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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#1
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042915/the-innovation-of-the-subspecialty-of-paediatric-virology-an-interview-with-research-professor-of-molecular-virology-anna-kramvis
#2
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Anna Kramvis, Research Professor of Molecular Virology at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, talks about direct-acting antiviral treatments against hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as the perspective of the development of an effective vaccine against HCV. She emphasises the necessity of vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV), highlighting that it is very important that vaccination should be administered at birth in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042702/genetic-factors-of-low-responsiveness-to-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccine-confirms-the-importance-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-ii-types-in-a-japanese-young-adult-population
#3
Nobuyasu Yukimasa, Shota Kohama, Wataru Oboshi, Shoichi Sato, Takehiro Nakamura
We investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types and the immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in 84 healthy Japanese adults, and found that the HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*03 frequencies were higher in the low responders (<10 mIU/ml; n=9, 10.7%) compared to the responders (≥10 mIU/ml, n=75, 89.3%). The combination of DRB1*04 and DQB1*03 was associated with a low response to vaccination. The DRB1*04 and DQB1*03 haplotypes' frequencies were significantly higher in the low responders compared to responders...
October 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038726/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-toward-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-students-at-northern-border-university-arar-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohammed Ali Alhowaish, Jawaher Ali Alhowaish, Yasser Hamoud Alanazi, Muharib Mana Alshammari, Mushref Saeid Alshammari, Nasser Ghadeer Alshamari, Abdulaziz Sael Alshammari, Meshael Kareem Almutairi, Sultan Abdullah Algarni
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Health care workers' risk of occupational exposure to HBV is a chief concern, particularly with young students in the health profession. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge regarding symptoms, risk factors and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection among medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 01, 2016 to May 30, 2017 on medical students at the Northern Border University (Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036415/transfusion-transmissible-infections-among-walk-in-blood-donors-at-kisumu-regional-blood-transfusion-centre-kisumu-county-kenya-2015
#5
Dominic Wamamba, Dickens Onyango, Elvis Oyugi, Evalyne Kanyina, Mark Obonyo, Jane Githuku, James Ransom
Background: Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) are threats to blood safety. This study investigated TTIs among volunteer blood donors at the Kisumu Regional Blood Transfusion Centre (KRBTC) in Kenya. Methods: We performed a retrospective record review of blood donor registers at KRBTC, 2015. Walk-in donors accepted for donation were analyzed to determine prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and syphilis...
September 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036227/evolution-of-hepatitis-a-virus-seroprevalence-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-taiwan
#6
Yu-Lin Lee, Kuan-Yin Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Hung-Jen Tang, Te-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chien Lee, Shih-Ping Lin, Yu-Shan Huang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jun-Yu Zhang, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Yuan-Ti Lee, Chun-Eng Liu, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016. METHODS: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#7
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020844/nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#8
Soheil Tavakolpour, Mohammad Darvishi, Hajar Sadat Mirsafaei, Mojtaba Ghasemiadl
BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age who have developed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, especially HBeAg-positive highly viraemic pregnant women, are largely responsible for the familial transmission of the infection. Therefore, choosing the most effective and safest antiviral medications to manage pregnant CHB patients is of crucial importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through September 2017, for all the journal articles possessing original results regarding treatment of CHB pregnant women with any nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapies, including lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), and tenofovir (TDF)...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017655/-application-of-active-immunization-in-the-prevention-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-with-hbcab-positive-donor-liver
#9
Yufeng Cui, Wei Lu, Wei Gao, Chong Dong, Chao Han, Yihe Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of active immunization on prevention of post-transplantation de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients receiving liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positive donors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Eighty-seven children undergoing liver transplantation from HBcAb positive donors admitted to Tianjin First Center Hospital from October 2012 to December 2016 were enrolled, and the data of donors and recipients were collected...
October 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017456/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-mothers-and-children-with-hepatitis-b-infected-mother-in-upper-dolpa-nepal
#10
Purusotam Raj Shedain, Madhu Dixit Devkota, Megha Raj Banjara, Huang Ling, Subash Dhital
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In Nepal, the prevalence of HBV is found to be low (0.9%), although high prevalence (≥8%) of HBV infection is depicted among subgroup/population in the mountain region by various studies. This study assessed the prevalence and the risk of HBV infection among mothers, as well as among the youngest child under 5 years old living with hepatitis B positive mothers in Dolpa, the most remote mountain district of Nepal...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016603/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-amerindian-children-and-mothers-from-amazonas-state-colombia
#11
Carlos Mario Jaramillo, Fernando de La Hoz, Alexandra Porras, Diana di Filippo, Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Edra Payares, Neyla Montes, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. METHODS: Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992071/prenatal-screening-for-and-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women-and-prevention-of-transmission-to-infants-born-to-infected-mothers-guam-2014
#12
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Sarah Schillie, Melissa Collier, Bernadette Schumann, Michael Klemme, Mary Kamb
Background: Perinatal transmission is the major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and drives HBV endemicity in the US territory of Guam. We assessed correlates of prenatal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening and HBsAg positivity among pregnant women and evaluated the care of infants of HBsAg-positive women. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the maternal medical records of 966 randomly selected live infants born in 2014...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988867/hepatitis-b-vaccine-and-the-need-for-a-booster-dose-after-primary-vaccination
#13
Claudia Pileggi, Rosa Papadopoli, Aida Bianco, Maria Pavia
OBJECTIVES: Protective antibodies levels, induced by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, persist for long-term after primary immunization, but there is evidence that, as the time since vaccination increases, there is a reduced ability to maintain immune memory. The study aim was to determine the prevalence and the duration of persistence of an anti-HBs titer with ≥10mIU/mL and eventual predictors of reduced seroprotection. METHODS: The study was conducted among students attending medical and healthcare professions schools from January 2014 to June 2016...
October 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988865/impact-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccination-on-hospitalization-for-invasive-disease-in-children-fifteen-years-after-its-introduction-in-italy
#14
Domenico Martinelli, Chiara Azzari, Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Esposito, Elisabetta Franco, Giancarlo Icardi, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Rosa Prato
In Italy, Hib conjugate vaccine was introduced for infants in 1999 and included in the DTaP-HBV-IPV-Hib combination in 2001, with an uptake of 83.4% in 2002, >90% by 2005, and >95% by 2011. We estimated the impact of Hib vaccination on hospitalizations for H. influenzae invasive disease in children <5years. Age-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95%CI during 2001-2013 were calculated performing time-series analysis. The number of cases reported to the national surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases was compared to the number of hospitalizations between 2007-2013...
October 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983565/the-burden-of-primary-liver-cancer-and-underlying-etiologies-from-1990-to-2015-at-the-global-regional-and-national-level-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#15
Tomi Akinyemiju, Semaw Abera, Muktar Ahmed, Noore Alam, Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu, Christine Allen, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Yaw Amoako, Al Artaman, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Aleksandra Barac, Isabela Bensenor, Adugnaw Berhane, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas, Abdulaal Chitheer, Jee-Young Choi, Benjamin Cowie, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Subhojit Dey, Daniel Dicker, Huyen Phuc, Donatus U Ekwueme, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Florian Fischer, Thomas Fürst, Jamie Hancock, Simon I Hay, Peter Hotez, Sun Ha Jee, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Khader, Young-Ho Khang, G Anil Kumar, Michael Kutz, Heidi Larson, Alan Lopez, Raimundas Lunevicius, Reza Malekzadeh, Colm McAlinden, Toni Meier, Walter Mendoza, Ali Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Gabriele Nagel, Quyen Nguyen, Grant Nguyen, Felix Ogbo, George Patton, David M Pereira, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Gholamreza Roshandel, Joshua A Salomon, Juan Sanabria, Benn Sartorius, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Sadaf Sepanlou, Katya Shackelford, Hirbo Shore, Jiandong Sun, Desalegn Tadese Mengistu, Roman Topór-Madry, Bach Tran, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Vasiliy Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Tolassa Wakayo, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Liguo Zhu, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi, Christina Fitzmaurice
Importance: Liver cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths globally. The most common causes for liver cancer include hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol use. Objective: To report results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study on primary liver cancer incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 countries or territories from 1990 to 2015, and present global, regional, and national estimates on the burden of liver cancer attributable to HBV, HCV, alcohol, and an "other" group that encompasses residual causes...
October 5, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975543/the-accelerated-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccination-schedule-among-hemodialysis-patients-does-it-work-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Mahmoud Hamada Imam
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients possess particular attributes which increase the susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. HBV vaccination significantly decreased the number of new HBV-infected patients. However, the conventional vaccination schedule requires a 6-months duration. This study aimed to examine the efficacy the accelerated vaccination schedule among hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In this study, 202 consecutive hemodialysis patients at New Jeddah hospital were enrolled...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971707/a-review-of-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-europe-from-2000-2014-challenges-successes-and-the-contribution-of-hexavalent-combination-vaccines
#17
Shuchen Wang, Monica Tafalla, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain
The development of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine combinations culminated with hexavalent vaccines, the largest, most complex vaccine combinations in the immunization calendar. Hexavalent vaccines are used widely in Europe and are co-administered with multiple other recommended vaccines. Hib immunogenicity may reduce when combined with acellular pertussis antigens, or in some co-administrations. We reviewed the epidemiology of H. influenzae disease in Europe aiming to evaluate the current level of Hib control and indirectly assess the effectiveness against Hib of GSK's hexavalent vaccine in 10 countries where it is/has been used almost exclusively...
October 3, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971350/productive-hbv-infection-of-well-differentiated-hntcp-expressing-human-hepatoma-derived-huh7-cells
#18
Ming Zhou, Kaitao Zhao, Yongxuan Yao, Yifei Yuan, Rongjuan Pei, Yun Wang, Jizheng Chen, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Xinwen Chen, Chunchen Wu
Feasible and effective cell models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are required for investigating the complete lifecycle of this virus, including the early steps of viral entry. Resistance to dimethyl sulfoxide/polyethylene glycol (DMSO/PEG), hNTCP expression, and a differentiated state are the limiting factors for successful HBV infection models. In the present study, we used a hepatoma cell line (Huh7D(hNTCP)) to overcome these limiting factors so that it exhibits excellent susceptibility to HBV infection...
September 29, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963103/the-role-of-routine-screening-in-blood-borne-pathogens-in-chinese-patients-undergoing-joint-arthroplasty
#19
T Cheng, X-L Zhang, J-J Hu, B Li, Q Wang
OBJECTIVES: Surgeons face a substantial risk of infection because of the occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens (BBPs) from patients undergoing high-risk orthopaedic procedures. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four BBPs among patients undergoing joint arthroplasty in Shanghai, China. In addition, we evaluated the significance of pre-operative screening by calculating a cost-to-benefit ratio. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of pre-operative screening for BBPs, including hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (TP), was conducted for sequential patients in the orthopaedic department of a large urban teaching hospital between 01 January 2009 and 30 May 2016...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962610/assessment-of-the-hbv-vaccine-response-in-a-group-of-hiv-infected-children-in-morocco
#20
Houda Haban, Soumia Benchekroun, Mina Sadeq, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Said Amzazi, Hicham Oumzil, Elmir Elharti
BACKGROUND: Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country...
September 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
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