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endotoxin tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924419/induction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-under-endotoxin-tolerance-increases-inflammatory-responses-and-decreases-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#1
Sena Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Se-Ung Park, Sun Oh Jeong, Jin-Kyung Kim, Seong Hoon Park, Hyun-Ock Pae, Young-Joon Surh, Jaekyoon Shin, Hun Taeg Chung
Endotoxin tolerance develops in the late phase of sepsis to protect cells from an early hyperinflammatory response. Nonetheless, because it induces an immunosuppressive environment, patients with sepsis in its late phase are affected by secondary infections, particularly bacterial pneumonia. Here, we showed that induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1) in an inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-mediated manner, which in turn restores the inflammatory response in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899272/high-glucose-or-fructose-diet-cause-changes-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-without-body-weight-change
#2
Moon Ho Do, Eunjung Lee, Mi-Jin Oh, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park
High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD) or high-fructose (HFrD) diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867935/toll-like-receptors-drive-specific-patterns-of-tolerance-and-training-on-restimulation-of-macrophages
#3
Suzanne K Butcher, Christine E O'Carroll, Christine A Wells, Ruaidhrí J Carmody
Tolerance is a long-recognized property of macrophages that leads to an altered response to repeated or chronic exposure to endotoxin. The physiological role of tolerance is to limit the potential damage to host tissue that may otherwise result from prolonged production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tolerance is induced by all toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands tested to date, however, tolerance induced by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is by far the best studied. LPS tolerance involves a global transcriptional shift from a pro-inflammatory response toward one characterized by the expression of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution factors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805490/inhibition-of-microrna-155-modulates-endotoxin-tolerance-by-upregulating-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-in-microglia
#4
Xiaolei Sun, Jie Sun, Xiaoyi Shao, Jinrong Feng, Junming Yan, Yongwei Qin
Endotoxin tolerance is an immunohomeostatic reaction to reiterant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure that maintains a state of altered responsiveness in immune cells, resulting in the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory response and the resolution of inflammation. Microglia constitutes the first line of defense against endogenous and external challenges in the brain. MicroRNAs (miRs) serve a critical function in the regulation of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether miR-155 regulates endotoxin tolerance...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800666/a-novel-vip3aa16-cry1ac-chimera-toxin-enhancement-of-toxicity-against-ephestia-kuehniella-structural-study-and-molecular-docking
#5
Sameh Sellami, Sonia Jemli, Nouha Abdelmalek, Marwa Cherif, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi, Kais Jamoussi
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A protein has been widely used for crop protection and for delay resistance to existing insecticidal Cry toxins. During current study, a fusion between vip3Aa16 and the toxic core sequence of cry1Ac was constructed in pHT Blue plasmid. Vip3Aa16-Cry1Ac protein was expressed in the supernatant of B. thuringiensis with a size of about 150 kDa. Bioassays tested on Ephestia kuehniella showed that the use of the chimera toxin as biopesticide improved the toxicity to reach 90% ± 2 with an enhancement of 20% compared to the single Vip3Aa16 protein...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#6
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717111/low-doses-of-lps-exacerbate-the-inflammatory-response-and-trigger-death-on-tlr3-primed-human-monocytes
#7
Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Marcella Franquesa, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Francesc E Borràs
TLR sensing of pathogens triggers monocyte activation to initiate the host innate immune response to infection. Monocytes can dynamically adapt to different TLR agonists inducing different patterns of inflammatory response, and the sequence of exposure to TLRs can dramatically modulate cell activation. Understanding the interactions between TLR signalling that lead to synergy, priming and tolerance to TLR agonists may help explain how prior infections and inflammatory conditioning can regulate the innate immune response to subsequent infections...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658572/pkr-inhibition-mediates-endotoxin-tolerance-in-macrophages-through-inactivation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#8
Hailin Xu, Juan Chen, Xiang Si, Minying Chen, Fei Pei, Chunfang Qiu, Jianfeng Wu, Xiangdong Guan
Following long‑term exposure to endotoxins, macrophages enter an immunosuppressive state that renders them unable respond to subsequent exposures to endotoxin, a phenomenon that is termed 'endotoxin tolerance'. Endotoxin tolerance increases the risks of secondary infection and mortality in patients with sepsis. In endotoxin‑tolerant macrophages, the mixed variation of gene transcription is referred to as macrophage reprogramming. The mechanisms underlying macrophage reprogramming remain unclear at present...
June 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649324/a-low-dose-lipid-infusion-is-sufficient-to-induce-insulin-resistance-and-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-subjects
#9
Hanyu Liang, Helen Lum, Andrea Alvarez, Jose de Jesus Garduno-Garcia, Benjamin J Daniel, Nicolas Musi
OBJECTIVE: The root cause behind the low-grade inflammatory state seen in insulin resistant (obesity and type 2 diabetes) states is unclear. Insulin resistant subjects have elevations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are ligands for the pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR)4 pathway. We tested the hypothesis that an experimental elevation in plasma FFA (within physiological levels) in lean individuals would upregulate TLR4 and activate downstream pathways (e.g., MAPK) in circulating monocytes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627620/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-lubiprostone-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adult-patients-with-constipation-the-lubiprone-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-design
#10
Takaomi Kessoku, Kento Imajo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yasushi Honda, Takayuki Kato, Yuji Ogawa, Wataru Tomeno, Shingo Kato, Takuma Higurashi, Masato Yoneda, Hiroyuki Kirikoshi, Kazumi Kubota, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the protocol of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lubiprostone (LUB) vs. placebo on suppressing gut permeability in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with constipation. NAFLD, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a common chronic liver disorder. Progression is associated with increased gut permeability and gut-derived endotoxins. Most NAFLD/NASH clinical trial drugs aim to improve liver function or systemic metabolism...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626604/transgenerational-effects-of-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-spleen-immunity-of-broilers
#11
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Zhenchen Yin, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Xiaojun Yang
Our previous study indicated that paternal dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could induce endotoxin tolerance-like response in jejunum of offspring chickens. There exist positive interaction between intestinal mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. So we studied the transgenerational effect and nutri-epigenetic role of paternal dietary APS on spleen immunity. 64 one-day-old Avein breeder cocks were used in a single-factor design with 0 and 10g/kg APS, respectively, 4 replicated cages each group, and 8 birds each cage...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619418/the-role-of-intestinal-c-type-regenerating-islet-derived-3-lectins-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Sena Bluemel, Lirui Wang, Cameron Martino, Suhan Lee, Yanhan Wang, Brandon Williams, Angela Horvath, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Karsten Zengler, Bernd Schnabl
C-type regenerating islet derived-3 (Reg3) lectins defend against pathogens and keep commensal bacteria at a distance. Deficiency of Reg3g and Reg3b facilitates alcohol-induced bacterial translocation and alcoholic liver disease. Intestinal Reg3g is down-regulated in animal models of diet-induced obesity, but the functional consequences for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Reg3 lectins in NASH. NASH was induced by a Western-style fast-food diet in mice deficient for Reg3g or Reg3b and in transgenic mice overexpressing Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells ( Reg3g Tg)...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593712/mitochondrial-sirtuin-4-resolves-immune-tolerance-in-monocytes-by-rebalancing-glycolysis-and-glucose-oxidation-homeostasis
#13
Jie Tao, Jingpu Zhang, Yun Ling, Charles E McCall, Tie Fu Liu
The goal of this investigation was to define the molecular mechanism underlying physiologic conversion of immune tolerance to resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is unknown. An example of this knowledge gap and its clinical importance is the broad-based energy deficit and immunometabolic paralysis in blood monocytes from non-survivors of human and mouse sepsis that precludes sepsis resolution. This immunometabolic dysregulation is biomarked by ex vivo endotoxin tolerance to increased glycolysis and TNF-α expression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582430/human-periodontal-ligament-cells-exhibit-no-endotoxin-tolerance-upon-stimulation-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide
#14
A Blufstein, C Behm, P Q Nguyen, X Rausch-Fan, O Andrukhov
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endotoxin tolerance is characterized by a state of hyporesponsiveness after confrontation with endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at low concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether pretreatment with Porphyromonas gingivalis leads to endotoxin tolerance induction and possible alterations in toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and 4-induced response in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary hPDLCs were pretreated with P...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563175/ifn-regulatory-factor-2-inhibits-expression-of-glycolytic-genes-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-proinflammatory-responses-in-macrophages
#15
Huachun Cui, Sami Banerjee, Sijia Guo, Na Xie, Gang Liu
Rapid initiation and timely resolution of inflammatory response in macrophages are synergistic events that are known to be equally critical to optimal host defense against pathogen infections. However, the regulation of these processes, in particular by a specific cellular metabolic program, has not been well understood. In this study, we found that IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) underwent an early degradation in a proteasome-mediated pathway in LPS-treated mouse macrophages, followed by a later recovery of the expression via transactivation...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545322/the-role-of-heat-tolerant-endotoxin-retentive-ultrafilters-ufs-for-the-remediation-of-reverse-osmosis-ro-plants-employed-for-surgical-hand-antisepsis-using-periodic-thermal-disinfection-a-ten-year-longitudinal-experience-study-in-the-operating-theater
#16
Yushi Uetera, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Naohito Kumada, Yoshiki Misawa, Yoshiyuki Terada, Yoshio Satou, Tamaki Suhara, Kunio Kawamura
Recently, the use of filters has come into light for sanitizing water plants. This study investigated the role of heat-tolerant ultrafilters (UFs) for the remediation of reverse osmosis (RO) plants using periodic thermal disinfection. Two completely identical RO plants (RO plants A & B) were installed in 2006 for surgical hand antisepsis in the operating theater. RO water was stored in the 300-liter storage tank and re-circulated in the 190 meter-long loop delivering water to 12 faucets in each RO plant...
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510400/adam17-mediated-ectodomain-shedding-of-toll-like-receptor-4-as-a-negative-feedback-regulation-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-aortic-endothelial-cells
#17
Won Seok Yang, Jin Ju Kim, Mee Jeong Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Su-Kil Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes/macrophages develop endotoxin tolerance in part by reducing cell surface toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) through cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)-dependent endocytosis. In case of endothelial cells, CD14 is expressed in low copy numbers as compared with monocytes/macrophages. Thus, we explored how endothelial cells regulate TLR4 expression after LPS stimulation. METHODS: Cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with LPS...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441948/regulation-and-mechanism-of-mir-146-on-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Yuyu Huang, Hongwu Wang, Yanhui Wang, Xiaohui Peng, Jing Li, Wenlong Gu, Ting He, Minjun Chen
AIM: MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous substances that act as important diagnostic and treatment targets in renal diseases. miR-146 plays an important role in the development of endotoxin tolerance through NF-κB pathway, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular regulation and function of miR-146 and also the expression of miR-146 in an experimental model of renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: IRI was induced in mouse by bilateral IRI for 45 min followed by reperfusion...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431864/negative-regulators-that-mediate-ocular-immune-privilege
#19
REVIEW
Andrew W Taylor, Tat Fong Ng
The ocular microenvironment has adapted several negative regulators of inflammation to maintain immune privilege and health of the visual axis. Several constitutively produced negative regulators within the eye TGF-β2, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), Fas ligand (FasL), and PD-L1 standout because of their capacity to influence multiple pathways of inflammation, and that they are part of promoting immune tolerance. These regulators demonstrate the capacity of immune privilege to prevent the activation of inflammation, and to suppress activation of effector immune cells even under conditions of ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin and autoimmune disease...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390039/serum-amyloid-a3-is-required-for-normal-weight-and-immunometabolic-function-in-mice
#20
Jennifer L Ather, Matthew E Poynter
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an apolipoprotein that is robustly upregulated in numerous inflammatory diseases and has been implicated as a candidate pro-inflammatory mediator. However, studies comparing endogenous SAAs and recombinant forms of the acute phase protein have generated conflicting data on the function of SAA in immunity. We generated SAA3 knockout mice to evaluate the contribution of SAA3 to immune-mediated disease, and found that mice lacking SAA3 develop adult-onset obesity and metabolic dysfunction along with defects in innate immune development...
2018: PloS One
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