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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820730/knowledge-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-control-practices-among-dental-students-in-an-indian-city
#1
Vishal Khandelwal, Sushma Khandelwal, Neetu Gupta, Ullal Anand Nayak, Namrata Kulshreshtha, Sudhindra Baliga
Background Hepatitis B virus infection is a general cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma worldwide. It is highly contagious. It is an important reason for morbidity and mortality in the Indian population. Oral health professionals are at the highest risk. Vaccination for hepatitis B can prevent this deadly disease. Methods The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of awareness, knowledge of hepatitis B infection and status of hepatitis B vaccination among dental students...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817541/titers-of-antibodies-to-the-surface-antigen-of-hepatitis-b-virus-after-vaccination-in-relation-to-immunity-related-gene-variants-a-prospective-study-among-hemodialysis-patients
#2
Elżbieta Jodłowska-Siewert, Paweł P Jagodziński, Alicja E Grzegorzewska
INTRODUCTION    Hemodialysis (HD) patients show a weaker response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination than the healthy population. Several gene variants were reported to be associated with the levels of antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) after HBV vaccination among healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunity-related genes on the maximum anti-HBs antibody levels after vaccination among HD subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This 6-year prospective study included HD patients who were not infected with HBV and underwent HBV vaccination...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816860/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#3
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802168/impact-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-on-hbsag-kinetics-interferon-inducible-protein-10-level-and-recurrence-of-viremia
#4
Amr Shaaban Hanafy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Persistent HBs antigenemia >1000IU/ml has a possibility of viral reactivation and HCC in 8%, so we investigated the effect of HBV vaccine on HBsAg, IP-10, and recurrence of viremia. METHODS: Group I: inactive carriers(n=100). Group II: CHB exposed to nucleos(t)ides (n=120) till 1year after HBe seroconversion and HBV DNA disappearance in HBeAg positive (n=60) or3years after DNA disappearance in HBeAg negativepatients (n=60). All showed persistent HBs antigenemia...
August 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801732/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-alopecia-areata-and-viral-antigen-exposure
#5
Christopher T Richardson, Matthew S Hayden, Elaine S Gilmore, Brian Poligone
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. A bioinformatics analysis and an electronic medical record (EMR) database query were performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center to identify patients with AA, coexisting viral infections, vaccinations, or interferon (IFN) therapy in order to determine if the presence of AA and these conditions was higher than in AA patients without these associated conditions or therapy...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797275/sero-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-blood-donors-in-a-secondary-care-hospital-ghana-2014-a-retrospective-analysis
#6
Eric Osei, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Eric Agboli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection varies across different geographical populations. Establishing the sero-prevalence of the disease is important to informing the direction of preventive and control strategies. We sought to estimate the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among blood donors in Ho Municipal Hospital, Ghana. METHODS: This was a retrospective study which involved reviewing of blood donation records for the year 2014 in Ho Municipal Hospital...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795466/reduced-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positivity-among-pregnant-women-born-after-the-national-implementation-of-immunoprophylaxis-for-babies-born-to-hepatitis-b-virus-carrier-mothers-in-japan
#7
Aya Sugiyama, Masayuki Ohisa, Shintaro Nagashima, Chikako Yamamoto, Chuon Channarena, Toshiko Fujii, Tomoyuki Akita, Keiko Katayama, Yoshiki Kudo, Junko Tanaka
AIM: We aimed to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity among birth year-stratified pregnant women in Hiroshima, Japan, and compare prevalence rates among women between born before and after implementation of a national immunoprophylactic vaccination program for babies born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers in Japan. METHODS: Pregnant women who gave birth at all delivery hospitals/clinics in Hiroshima prefecture between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were eligible...
August 9, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793866/strategies-for-the-prevention-of-perinatal-hepatitis-b-transmission-in-a-marginalized-population-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#8
Angela Devine, Rebecca Harvey, Aung Myat Min, Mary Ellen T Gilder, Moo Koh Paw, Joy Kang, Isabella Watts, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, François Nosten, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Data on the cost effectiveness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and vaccination strategies for prevention of vertical transmission of HBV in resource limited settings is sparse. METHODS: A decision tree model of HBV prevention strategies utilised data from a cohort of 7071 pregnant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border using a provider perspective. All options included universal HBV vaccination for newborns in three strategies: (1) universal vaccination alone; (2) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) plus HBV immune globulin (HBIG) administration to newborns of HBV surface antigen positive women; and (3) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits plus HBIG administration to newborns of women testing HBV e antigen positive by confirmatory test...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793018/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-among-alcoholic-individuals-importance-of-screening-and-vaccination
#9
Vanessa Faria Cortes, Angela Taveira, Helena Medina Cruz, Amanda Alves Reis, Jéssica Silva Cezar, Brener Santos Silva, Cintia Feliciano D'Assunção, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
Drug users have been reported to have an increased risk for acquisition of viral hepatitis. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection and usefulness of saliva for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection in alcoholic patients.A total of 90 alcoholic patients were recruited in 2013. HBsAg and anti-HCV were tested in serum and saliva, anti-HBc and anti-HBs were tested in serum using commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA).Using serum samples, anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs prevalences were 5...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792993/prevalence-risk-factors-and-hepatitis-b-immunization-helping-fill-the-gap-on-hepatitis-b-epidemiology-among-homeless-people-goi%C3%A3-nia-central-brazil
#10
Paulie Marcelly Ribeiro Dos Santos Carvalho, Marcos André de Matos, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Raquel Silva Pinheiro, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Márcia Maria de Souza, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Sheila Araujo Teles
Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination...
August 7, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792076/high-prevalence-of-syphilis-hbv-and-hcv-co-infection-and-low-rate-of-effective-vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-west-china-hospital
#11
Tingting Yang, Qixia Chen, Dongdong Li, Tingting Wang, Yu Gou, Bin Wei, Chuanmin Tao
Background and Aims To investigate the epidemiological features and risk factors of HBV, HCV and syphilis infection among HIV-infected patients in West China Hospital. Methods A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected patients from 2014 to 2016 in West China hospital, SCU. Serum makers for HBV, HCV and syphilis were detected. Results Among 894 HIV-infected patients, the prevalence of HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV, HIV/syphilis co-infections was 14.4%, 5.7%, and 18.9% respectively. HIV/HBV/HCV, HIV/HCV/syphilis and HIV/HBV/syphilis triple co-infection was 7 (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#12
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774416/new-treatments-to-reach-functional-cure-rationale-and-challenges-for-emerging-immune-based-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Adam J Gehring
The landscape for chronic HBV therapy is rapidly evolving. The latest generation of antiviral drugs provide robust virus suppression with a high barrier to resistance that facilitates long-term treatment. However, low rates of HBsAg loss demonstrate that additional strategies are needed to consistency achieve a functional cure. The immune system can clear HBV and establish long-term control over the virus. Sufficiently boosting HBV immunity in chronic patients has been very difficult due to immune exhaustion, immune dysregulation, and inhibitory pathways suppressing the immune response...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774406/natural-history-of-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-role-of-hbv-genotypes-and-mutants
#14
REVIEW
Chih-Lin Lin, Jia-Horng Kao
Molecular epidemiologic studies reveal remarkable differences in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The frequency of mutants among HBV genotypes also varies. The role of HBV genotypes/mutants in the pathogenesis of HBV infection and natural history of HBV infection has been extensively investigated. The distribution of HBV genotypes in acute hepatitis B patients reflects the predominant genotypes in a given geographic area. In chronic hepatitis B patients, genotype C and D have a higher frequency of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutations than genotype A and B...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774405/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-and-the-role-of-vaccination
#15
REVIEW
Matthew S Chang, Mindie H Nguyen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a disproportionate impact on Asia and Africa. Current guidelines recommend screening at-risk populations for chronic HBV infection so that diagnosed individuals can be linked to appropriate hepatitis care. The vast majority of infected individuals are undiagnosed and untreated, and are at risk of developing cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In individuals who are not yet infected, the HBV vaccine is safe and highly effective at preventing disease transmission...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765875/quantum-dot-pmhc-multimers-vs-phycoerythrin-pmhc-tetramers-for-identification-of-hla-a-0201-restricted-phbv-core-antigen18-27-specific-t-cells
#16
Jianmeng Zhu, Yong Huang, Jing Su, Jian He, Yating Yu, Yongxiang Zhao, Xiaoling Lu
Detection of human leukocyte antigens-A2-restricted p-hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen‑specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is important in the study of HBV immunopathogenesis and vaccine design. Currently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide‑(p) MHCI tetramers are considered the optimal tools to detect antigen‑specific CTLs. However, the MHC‑tetramer technique also has certain drawbacks and is under continuous development. The quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates nanotechnology with its unique inorganic‑biological properties has been developing fast...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761024/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-prevalence-in-couples-attending-an-in-vitro-fertilization-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-saudi-arabia-comparison-with-ten-years-earlier
#17
Asma Albadran, Ali Hibshi, Bahjat Saeed, Coskun Sedar, Khalid Arab Awartani
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center. DESIGN: Retrospective prevalence study...
July 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753243/a-sero-epidemiological-survey-of-the-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-elementary-school-students-in-siem-reap-province-cambodia
#18
Mayumi Fujimoto, Channarena Chuon, Shintaro Nagashima, Chikako Yamamoto, Ko Ko, Sonama Svay, Sirany Hok, Olline Lim, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Keiko Katayama, Junko Matsuo, Kazuaki Takahashi, Junko Tanaka
AIM: This study aimed to survey the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among elementary school students in Siem Reap province, Cambodia and to evaluate the effects of a national infant HBV vaccination program introduced in 2001. METHODS: The 3(rd) grade students during 2011, 2012 and 2013 Academic years were enrolled in this study and they became 5(th) or 6(th) grade students in 2014-2015 Academic year at their second time examination...
July 28, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751988/hepatitis-b-vaccination-status-among-health-care-workers-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia
#19
Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Boressa Adugna Horsa
BACKGROUND: Even though health professionals (HPs) need special consideration for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, this is not widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination status of health professionals against hepatitis B virus infection, to identify barriers to vaccination and to identify factors associated with vaccination status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to 15, 2016...
2017: Hepatitis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751727/temporal-trend-of-hepatitis-b-surface-mutations-in-the-post-immunization-period-9-years-of-surveillance-2005-2013-in-eastern-china
#20
Bingyu Yan, Jingjing Lv, Yi Feng, Jiaye Liu, Feng Ji, Aiqiang Xu, Li Zhang
Limited information is available about the temporal trend in the prevalence and evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) S-gene mutations in the post-immunization era in China. From 2005 to 2013, 1077 hepatitis B cases under 15 years of age reported through Chinese National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS) were successfully sequenced of S-gene in Shandong province, China. A total of 97 (9.01%) cases had amino acid (aa) substitution in the "α" determinant of HBsAg. The yearly prevalence from 2005 to 2013 maintained at a relatively stable level, and showed no significant change (P > 0...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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