung-Ang University Hospital from May 2012 to April 2015...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699816/enrichment-of-ly6c-hi-monocytes-by-multiple-gm-csf-injections-with-hbv-vaccine-contributes-to-viral-clearance-in-a-hbv-mouse-model
#7
Weidong Zhao, Xian Zhou, Gan Zhao, Qing Lin, Xianzheng Wang, Xueping Yu, Bin Wang
Adjuvants are considered a necessary component for HBV therapeutic vaccines but few are licensed in clinical practice due to concerns about safety or efficiency. In our recent study, we established that a combination protocol of 3-day pretreatments with GM-CSF before a vaccination (3 × GM-CSF+VACCINE) into the same injection site could break immune tolerance and cause over 90% reduction of HBsAg level in the HBsAg transgenic mouse model. Herein, we further investigated the therapeutic potential of the combination in AAV8-1...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#8
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693080/-the-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hbv-susceptibility-in-1-29-years-old-young-people-in-china-in-2006-and-2014-based-on-the-national-sero-survey-data-analysis
#9
H Zheng, F Z Wang, G M Zhang, N Miao, X J Sun, F Q Cui
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HBV susceptible people in 1-29 years old people in 2006 and 2014 in China. Method: Data is from the 2006 and 2014 national sero-survey, and both of them were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. We used the centralized face-to face investigation method to collect basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place, hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) history and so on, and 5 ml venous blood was collected for all subjects to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691231/active-immunization-for-prevention-of-de-novo-hbv-infection-after-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-hbc-graft
#10
Shih-Ho Wang, Poh-Yen Loh, Ting-Lung Lin, Li-Man Lin, Wei-Feng Lee, Yu-Hung Lin, Chih-Che Lin, Chao-Long Chen
Background De novo hepatitis B infection (DNHB) may occur in recipients who do not receive prophylaxis after liver transplantation (LT) with anti-HBc(+) donor grafts. Active immunization has been shown to prevent DNHB in pediatric recipients. Our aim is to investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccination for preventing DNHB in adult living donor LT (LDLT). Patients and Methods 71 adult HBsAg(-) LDLT patients who received anti-HBc(+) grafts from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled into this study. Patients were given HBV vaccinations with the aim of achieving anti-HBs >1000 IU/L pre-transplant and >100 IU/L post-transplant...
July 10, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688784/improving-hepatitis-b-birth-dose-coverage-through-village-health-volunteer-training-and-pregnant-women-education
#11
Xi Li, James Heffelfinger, Eric Wiesen, Sergey Diorditsa, Jayaprakash Valiakolleri, Agnes Bauro Nikuata, Ezekial Nukuro, Beia Tabwaia, Joseph Woodring
Hepatitis B is highly endemic in the Republic of Kiribati, while the coverage of timely birth dose vaccination, the primary method shown to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, was only 66% in 2014. Children born at home are especially at high risk, as they have limited access to timely birth dose (i.e. within 24 h) vaccination. To improve birth dose coverage, a project to improve linkages between village health volunteers and health workers and educate pregnant women on hepatitis B vaccination was carried out in 16 communities with low birth dose coverage in Kiribati from November 2014 to May 2015...
July 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687404/significant-reduction-in-notification-and-seroprevalence-rates-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-the-population-of-zhejiang-province-china-aged-between-1-and-29years-from-2006-to-2014
#12
Yang Zhou, Hanqing He, Xuan Deng, Rui Yan, Xuewen Tang, Shuyun Xie, Jun Yao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Chinese government integrated hepatitis B vaccination into the national immunization program in 1992, when the hepatitis B birth dose was introduced in China. Zhejiang province is a relatively developed area in eastern China and was an area with high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection via mother-to-child transmission. The hepatitis B vaccine vaccination rates for the birth dose and 3- dose schedule in Zhejiang Province since 1992 have both remained above 90% [1]...
July 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683822/hepatitis-b-virus-vaccination-status-and-associated-factors-among-health-care-workers-in-shashemene-zonal-town-shashemene-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Zewdie Aderaw, Bereket Gebremichael
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major global health problem. More than three-quarters of HBV infection occur in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring HBV, hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections via exposure to patients' blood and bodily fluids. HBV infection is a recognized occupational hazard, and non-immune health professionals are at risk of acquiring the infection from their work. This study was intended to assess the level of HBV vaccination status and factors affecting the vaccination status of health care workers in Shashemene Zonal Town...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683054/invasive-cancer-incidence-2004-2013-and-deaths-2006-2015-in-nonmetropolitan-and-metropolitan-counties-united-states
#14
S Jane Henley, Robert N Anderson, Cheryll C Thomas, Greta M Massetti, Brandy Peaker, Lisa C Richardson
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Previous reports have shown that persons living in nonmetropolitan (rural or urban) areas in the United States have higher death rates from all cancers combined than persons living in metropolitan areas. Disparities might vary by cancer type and between occurrence and death from the disease. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of cancer incidence and deaths by cancer type in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties. REPORTING PERIOD: 2004-2015...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681826/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmitted-viral-pathogens-among-health-care-workers-and-risk-mitigation-programme-in-a-paediatric-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Charu Nayyar, Rushika Saksena, Vikas Manchanda
The health-care workers (HCWs) are at an occupational risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus. HBV is currently the only blood-borne virus for which a vaccine is available. All health-care institutions must encourage the HCWs to undergo screening for blood-borne pathogens.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678904/viral-hepatitis-in-female-sex-workers-using-the-respondent-driven-sampling
#16
Marcos André de Matos, Divânia Dias da Silva França, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Raquel Silva Pinheiro, Lyriane Apolinário de Araújo, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Marcia Alves Dias de Matos, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Sheila Araújo Teles
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses...
June 26, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676420/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-hbv-infection-in-a-metropolitan-southern-italian-area-evidence-for-the-effectiveness-of-universal-hepatitis-b-vaccination
#17
Filomena Morisco, Tommaso Stroffolini, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Maria Guarino, Silvia Camera, Valentina Cossiga, Laura Donnarumma, Ilaria Loperto, Nicola Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Available data on HBV prevalence in Italy are outdated and assessed with studies conducted in small towns. We aimed to evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for HBV infection in the metropolitan area of Naples, 24 years after the introduction of mass vaccination campaign against Hepatitis B in Italy. METHODS: A random systematic sample of the adult general population of Naples was selected from the register of 3 general practitioners in 3 different socio-economic districts...
June 15, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673589/hepatitis-b-vaccine-non-response-a-predictor-of-latent-autoimmunity
#18
M D Raffaella Mormile
Unresponsiveness to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been associated with interleukins involved with Th1 functioning including Interleukin-8 (IL-18) and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). IL-18 and IFN-γ have also been implicated in the onset of different types of immune-mediate inflammatory conditions such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), Celiac disease (CD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), obesity and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Taking into account that HBV vaccination is provided in the 1st year of life worldwide, I propose that all babies should be tested for anti-HBs response after completion of the vaccine series...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669615/long-term-protection-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-people-living-with-hiv
#19
Amanda Nazareth Lara, Ana Marli Sartori, Marise Oliveira Fonseca, Marta Heloísa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine is important in people living with HIV (PLHIV) since both viruses have the same transmission routes and co-infection has greater morbidity. PLHIV usually have poor response to hepatitis B vaccine. The duration of immunity in PLHIV is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the duration of serological response and clinical protection provided by hepatitis B vaccination in PLHIV. METHODS: Retrospective study of a PLHIV cohort primarily vaccinated for hepatitis B virus (HBV) from 2001 to 2002...
June 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668571/hepatitis-b-vaccine-birth-dose-coverage-correlates-worldwide-with-rates-of-institutional-deliveries-and-skilled-attendance-at-birth
#20
Robert D Allison, Minal K Patel, Rania A Tohme
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in 90% of infants infected perinatally but is prevented when a hepatitis B vaccine is given within 24h of birth (HepB-BD), followed by 2-3 additional doses. METHODS: Using Spearman's rho correlation coefficients (rho), we analyzed global and regional data to assess correlations between HepB-BD coverage, institutional delivery rates (IDR), skilled birth attendance (SBA) rates, and other potential co-variates...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
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