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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428898/severe-acute-hepatitis-b-in-hbv-vaccinated-partner-of-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-with-cyclophosphamide-bortezomib-and-dexamethasone-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplant
#1
Majed M Almaghrabi, Kyle J Fortinsky, David Wong
Hepatitis B reactivation can occur with various forms of immunosuppression. Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone (CYBOR-D) chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of multiple myeloma and has not been noted in guidelines to be causative in HBV reactivation. Indeed, current guidelines do not recommend providing antiviral prophylaxis to patients with prior HBV infection. We present a case of HBV reactivation as a result of CYBOR-D and autologous stem cell transplant which is complicated by the patient's partner who developed acute hepatitis B...
2017: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#2
Pietro Lampertico, Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry L A Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426720/a-new-model-mimicking-persistent-hbv-e-antigen-negative-infection-using-covalently-closed-circular-dna-in-immunocompetent-mice
#3
Lei Wang, Min Cao, Qing Lu Wei, Zhong Hua Zhao, Qin Xiang, Hui Juan Wang, Hua Tang Zhang, Guo Qi Lai
Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA). The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419007/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immunity-following-3-dose-infant-primary-series-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents-and-immunologic-response-to-revaccination
#4
Keswadee Lapphra, Paveena Oungkananukit, Supawan Saihongthong, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Orasi Wittawatmongkol, Supattra Rungmaitree, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may alter immunologic response and the establishment of immune memory to infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. This study aimed to determine the need to revaccinate perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional serologic tests for HBV, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag), anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were performed in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418296/prevention-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-after-3-decades-of-escalating-vaccination-policy-china
#5
Fuqiang Cui, Lipin Shen, Li Li, Huaqing Wang, Fuzhen Wang, Shengli Bi, Jianhua Liu, Guomin Zhang, Feng Wang, Hui Zheng, Xiaojin Sun, Ning Miao, Zundong Yin, Zijian Feng, Xiaofeng Liang, Yu Wang
China's hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention policy has been evaluated through nationally representative serologic surveys conducted in 1992 and 2006. We report results of a 2014 serologic survey and reanalysis of the 1992 and 2006 surveys in the context of program policy. The 2014 survey used a 2-stage sample strategy in which townships were selected from 160 longstanding, nationally representative, county-level disease surveillance points, and persons 1-29 years of age were invited to participate. The 2014 sample size was 31,713; the response rate was 83...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417347/-serological-markers-of-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-monitored-in-the-pediatrics-department-at-the-university-hospital-of-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#6
S A Kissou, M Koura, A Sawadogo, A-S Ouédraogo, H Traoré, E Kamboulé, W W F Zogona, B Nacro
Viral hepatitis B and C are universal public health problems. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area for hepatitis B. Patients with sickle cell disease are at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the serological markers of viral hepatitis B and C among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which took place from July to November 2014 at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Bobo- Dioulasso. The study included 44 SS and 26 SC sickle cell patients...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412974/acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-delayed-appearance-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#7
Nicholas Brousseau, Donald G Murphy, Vladimir Gilca, Jacynthe Larouche, Sema Mandal, Richard S Tedder
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B immunization programs worldwide, outbreaks of acute infection still occur in unimmunized individuals. A timely diagnosis of hepatitis B is necessary to ensure adequate clinical care and public health interventions that will reduce transmission. Yet, interpretation of hepatitis B serological markers can be complex. We present a case of hepatitis B with atypical markers, including delayed appearance of hepatitis B core antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410814/the-effects-of-convenience-and-quality-on-the-demand-for-vaccination-results-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#8
Na Guo, Guojie Zhang, Dawei Zhu, Jian Wang, Luwen Shi
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Most studies analysed people's vaccine decisions, but few studies have analysed the effects of convenience such as immunisation schedule and distance and the quality of vaccination service on vaccination uptake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to investigate adults' preferences for convenience and quality of vaccination service, calculate the private economic benefit from convenience (vaccination schedule and distance) and quality, and predict the uptake rate for different vaccine scenarios...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407735/telbivudine-treatment-started-in-early-and-middle-pregnancy-completely-blocks-hbv-vertical-transmission
#9
Weihui Sun, Shangfei Zhao, Lei Ma, Anhua Hao, Bo Zhao, Lin Zhou, Fengzhu Li, Mingquan Song
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating HBV-positive mothers with telbivudine in early and middle pregnancy to prevent mother-to-infant HBV transmission. METHODS: The subject population comprised pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB; n = 188) from January 2013 to June 2015, with HBV DNA ≥1.0 × 10(7)copies/mL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels. Groups A (n = 62) and B (n = 61) were treated with telbivudine starting at 12 weeks or 20-28 weeks after gestation, respectively...
April 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406120/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-traders
#10
U C Okonkwo, O E Ngim, H Osim, M A Inyama, M Kooffreh-Ada E Esu, R Ndoma-Egba, E Ezedinachi
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem in Nigeria, with 13% of its general population having evidence of a previous or current infection. Lack of awareness of HBV, its risk factors, and its consequences are recognized as major deterrents to adopting positive preventive behavior including immunization among HBV high-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of HBV infection among traders...
April 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404469/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-aseer-region-south-western-saudi-arabia-a-call-for-an-immediate-action-against-a-preventable-disease
#11
S M Al Humayed, A A El-Mekki, A A Mahfouz
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed as a large-scale cross-sectional study to cast some light on the magnitude of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Aseer Region, south-western Saudi Arabia, a region reported to be of the highest endemicity. METHODS: During the WHO hepatitis day of 2013, an aggressive health education campaign was launched in all the hospitals and primary health care centres in Aseer Region. Posters were distributed to encourage the local population to visit the health facilities to be tested for HBV...
February 2, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404358/immune-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccination-among-people-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Hai-Yin Jiang, Shu-Yin Wang, Min Deng, Yu-Chuan Li, Zong-Xin Ling, Li Shao, Bing Ruan
INTRODUCTION: The response rate to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is low and varies markedly. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the response rate to HBV vaccination and identified the factors predictive of an immune response. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases, and reviewed the titles and abstracts of studies on the efficacy of HBV vaccination in IBD patients performed through July 2016...
April 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403982/significance-of-anti-hbc-alone-serological-status-in-clinical-practice
#13
REVIEW
Qixia Wang, Paul Klenerman, Nasser Semmo
Serum samples identified as positive for total anti-HBc, but negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBs, are referred to as anti-HBc alone. This serological response is compatible with acute, resolved, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection but might also signify occult HBV infection. Once the anti-HBc alone pattern is detected, false-positive reactivity should be ruled out and further analyses can resolve the clinical status of the donor. The identification of anti-HBc positivity in the absence of HBsAg in organ transplant donors and in candidate patients for chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy requires further investigation because of the risk of HBV reactivation...
February 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403761/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-women-giving-birth-in-new-south-wales
#14
Lucy Deng, Joanne Reekie, James S Ward, Andrew Hayen, John M Kaldor, Marlene Kong, Jennifer M Hunt, Bette Liu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of targeted and catch-up hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs in New South Wales on HBV prevalence among women giving birth for the first time. DESIGN: Observational study linking data from the NSW Perinatal Data Collection for women giving birth during 2000-2012 with HBV notifications in the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HBV prevalence in Indigenous Australian, non-Indigenous Australian-born, and overseas-born women giving birth...
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402024/marburg-virus-like-particles-produced-in-insect-cells-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rhesus-macaques
#15
Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Chong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Qi Wang, Hualei Wang, Gary Wong, Ying Xie, Haijun Wang, Zengguo Cao, Na Feng, Hang Chi, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Junjie Shan, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Marburg virus (MARV), which is one of the most virulent agents in the world, causes lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with a mortality rate of up to 90%. Currently, there is no effective treatment or approved vaccine for MARV for human use to control disease outbreak and spread. Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are morphologically identical to the native infectious virus particle, are efficacious as vaccines against many viruses, including human papilloma virus (HPV), porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399128/creation-of-an-immunodeficient-hla-transgenic-mouse-humamice-and-functional-validation-of-human-immunity-after-transfer-of-hla-matched-human-cells
#16
Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Thérèse Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone
Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints[1] and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381700/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-hyperlipidemia-patients
#17
Liu Yang, Tingting Li, Wenmin Li, Xi Tang, Jinfeng Li, Ruiwen Long, Yongshui Fu, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with lower prevalence of hyperlipidemia (HLP). However, occult HBV infection (OBI) in HLP patients has not yet been explored. OBI is defined as the presence of detectable HBV DNA in serum or liver tissue but undetectable HBV surface antigen in serum. In this study, 1,036 HLP patients and 1,134 replacement blood donor controls were recruited. Among them, 252 HLP patients and 255 blood donors with antibody to HBV core positive were selected and analyzed...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381257/topic-the-level-of-nurses-knowledge-on-occupational-post-exposure-to-hepatitis-b-infection-in-the-tamale-metropolis-ghana
#18
Kennedy Diema Konlan, Millicent Aarah-Bapuah, Joseph M Kombat, Gifty Mary Wuffele
BACKGROUND: Health care workers especially nurses in developing countries are at serious risk for infection from blood-borne pathogens particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) - because of the high prevalence of such pathogens in many poorer regions of the world. Employers are required to establish exposure-control plans that include post exposure follow-up for their employees and to comply with incident reporting requirements. This study assessed the level of knowledge and awareness of nurses in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana on occupational post exposure measures to hepatitis B, and their risk of being infected...
April 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378555/a-single-center-analysis-of-the-positivity-of-hepatitis-b-antibody-after-neonatal-vaccination-program-in-korea
#19
Yong Joo Kim, Peipei Li, Jong Myeon Hong, Keun Ho Ryu, Eunwoo Nam, Mi Soo Chang
The antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) seropositivity rate after 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination during infancy period is known to be higher than 90%. However, a considerable number of vaccines do not form protective anti-HBs or chronologic decrease of anti-HBs. We retrospectively collected data of HBV serologic test results in 20,738 individuals from 2000 to 2015. After exclusion criteria were applied, 19,072 individuals were included. We analyzed the anti-HBs seropositivity rate, anti-HBs disappearance rate, anti-HBs positive seroconversion rate after receiving a booster vaccine, and the difference in anti-HBs positivity between the 2 groups; group A (born before 2005, while both recombinant vaccines and plasma-derived vaccines were used) and group B (born after 2005, when only recombinant vaccines were used by national regulation)...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377449/acute-infectious-hepatitis-in-hospitalised-children-a-british-paediatric-surveillance-unit-study
#20
Serena Braccio, Adam Irwin, Andrew Riordan, Delane Shingadia, Deirdre A Kelly, Sanjay Bansal, Mary Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis remains a key public health priority globally. Most childhood cases are caused by viruses, especially hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aimed to estimate the burden of acute infectious hepatitis in hospitalised children and to describe their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Paediatricians in the UK and Ireland reported cases in children aged 1 month to 14 years diagnosed between January 2014 and January 2015 (inclusive) through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) and completed a detailed questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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