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Natasha A Lannin, Louise Ada, Coralie English, Julie Ratcliffe, Maria Crotty
Rationale Although clinical practice guidelines recommend that management of moderate to severe spasticity include the use of botulinum toxin-A in conjunction with therapy, there is currently no evidence to support the addition of therapy. Aims To determine the effect and cost-benefit of adding evidence-based movement training to botulinum toxin-A. Sample size estimate A total of 136 participants will be recruited in order to be able to detect a between-group difference of seven points on the Goal Attainment Scale T-score with 80% power at a two-tailed significance level of 0...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
E Fosse, M K Helgesen, S Hagen, S Torp
AIMS: The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
J Michely, L J Volz, F Hoffstaedter, M Tittgemeyer, S B Eickhoff, G R Fink, C Grefkes
Older individuals typically display stronger regional brain activity than younger subjects during motor performance. However, knowledge regarding age-related changes of motor network interactions between brain regions remains scarce. We here investigated the impact of ageing on the interaction of cortical areas during movement selection and initiation using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). We found that age-related psychomotor slowing was accompanied by increases in both regional activity and effective connectivity, especially for 'core' motor coupling targeting primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, Conrad S Tucker
The authors of this work present a real-time measurement of heart rate across different lighting conditions and motion categories. This is an advancement over existing remote Photo Plethysmography (rPPG) methods that require a static, controlled environment for heart rate detection, making them impractical for real-world scenarios wherein a patient may be in motion, or remotely connected to a healthcare provider through telehealth technologies. The algorithm aims to minimize motion artifacts such as blurring and noise due to head movements (uniform, random) by employing i) a blur identification and denoising algorithm for each frame and ii) a bounded Kalman filter technique for motion estimation and feature tracking...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Mary Anne Nurmi, Corey S Mackenzie, Kerstin Roger, Kristin Reynolds, James Urquhart
Although participating in community social programming is associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes for older adults, older men participate less often than women. Men's Sheds is a community programme used primarily by older men that originated in Australia and is well established there. The goal of the current study was to explore men's perceptions of the need for Men's Sheds and issues concerning access to them in Canada, a country with a small but growing Men's Sheds movement. We conducted focus groups with 64 men aged 55 years and older, including Men's Sheds members and men from the community who were unfamiliar with this programme, and analysed the data using the framework analytic approach...
April 2018: Ageing and Society
Bryan S McLean, Batsaikhan Nyamsuren, Andrey Tchabovsky, Joseph A Cook
Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total)...
March 8, 2018: Zoological Research
Richard S Mills, Heidi Sveistrup
The aims of this study were to (1) characterize anticipatory and reactive postural strategies in typically developing (TD) children and adolescents; (2) determine if TD youth shift from reactive to anticipatory mechanisms based on knowledge of platform movement; and (3) determine whether TD youth further modify postural strategies when additional information about the perturbation is provided. Sixteen typically developing youth aged 7-17 years stood with eyes open on a movable platform that progressively translated anteroposteriorly (20 cm peak-to-peak) through four speeds (0...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Alessandro L Colosio, S Pogliaghi
INTRODUCTION: Performance during army loaded runs provides a synthetic indicator of a soldier's capacity to move while carrying loads and thereby remain able to execute a mission. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the energy expenditure (EE) of army loaded runs, conducted in a field environment using laboratory-based equations and HR index (HRindex ). METHODS: 45 Ranger recruits had HR monitored during three loaded runs (10, 15 and 20 km) in full military equipment in the field environment...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
A M De Nunzio, U S Yavuz, E Martinez-Valdes, D Farina, D Falla
Sensory information conveyed along afferent fibers from muscle and joint proprioceptors play an important role in the control of posture and gait in humans. In particular, proprioceptive information from the neck is fundamental in supplying the central nervous system with information about the orientation and movement of the head relative to the rest of the body. The previous studies have confirmed that proprioceptive afferences originating from the neck region, evoked via muscle vibration, lead to strong body-orienting effects during static conditions (e...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Shilpa B Gaikwad, Eric G Johnson, Todd C Nelson, Oluwaseun I Ambode, Abdulaziz A Albalwi, Ahmad A Alharbi, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motion sensitivity is a common condition among the general population and may be accompanied by postural instability and anxiety. Preliminary studies suggest that minimal dosage of gaze stability exercises improves postural stability in young adults with chronic motion sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive gaze stability exercises on postural stability, motion sensitivity, and anxiety in healthy young adults with chronic motion sensitivity...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Christopher L Jones, Derek G Kamper
Finger-thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger-thumb coupling during close-open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Martha L Streng, Laurentiu S Popa, Timothy J Ebner
It is hypothesized that the cerebellum implements a forward internal model that transforms motor commands into predictions about upcoming movements. The predictions are compared with sensory feedback to generate sensory prediction errors critical to controlling movements. The simple spike firing of cerebellar Purkinje cells both lead and lag movement consistent with representations of motor predictions and sensory feedback. This study tests whether this leading and lagging modulation provides the prediction and sensory feedback necessary to compute sensory prediction errors...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Marcela G M Lima, José de Sousa E Silva-Júnior, David Černý, Janet C Buckner, Alexandre Aleixo, Jonathan Chang, Jimmy Zheng, Michael E Alfaro, Amely Martins, Anthony Di Fiore, Jean P Boubli, Jessica W Lynch Alfaro
Phylogenetic relationships amongst the robust capuchin monkeys (genus Sapajus) are poorly understood. Morphology-based taxonomies have recognized anywhere from one to twelve different species. The current IUCN (2017) classification lists eight robust capuchins: S. xanthosternos, S. nigritus, S. robustus, S. flavius, S. libidinosus, S. cay, S. apella and S. macrocephalus. Here, we assembled the first phylogenomic data set for Sapajus using ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) to reconstruct a capuchin phylogeny. All phylogenomic analyses strongly supported a deep divergence of Sapajus and Cebus clades within the capuchin monkeys, and provide support for Sapajus nigritus, S...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Han Sun, Xiong Zhang, Yacong Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xuefei Zhong, Zhaowen Fan
The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
M A Akulov, O R Orlova, T V Tabashnikova, V V Karnaukhov, A S Orlova
Surgical treatment of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle tumors is associated with a risk of facial nerve dysfunction. The causes for facial muscle paresis include nerve compression by the tumor, destruction of the nerve structure by the tumor growing from nerve fibers, nerve injury during surgical removal of the tumor, etc. The first 3 months after facial nerve injury are a potential therapeutic window for the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA). During this period, the drug is introduced both in the healthy side to improve the facial symmetry at rest and during mimetic movements and in the affected side to induce drug-induced ptosis...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Adonis K Moschovakis
We studied the phasic saccade related discharges of single neurons (S neurons) of the premotor cortex of female rhesus monkeys, mostly in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus. As described in previous work from our laboratory (Neromyliotis and Moschovakis, 2017b), some of these cells emitted phasic discharges for coordinated movements of the eyes and hand as well as for movements of either effector executed in isolation (motor equivalence -Meq). Other cells (S), did not emit phasic discharges for hand movements unaccompanied by saccades...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xiaoyan Wen, Liyan Cui, Seth Morrisroe, Donald Maberry, David R Emlet, Simon C Watkins, Neil A Hukriede, John A Kellum
Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (S-AKI) independently predicts mortality among critically ill patients. The role of innate immunity in this process is unclear, and there is an unmet need for S-AKI models to delineate the pathophysiological response. Mammals and zebrafish (Danio rerio) share a conserved nephron structure and homologous innate immune systems, making the latter suitable for sepsis-associated AKI research. We introduced Edwardsiella tarda (E.tarda) to the zebrafish. Systemic E. tarda bacteremia resulted in sustained bacterial infection and dose-dependent mortality...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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