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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441948/regulation-and-mechanism-of-mir-146-on-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Yuyu Huang, Hongwu Wang, Yanhui Wang, Xiaohui Peng, Jing Li, Wenlong Gu, Ting He, Minjun Chen
AIM: MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous substances that act as important diagnostic and treatment targets in renal diseases. miR-146 plays an important role in the development of endotoxin tolerance through NF-κB pathway, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular regulation and function of miR-146 and also the expression of miR-146 in an experimental model of renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: IRI was induced in mouse by bilateral IRI for 45 min followed by reperfusion...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431864/negative-regulators-that-mediate-ocular-immune-privilege
#2
REVIEW
Andrew W Taylor, Tat Fong Ng
The ocular microenvironment has adapted several negative regulators of inflammation to maintain immune privilege and health of the visual axis. Several constitutively produced negative regulators within the eye TGF-β2, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), Fas ligand (FasL), and PD-L1 standout because of their capacity to influence multiple pathways of inflammation, and that they are part of promoting immune tolerance. These regulators demonstrate the capacity of immune privilege to prevent the activation of inflammation, and to suppress activation of effector immune cells even under conditions of ocular inflammation induced by endotoxin and autoimmune disease...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390039/serum-amyloid-a3-is-required-for-normal-weight-and-immunometabolic-function-in-mice
#3
Jennifer L Ather, Matthew E Poynter
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an apolipoprotein that is robustly upregulated in numerous inflammatory diseases and has been implicated as a candidate pro-inflammatory mediator. However, studies comparing endogenous SAAs and recombinant forms of the acute phase protein have generated conflicting data on the function of SAA in immunity. We generated SAA3 knockout mice to evaluate the contribution of SAA3 to immune-mediated disease, and found that mice lacking SAA3 develop adult-onset obesity and metabolic dysfunction along with defects in innate immune development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355626/transgenerational-endotoxin-tolerance-like-effect-caused-by-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-in-broilers-jejunum
#4
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Yulan Duan, Xin Yang, Xiaojun Yang
To learn the nutri-epigenetics role of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), we designed and studied the transgenerational effect of paternal dietary APS supplementation in chickens. 160 Avein breeder cocks were randomly allocated into 5 groups and fed with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg APS supplement, respectively. Sperm of breeder cocks was collected and used for hatching experiment to get broiler chickens when the cocks at 40-weeks-old. It showed that the paternal dietary 10 g/kg APS could transgenerational promote growth performance and jejunal tissue morphology of chickens...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343645/crystal-structure-of-the-mammalian-lipopolysaccharide-detoxifier
#5
Alexei Gorelik, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
LPS is a potent bacterial endotoxin that triggers the innate immune system. Proper recognition of LPS by pattern-recognition receptors requires a full complement of typically six acyl chains in the lipid portion. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) is a host enzyme that removes secondary (acyloxyacyl-linked) fatty acids from LPS, rendering it immunologically inert. This activity is critical for recovery from immune tolerance that follows Gram-negative infection. To understand the molecular mechanism of AOAH function, we determined its crystal structure and its complex with LPS...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328416/endotoxin-tolerance-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-preconditioning-protects-against-surgery%C3%A2-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aging-mice
#6
Zhijie Zhang, Muhuo Ji, Yanlin Liao, Jianjun Yang, Jun Gao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by varying degrees of cognitive functional decline in patients following major surgery. Inflammation and a dysregulated innate immune system exert broad effects in the periphery and central nervous system, yet the mechanisms underlying POCD remain poorly understood and without effective therapy. It has been reported that modulation of the dysregulated inflammatory response with low‑dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a phenomenon additionally referred to as endotoxin tolerance, has the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, blood‑brain barrier disruption, and cognitive impairment in a number of disease states...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251774/altered-toll-like-receptor-responsiveness-underlies-a-dominant-heritable-defect-in-b%C3%A2-cell-tolerance-in-autoimmune-new-zealand-black-mice
#7
Amy G Clark, Elizabeth S Buckley, Mary H Foster
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a debilitating autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells destroy kidneys and other organs. Disease is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, suggesting that underlying mechanisms vary between patients. We previously used an autoantibody transgenic mouse reporter system to examine the effect of different autoimmune backgrounds on B-cell tolerance, failure of which is a fundamental defect in lupus. We identified a defect consistent with reversible anergy induced by endotoxin stimulation of B cells from Ig transgenic New Zealand Black (NZB) mice...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204141/-flos-lonicera-combined-with-metformin-ameliorates-hepatosteatosis-and-glucose-intolerance-in-association-with-gut-microbiota-modulation
#8
Na R Shin, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, AbuZar Ansari, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Young-Won Chin, Han-Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
The gut microbiota is important in energy contribution, metabolism and immune modulation, and compositional disruption of the gut microbiota population is closely associated with chronic metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin (MET) and Flos Lonicera (FL) are common treatments for metabolic diseases in Western and Oriental medicinal fields. We evaluated the effect of treatment with FL and MET in combination on hepatosteatosis, glucose tolerance, and gut microbial composition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166392/intestinal-ralstonia-pickettii-augments-glucose-intolerance-in-obesity
#9
Shanthadevi D Udayappan, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Guido J Bakker, Stefan R Havik, Hilde Herrema, Patrice D Cani, Kristien E Bouter, Clara Belzer, Julia J Witjes, Anne Vrieze, Noor de Sonnaville, Alice Chaplin, Daniel H van Raalte, Steven Aalvink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Hans G H J Heilig, Göran Bergström, Suzan van der Meij, Bart A van Wagensveld, Joost B L Hoekstra, Frits Holleman, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154959/early-life-innate-immune-signatures-of-persistent-food-allergy
#10
Melanie R Neeland, Jennifer J Koplin, Thanh D Dang, Shyamali C Dharmage, Mimi L Tang, Susan L Prescott, Richard Saffery, David J Martino, Katrina J Allen
BACKGROUND: Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food allergic children without intervention, however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at one year of age, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141867/host-resistance-to-endotoxic-shock-requires-the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells
#11
Linda Quatrini, Elisabeth Wieduwild, Sophie Guia, Claire Bernat, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Eric Vivier, Sophie Ugolini
Upon infection, the immune system produces inflammatory mediators important for pathogen clearance. However, inflammation can also have deleterious effect on the host and is tightly regulated. Immune system-derived cytokines stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, triggering endogenous glucocorticoid production. Through interaction with ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), this steroid hormone has pleiotropic effects on many cell types. Using a genetic mouse model in which the gene encoding the GR is selectively deleted in NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), we demonstrated a major role for the HPA pathway in host resistance to endotoxin-induced septic shock...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127996/highlights-in-immune-response-microbiome-and-precision-medicine-in-allergic-disease-and-asthma
#12
EDITORIAL
Milena Sokolowska, Cezmi A Akdis
Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056305/exotoxins-and-endotoxins-inducers-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Endotoxins and exotoxins are among the most potent bacterial inducers of cytokines. During infectious processes, the production of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFNγ) and chemokines orchestrates the anti-infectious innate immune response. However, an overzealous production, leading up to a cytokine storm, can be deleterious and contributes to mortality consecutive to sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are particularly inflammatory because they generate auto-amplificatory loops after activation of monocytes/macrophages...
October 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029265/preclinical-testing-of-a-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-endotracheal-tube-coated-with-an-innate-immune-synthetic-mimic
#14
Marjan M Hashemi, John Rovig, Jordan Bateman, Brett S Holden, Tomasz Modelzelewski, Iliana Gueorguieva, Martin von Dyck, Ronald Bracken, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Background: Endotracheal tubes provide an abiotic surface on which bacteria and fungi form biofilms, and the release of endotoxins and planktonic organisms can cause damaging inflammation and infections. Objectives: Ceragenins are small molecule mimics of antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity, and a ceragenin may be used to provide antimicrobial protection to the abiotic surface of an endotracheal tube. Methods: A hydrogel film, containing CSA-131, was generated on endotracheal tubes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978688/rab27-dependent-exosome-production-inhibits-chronic-inflammation-and-enables-acute-responses-to-inflammatory-stimuli
#15
Margaret Alexander, Andrew G Ramstead, Kaylyn M Bauer, Soh-Hyun Lee, Marah C Runtsch, Jared Wallace, Thomas B Huffaker, Dane K Larsen, Tanya Tolmachova, Miguel C Seabra, June L Round, Diane M Ward, Ryan M O'Connell
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, have recently been implicated as novel mediators of immune cell communication in mammals. However, roles for endogenously produced exosomes in regulating immune cell functions in vivo are just beginning to be identified. In this article, we demonstrate that Rab27a and Rab27b double-knockout (Rab27DKO) mice that are deficient in exosome secretion have a chronic, low-grade inflammatory phenotype characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines and myeloproliferation...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973671/pd-l1-overexpression-during-endotoxin-tolerance-impairs-the-adaptive-immune-response-in-septic-patients-via-hif1%C3%AE
#16
José Avendaño-Ortiz, Charbel Maroun-Eid, Alejandro Martín-Quirós, Víctor Toledano, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, Paloma Gómez-Campelo, Aníbal Varela-Serrano, Jose Casas-Martin, Emilio Llanos-González, Enrique Alvarez, Francisco García-Río, Luis A Aguirre, Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Eduardo López-Collazo
Sepsis, among other pathologies, is an endotoxin tolerance (ET)-related disease. On admission, we classified 48 patients with sepsis into 3 subgroups according to the ex vivo response to lipopolysaccharide. This response correlates with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and the ET degree. Moreover, the ET-related classification determines the outcome of these patients. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on septic monocytes is also linked with ET status. In addition to the regulation of cytokine production, one of the hallmarks of ET that significantly affects patients with sepsis is T-cell proliferation impairment or a poor switch to the adaptive response...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#17
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914596/obesity-and-periodontitis-an-experimental-study-to-evaluate-the-periodontal-and-systemic-effects-of-the-co-morbidity
#18
Leire Virto, Pilar Cano, Vanesa Jiménez-Ortega, Pilar Fernández-Mateos, Jerián González, Ana Isabel Esquifino, Mariano Sanz
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight have been associated with periodontitis. This study aims to evaluate the periodontal and systemic effects of this association in a validated experimental model. METHODS: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: control group (Con) (fed with standard diet); high-fat diet group (HFD) (fed with a diet containing 35.2% fat); control group with induced periodontitis (Con-Perio) and HFD group with induced periodontitis (HFD-Perio)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910312/i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-decreases-mirna-155-expression-and-attenuates-the-human-monocyte-inflammatory-response
#19
Norman James Galbraith, James Burton, Mathew Brady Ekman, Joseph Kenney, Samuel Patterson Walker, Stephen Manek, Campbell Bishop, Jane Victoria Carter, Sarah Appel Gardner, Hiram C Polk
Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK), on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804981/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-rats-the-role-of-immune-cells
#20
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Toru Fukushima, Ataru Taniguchi, Yoshihito Fujita, Kinsuke Tsuda, Nobuya Inagaki, Masaya Hosokawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Bacterial septicemia has diverse clinical symptoms including severe hypoglycemia. However, sepsis-induced hypoglycemia has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemia in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced endotoxin shock in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, we measured gluconeogenesis using the pyruvate tolerance test (PTT)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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