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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644251/twenty-year-evolution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevalence-and-incidence-in-voluntary-blood-donors-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#1
Benjamin Seri, Albert Minga, Delphine Gabillard, Bamori Dembele, Seidou Konate, Jérôme Le Carrou, Lambert Dohoun, Yao Abo, Sophie Karcher, Patrick Coffie, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Alain Attia, Serge P Eholié, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, Xavier Anglaret, Anders Boyd
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods: Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642827/-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-pres1-pres2-and-s-gene-regions-from-patient-groups-infected-with-hbv-genotype-d
#2
Eylem Karataş, Selda Erensoy, Ulus Salih Akarca, Rüçhan Sertöz
Mutations in preS and S gene regions of hepatitis B virus genome may cause immune escape and diagnostic escape HBV mutants. The aim of this study was to determine preS1, preS2 and S gene regions of HBV from HBV infected patient groups by sequence analysis and contribute to the relevant literature. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of preS and S genes of HBV PCR products from 56 archived plasma samples sent to Ege University Faculty of Medicine Medical Microbiology Department Molecular Virology laboratory, for HBV tests were determined by chain termination reaction...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629487/quasispecies-characters-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-immunoprophylaxis-failure-infants
#3
Xin Wang, Wanyan Deng, Keli Qian, Haijun Deng, Yong Huang, Zeng Tu, Ailong Huang, Quanxin Long
Hepatitis B vaccination prevents 80-95% of transmission and reduces the incidence of HBV in children. The variations in the a determinant of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported to be the most prevalent cause for vaccine or antibody escape. There is a conflicting evidence on as to whether escape mutants arise de novo in infected infants or whether the mutants, that have preexisted maternally, subsequently undergo selective replication in the infant under immune pressure. Here, we report that nearly 65% (55 of 85) vaccination failure in child patients has no amino acid substitution in a determinant as seen by Sanger sequencing...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628202/health-status-of-afro-asian-refugees-in-an-italian-urban-area-a-cross-sectional-monocentric-study
#4
R Del Pinto, D Pietropaoli, U Russomando, P Evangelista, C Ferri
OBJECTIVES: The recent sociopolitical events in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern areas have significantly impacted international migration flows. As disease prevalence and type are different among western and Afro-Asian countries, physicians dealing with refugees should be aware of their specific health needs. We aimed at evaluating the health status and disease history of refugees at their arrival in the urban area of L'Aquila (Italy). STUDY DESIGN: This is a monocentric cross-sectional study...
April 5, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628151/safety-of-a-two-dose-investigational-hepatitis-b-vaccine-hbsag-1018-using-a-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-adjuvant-in-adults
#5
Randall Hyer, Darren K McGuire, Biao Xing, Sam Jackson, Robert Janssen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection remains an important global public health problem. Approved alum-adjuvanted vaccines are well tolerated but require three doses and have reduced immunogenicity in adults. A two-dose vaccine containing hepatitis B surface antigen combined with a novel, Toll-like receptor 9 agonist adjuvant (HBsAg-1018 [HEPLISAV-B®]) has demonstrated significantly higher seroprotection rates than a three dose vaccine. METHODS: A post hoc analysis compared the safety of HBsAg-1018 with HBsAg-Eng (Engerix-B®), in three randomized, observer-blinded, active-controlled, multi-center phase 3 trials in adults...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627530/an-enriched-environment-restores-hepatitis-b-vaccination-mediated-impairments-in-synaptic-function-through-ifn-%C3%AE-arginase1-signaling
#6
Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Saisai Hu, Yucen Xia, Dan Song, Jiechen Kong, Yang Yang, Yingying Wu, Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Dandan Hu, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
Activation of the neonatal immune system may contribute to deficits in neuronal plasticity. We have reported that neonatal vaccination with a hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) transiently impairs mood status and spatial memory involving a systemic T helper (Th) 2 bias and M1 microglial activation. Here, an EE induced microglial anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, as evidenced by selectively enhanced expression of the Arginase1 gene (Arg-1) in the hippocampus. Interestingly, knock-down of the Arg-1 gene prevented the effects of EE on restoring the dendritic spine density...
April 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624818/incidence-of-hbv-infection-in-young-chinese-blood-donors-born-after-mandatory-implementation-of-neonatal-hepatitis-b-vaccination-nationwide
#7
Xi Tang, Jean-Pierre Allain, Hao Wang, Xia Rong, Jinyan Chen, Ke Huang, Ru Xu, Min Wang, Jieting Huang, Qiao Liao, Zhengang Shan, Shengxue Luo, Tingting Li, Chengyao Li, Yongshui Fu
This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection in the young generation born after mandatory implementation of hepatitis B vaccination since 1992. Repeat blood donors born between 1992 and 1997 were enrolled, who gave blood at least twice during the past three years. Donors were tested for HBV infection markers of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and viral DNA by immunoassays (EIAs) and nucleic acid tests (NAT). A total of 14937 pre-donation screening qualified young repeat donors aged 18-23 were tested with 9 (0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620722/immunogenicity-and-reactogenicity-of-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-and-phid-cv-when-co-administered-with-menacwy-tt-in-infants-results-of-an-open-randomized-trial
#8
Jose Manuel Merino Arribas, Alfonso Carmona Martínez, Michael Horn, Xavier Maria Perez Porcuna, Maria Del Carmen Otero Reigada, Josep Marès Bermúdez, Fernando Centeno Malfaz, Mariano Miranda, Maria Mendez, Miguel Angel Garcia Cabezas, Wittermann Christoph, Gerhard Bleckmann, Thomas Fischbach, Devayani Kolhe, Marie Van der Wielen, Yaela Baine
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) and a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in infants/toddlers. METHODS: In this open, controlled, phase III study (NCT01144663), 2095 healthy infants were randomised (1:1:1:1) into 4 groups to receive MenACWY-TT at 2, 3, 4 and 12 months of age, or MenACWY-TT, MenC-CRM197 or MenC-TT at 2, 4 and 12 months of age...
March 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614608/-primary-prevention-by-hepatitis-b-vaccine-on-liver-cancer-in-high-incidence-area-of-china
#9
Y T Wang, T Y Chen, J Zhu, Y C Jiao, C F Qu
Objective: Incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC) in China is mostly related to chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Qidong was one of the endemic areas with high incidence of PLC in China before 2000. We conducted a series of studies regarding on PLC etiological prevention during the past decades to develop better primary prevention strategies for PLC. Methods: Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study was conducted in 1983-1990. A total of 41 182 newborns were randomly assigned to vaccination group and 40 211 (97...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609968/hepatitis-b-infection-control-in-colombian-amazon-after-15-years-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-effectiveness-of-birth-dose-and-current-prevalence
#10
Diego Garcia, Alexandra Porras, Alejadro Rico Mendoza, Nelson Alvis, Maria Cristina Navas, Fernando De La Hoz, Marlen De Neira, Elkin Osorio, José Fernando Valderrama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in the Colombian Amazon basin. In Colombia, the universal hepatitis B vaccination in that area has been active since 1993. The program targets children aged under five years. Newborns receive at least three doses, and in 2001, HBV vaccine birth dose was included. This study aimed to evaluate the advances on HBV control in the Colombian Amazon. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in children less than 11 years old in rural areas of the Colombian Amazon, in order to assess the current levels of HBV prevalence and evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination...
March 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606020/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-the-treatment-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#11
Matthew Kelling, Lubomir Sokol, Samir Dalia
Chronic active hepatitis B infection (HBV) has been implicated in lymphomagenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Treatment of cancer including NHL with chemotherapy or immunotherapy can lead to HBV reactivation in previously infected patients. Serological testing of HBV prior to initiation of this therapy is recommended by several national and international medical agencies and expert panels. Patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc ab) need to start antiviral therapy with entecavir or tenofovir prior to initiation of chemotherapy or immunotherapy and continue this treatment for 6 to 12 months after completion of cancer therapy to avoid late HBV reactivation...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605514/hepatitis-b-vaccination-coverage-among-adults-aged-%C3%A2-18-years-traveling-to-a-country-of-high-or-intermediate-endemicity-united-states-2015
#12
Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa C O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Noele P Nelson
BACKGROUND: Persons from the United States who travel to developing countries are at substantial risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection, including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis B endemic countries. PURPOSE: To assess hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults ≥ 18 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity from the United States...
March 28, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603431/durability-of-the-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-pediatric-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
Hilary Miller-Handley, Grant Paulsen, David Hooper, Michael Lake, Danielle Lazear, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine implementation, HBV infection has significantly decreased. However, adult renal transplant recipients show a higher rate of seroreversion compared to the general population leading to HBV infection risk. Data are limited in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Retrospective data were collected to determine the seroprotection and durability of HBV vaccination in pediatric renal transplant patients from 2004-2014. One hundred subjects were categorized based on pre- and post-transplant hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb)...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601455/successful-treatment-of-a-south-african-pediatric-case-of-acute-liver-failure-caused-by-perinatal-transmission-of-hepatitis-b
#14
Nafiisah Chotun, Silvia Strobele, Tongai Gibson Maponga, Monique Ingrid Andersson, Nel Etienne De La Ray
We report on the successful treatment of a South African infant with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced acute liver failure using lamivudine with no evidence of clinical resistance. Perinatal HBV transmission occurred despite timely HBV vaccination at 6, 10, and 14 weeks, as per South African vaccination schedule, highlighting the need to introduce the birth-dose HBV vaccine in South Africa.
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599078/global-prevalence-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-2016-a-modelling-study
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to estimate the national, regional, and global prevalence of HBsAg in the general population and in the population aged 5 years in 2016, as well as coverage of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment...
March 26, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588118/monitoring-the-efficacy-of-infant-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-revaccination-in-0-to-8-year-old-children-protective-anti-hbs-levels-and-cellular-immune-responses
#16
Xuefen Li, Yumiao Xu, Yuejiao Dong, Xianzhi Yang, Bo Ye, Yiyin Wang, Yu Chen
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of infant hepatitis B vaccination and revaccination in 0- to 8-year-old children in the context of protective anti-HBs levels and cellular immune responses. Using a random questionnaire survey, 1695 pre-school children were recruited as research subjects during January 2015 to June 2017. Blood samples were obtained to measure HBV serological markers as well as peripheral immunocytes. The children were divided into non-, low- and hyper- responsive groups (NR, LR, and HR) based on the vaccination efficacy...
March 24, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580160/significant-transcriptome-and-cytokine-changes-in-hepatitis-b-vaccine-non-responders-revealed-by-genome-wide-comparative-analysis
#17
Shaohui Qiu, Peng He, Xin Fang, Haiqing Tong, Jingjing Lv, Jiaye Liu, Li Zhang, Xiangjun Zhai, Liying Wang, Zhongyu Hu, Yongli Yu
Individuals fail to elicit protective antibody after hepatitis B vaccination remain at risk for hepatitis B virus infection. Analysis of the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is essential to elucidate the characteristics of gene expression in non-responders. In this study, we enrolled seven responders who had received three injections and seven non-responders who had six injections of hepatitis B vaccine before. All the participants were then vaccinated with a three-dose boost regimen...
March 26, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577515/impact-of-previous-hepatitis-b-infection-on-the-clinical-outcomes-from-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-population-level-analysis
#18
Huan Wang, Rachael Swann, Elizabeth Thomas, Hamish A Innes, Heather Valerio, Peter C Hayes, Sam Allen, Stephen T Barclay, David Wilks, Raymond Fox, Diptendu Bhattacharyya, Nicholas Kennedy, Judith Morris, Andrew Fraser, Adrian J Stanley, Rory Gunson, Paul G Mclntyre, Alison Hunt, Sharon J Hutchinson, Peter R Mills, John F Dillon
Chronic coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with adverse liver outcomes. The clinical impact of previous HBV infection on liver disease in HCV infection is unknown. We aimed to determine any association of previous HBV infection with liver outcomes using antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) positivity as a marker of exposure. The Scottish Hepatitis C Clinical Database containing data for all patients attending HCV clinics in participating health boards was linked to the HBV diagnostic registry and mortality data from Information Services Division, Scotland...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576813/determining-the-actual-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-in-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan-a-meta-analysis
#19
Najeeb Ullah Khan, Ali Zalan, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Iftikhar Ud Din, Fazle Haq, Yousaf Hayat
Background: Hepatitis B is considered the most dangerous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it is clinically asymptomatic. It can silently damage the liver over many years without being diagnosed. Hepatitis B is one of the top risks of liver complications in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), a province of Pakistan, with an average prevalence rate of 2.70%. Aims: We aimed to carefully review the previously published data on prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in KP-Pakistan and use the statistical approach to obtain more precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV in KP-Pakistan...
2018: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576303/neutralization-effects-of-antibody-elicited-by-chimeric-hbv-s-antigen-viral-like-particles-presenting-hcv-neutralization-epitopes
#20
Sanhua Wei, Yingfeng Lei, Jie Yang, Xiaoyan Wang, Fang Shu, Xin Wei, Fang Lin, Bin Li, Ying Cui, Hai Zhang, Sanhua Wei
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem despite effectual direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy. Development of a prophylactic vaccine is essential to block spread of HCV infection. The HBV small surface antigen (HBsAg-S) can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), has higher immunogenicity and is used as a vaccine against HBV infections. Chimeric HBsAg-S proteins with foreign epitopes allow VLP formation and induce the specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the foreign proteins...
March 22, 2018: Vaccine
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