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endotoxin tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204141/flos-lonicera-combined-with-metformin-ameliorates-hepatosteatosis-and-glucose-intolerance-in-association-with-gut-microbiota-modulation
#1
Na R Shin, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, AbuZar Ansari, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Young-Won Chin, Han-Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
The gut microbiota is important in energy contribution, metabolism and immune modulation, and compositional disruption of the gut microbiota population is closely associated with chronic metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin (MET) and Flos Lonicera (FL) are common treatments for metabolic diseases in Western and Oriental medicinal fields. We evaluated the effect of treatment with FL and MET in combination on hepatosteatosis, glucose tolerance, and gut microbial composition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166392/intestinal-ralstonia-pickettii-augments-glucose-intolerance-in-obesity
#2
Shanthadevi D Udayappan, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Guido J Bakker, Stefan R Havik, Hilde Herrema, Patrice D Cani, Kristien E Bouter, Clara Belzer, Julia J Witjes, Anne Vrieze, Noor de Sonnaville, Alice Chaplin, Daniel H van Raalte, Steven Aalvink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Hans G H J Heilig, Göran Bergström, Suzan van der Meij, Bart A van Wagensveld, Joost B L Hoekstra, Frits Holleman, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154959/early-life-innate-immune-signatures-of-persistent-food-allergy
#3
Melanie R Neeland, Jennifer J Koplin, Thanh D Dang, Shyamali C Dharmage, Mimi L Tang, Susan L Prescott, Richard Saffery, David J Martino, Katrina J Allen
BACKGROUND: Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food allergic children without intervention, however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at one year of age, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141867/host-resistance-to-endotoxic-shock-requires-the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells
#4
Linda Quatrini, Elisabeth Wieduwild, Sophie Guia, Claire Bernat, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Eric Vivier, Sophie Ugolini
Upon infection, the immune system produces inflammatory mediators important for pathogen clearance. However, inflammation can also have deleterious effect on the host and is tightly regulated. Immune system-derived cytokines stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, triggering endogenous glucocorticoid production. Through interaction with ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), this steroid hormone has pleiotropic effects on many cell types. Using a genetic mouse model in which the gene encoding the GR is selectively deleted in NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), we demonstrated a major role for the HPA pathway in host resistance to endotoxin-induced septic shock...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127996/highlights-in-immune-response-microbiome-and-precision-medicine-in-allergic-disease-and-asthma
#5
EDITORIAL
Milena Sokolowska, Cezmi A Akdis
Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056305/exotoxins-and-endotoxins-inducers-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Endotoxins and exotoxins are among the most potent bacterial inducers of cytokines. During infectious processes, the production of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFNγ) and chemokines orchestrates the anti-infectious innate immune response. However, an overzealous production, leading up to a cytokine storm, can be deleterious and contributes to mortality consecutive to sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are particularly inflammatory because they generate auto-amplificatory loops after activation of monocytes/macrophages...
October 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029265/preclinical-testing-of-a-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-endotracheal-tube-coated-with-an-innate-immune-synthetic-mimic
#7
Marjan M Hashemi, John Rovig, Jordan Bateman, Brett S Holden, Tomasz Modelzelewski, Iliana Gueorguieva, Martin von Dyck, Ronald Bracken, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Background: Endotracheal tubes provide an abiotic surface on which bacteria and fungi form biofilms, and the release of endotoxins and planktonic organisms can cause damaging inflammation and infections. Objectives: Ceragenins are small molecule mimics of antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity, and a ceragenin may be used to provide antimicrobial protection to the abiotic surface of an endotracheal tube. Methods: A hydrogel film, containing CSA-131, was generated on endotracheal tubes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978688/rab27-dependent-exosome-production-inhibits-chronic-inflammation-and-enables-acute-responses-to-inflammatory-stimuli
#8
Margaret Alexander, Andrew G Ramstead, Kaylyn M Bauer, Soh-Hyun Lee, Marah C Runtsch, Jared Wallace, Thomas B Huffaker, Dane K Larsen, Tanya Tolmachova, Miguel C Seabra, June L Round, Diane M Ward, Ryan M O'Connell
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, have recently been implicated as novel mediators of immune cell communication in mammals. However, roles for endogenously produced exosomes in regulating immune cell functions in vivo are just beginning to be identified. In this article, we demonstrate that Rab27a and Rab27b double-knockout (Rab27DKO) mice that are deficient in exosome secretion have a chronic, low-grade inflammatory phenotype characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines and myeloproliferation...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973671/pd-l1-overexpression-during-endotoxin-tolerance-impairs-the-adaptive-immune-response-in-septic-patients-via-hif1%C3%AE
#9
José Avendaño-Ortiz, Charbel Maroun-Eid, Alejandro Martín-Quirós, Víctor Toledano, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, Paloma Gómez-Campelo, Aníbal Varela-Serrano, Jose Casas-Martin, Emilio Llanos-González, Enrique Alvarez, Francisco García-Río, Luis A Aguirre, Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Eduardo López-Collazo
Sepsis, among other pathologies, is an endotoxin tolerance (ET)-related disease. On admission, we classified 48 patients with sepsis into 3 subgroups according to the ex vivo response to lipopolysaccharide. This response correlates with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and the ET degree. Moreover, the ET-related classification determines the outcome of these patients. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on septic monocytes is also linked with ET status. In addition to the regulation of cytokine production, one of the hallmarks of ET that significantly affects patients with sepsis is T-cell proliferation impairment or a poor switch to the adaptive response...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#10
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914596/obesity-and-periodontitis-an-experimental-study-to-evaluate-the-periodontal-and-systemic-effects-of-the-co-morbidity
#11
Leire Virto, Pilar Cano, Vanesa Jiménez-Ortega, Pilar Fernández-Mateos, Jerián González, Ana Isabel Esquifino, Mariano Sanz
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight have been associated with periodontitis. This study aims to evaluate the periodontal and systemic effects of this association in a validated experimental model. METHODS: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: control group (Con) (fed with standard diet); high-fat diet group (HFD) (fed with a diet containing 35.2% fat); control group with induced periodontitis (Con-Perio) and HFD group with induced periodontitis (HFD-Perio)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910312/i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-decreases-mirna-155-expression-and-attenuates-the-human-monocyte-inflammatory-response
#12
Norman James Galbraith, James Burton, Mathew Brady Ekman, Joseph Kenney, Samuel Patterson Walker, Stephen Manek, Campbell Bishop, Jane Victoria Carter, Sarah Appel Gardner, Hiram C Polk
Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK), on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804981/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-rats-the-role-of-immune-cells
#13
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Toru Fukushima, Ataru Taniguchi, Yoshihito Fujita, Kinsuke Tsuda, Nobuya Inagaki, Masaya Hosokawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Bacterial septicemia has diverse clinical symptoms including severe hypoglycemia. However, sepsis-induced hypoglycemia has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemia in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced endotoxin shock in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, we measured gluconeogenesis using the pyruvate tolerance test (PTT)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804726/low-dose-of-lipopolysaccharide-pretreatment-preventing-subsequent-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-is-associated-with-pi3k-akt-pathway
#14
Nan Zhang, Shuo Yu, Xinli Liu, Hong Lu
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of LPS pretreatment on endotoxin-induced uveitis and PI3K/AKT pathway. METHODS: Endotoxin-induced uveitis was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg LPS. For the endotoxin tolerance group, induction of EIU was preceded by daily subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg LPS for five days. Clinical scores were graded at 24 h after EIU under a slit lamp microscope. HE stain was performed to observe the histopathology. Aqueous humor TNF-α concentration was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776644/glucocorticoids-downregulate-tlr4-signaling-activity-via-its-direct-targeting-by-mir-511-5p
#15
Graziella Curtale, Tiziana A Renzi, Lorenzo Drufuca, Marcello Rubino, Massimo Locati
Endotoxin tolerance assures proper regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway and avoids uncontrolled inflammation, limiting tissue damage and endotoxin shock development. Though underlying molecular mechanisms are still undefined, evidence indicates the involvement of microRNAs, which represent a new layer of regulation of inflammatory pathways. Here we report that LPS and other inflammatory stimuli repress miR-511-5p expression in human monocytes, while anti-inflammatory stimuli, such as TGFβ and glucocorticoids, have the opposite effect...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771573/human-leucocyte-antigen-hla-dr-gene-expression-is-reduced-in-sepsis-and-correlates-with-impaired-tnf%C3%AE-response-a-diagnostic-tool-for-immunosuppression
#16
Martin Sebastian Winkler, Anne Rissiek, Marion Priefler, Edzard Schwedhelm, Linda Robbe, Antonia Bauer, Corinne Zahrte, Christian Zoellner, Stefan Kluge, Axel Nierhaus
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is defined as a dysregulated immune response to infection. Impaired immune response in sepsis, often described as endotoxin tolerance, is characterized by unresponsiveness of monocytes on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation to release tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Furthermore, decreased monocyte surface protein expression of human leucocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) is a marker for changes of the innate immune response during sepsis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and flow-cytometry (FACS) have been used to measure protein or gene expression of HLA-DR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755952/are-humans-prone-to-autoimmunity-implications-from-evolutionary-changes-in-hominin-sialic-acid-biology
#17
REVIEW
Ajit Varki
Given varied intrinsic and extrinsic challenges to the immune system, it is unsurprising that each evolutionary lineage evolves distinctive features of immunoreactivity, and that tolerance mechanisms fail, allowing autoimmunity. Humans appear prone to many autoimmune diseases, with mechanisms both genetic and environmental. Another rapidly evolving biological system involves sialic acids, a family of monosaccharides that are terminal caps on cell surface and secreted molecules of vertebrates, and play multifarious roles in immunity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740170/a-galnac-gal-specific-lectin-from-the-sea-mussel-crenomytilus-grayanus-modulates-immune-response-in-macrophages-and-in-mice
#18
Oleg V Chernikov, Wei-Ting Wong, Lan-Hui Li, Irina V Chikalovets, Valentina I Molchanova, Shih-Hsiung Wu, Jiahn-Haur Liao, Kuo-Feng Hua
A GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin (CGL) from the edible mussel Crenomytilus grayanus has been demonstrated to exhibit antibacterial properties. However, the mechanism of immune modulation by CGL in mammalian cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that CGL can activate immune responses in macrophages and in mice. In the in vitro cell models, CGL induced tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 secretion in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, human THP-1 macrophages, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human blood monocyte-derived macrophages...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739595/retraction-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-1%C3%AE-accumulation-and-hif-target-gene-expression-are-impaired-after-induction-of-endotoxin-tolerance
#19
Stilla Frede, Christian Stockmann, Sandra Winning, Patricia Freitag, Joachim Fandrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714978/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-orchestrates-macrophage-activation-through-metabolic-and-epigenetic-reprogramming
#20
Pu-Ste Liu, Haiping Wang, Xiaoyun Li, Tung Chao, Tony Teav, Stefan Christen, Giusy Di Conza, Wan-Chen Cheng, Chih-Hung Chou, Magdalena Vavakova, Charlotte Muret, Koen Debackere, Massimiliano Mazzone, Hsien-Da Huang, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Julijana Ivanisevic, Ping-Chih Ho
Glutamine metabolism provides synergistic support for macrophage activation and elicitation of desirable immune responses; however, the underlying mechanisms regulated by glutamine metabolism to orchestrate macrophage activation remain unclear. Here we show that the production of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) via glutaminolysis is important for alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, including engagement of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and Jmjd3-dependent epigenetic reprogramming of M2 genes. This M2-promoting mechanism is further modulated by a high αKG/succinate ratio, whereas a low ratio strengthens the proinflammatory phenotype in classically activated (M1) macrophages...
September 2017: Nature Immunology
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