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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944734/outcomes-based-contracting-experience-research-findings-from-u-s-and-european-stakeholders
#1
Tara Nazareth, John J Ko, Rahul Sasane, Christian Frois, Stephen Carpenter, Sebastian Demean, Ashok Vegesna, Eric Wu, Robert P Navarro
BACKGROUND: Outcomes-based contracts (OBCs), a type of risk-sharing arrangement (RSA), have emerged as a promising avenue for payers to engage with pharmaceutical manufacturers to share risk and improve patient access to medicines via evaluation of real-world outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of recent OBC activity and stakeholder perceptions of these arrangements, as well as the outlook for future OBC activity from a payer and manufacturer perspective in the United States and EU-5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom)...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944647/the-effect-of-motor-learning-and-fatigue-on-pre-activation-of-the-lower-extremity-muscles-during-different-jumps
#2
Anna M Kamelska, Bartosz Kot
BACKGROUND: The first step in identifying risk factors for injuries is to characterize the myoelectric activity of different muscles after ground contact, especially when fatigue is a limiting factor. This study aimed at: (a) recording the myoelectric activity of calf muscles after ground contact during different types of jumps and (b) investigating the effect of motor learning and fatigue on muscle pre-activation. METHODS: Twenty four male students aged 24.3 ± 1...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944469/probing-early-motion-processing-with-eye-movements-differences-of-vestibular-migraine-migraine-with-and-without-aura-in-the-attack-free-interval
#3
S Rogalinski, H A Rambold
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs, in between headache attacks, have a different sensitivity to sensory motion stimuli compared to non-migraineurs. METHODS: This cross-sectional laboratory study examines the motion processing in migraineurs using ocular following responses (OFR) elicited by large field random dot patterns and open-loop smooth pursuit eye movements (PS) elicited by a single target moving on a homogenous background. Eye movements were recorded with a video-oculographic system (EyeSeeTec(®) ) and stimuli presented on a CRT at 100 Hz repetition rate to horizontal stimuli of a velocity of 2...
September 25, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943457/clinical-staging-of-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-fop
#4
Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan
Fibrodyplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare genetic condition of heterotopic ossification (HO) that results in progressive loss of joint function, ultimately rendering movement impossible. Death is most commonly the result of thoracic insufficiency syndrome, or complications related to recurrent respiratory infections. There are no current treatments for FOP, but early and emerging clinical trials offer hope for this devastating disease. With the recent reporting of a comprehensive global natural history study, scales to assess joint dysfunction, and a more accurate prediction of joint survival, it is now possible to construct a conceptual framework for the clinical staging of FOP...
September 21, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942925/deconstruction-of-corticospinal-circuits-for-goal-directed-motor-skills
#5
Xuhua Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xinjian Li, Zicong Zhang, Hengfu Yang, Yu Zhang, Philip R Williams, Noaf S A Alwahab, Kush Kapur, Bin Yu, Yiming Zhang, Mengying Chen, Haixia Ding, Charles R Gerfen, Kuan Hong Wang, Zhigang He
Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) represent the direct cortical outputs to the spinal cord and play important roles in motor control across different species. However, their organizational principle remains unclear. By using a retrograde labeling system, we defined the requirement of CSNs in the execution of a skilled forelimb food-pellet retrieval task in mice. In vivo imaging of CSN activity during performance revealed the sequential activation of topographically ordered functional ensembles with moderate local mixing...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942917/intestinal-epithelial-and-intraepithelial-t-cell-crosstalk-mediates-a-dynamic-response-to-infection
#6
David P Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Bernardo S Reis, Virginia A Pedicord, Julia Farache, Gabriel D Victora, Daniel Mucida
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are located at the critical interface between the intestinal lumen, which is chronically exposed to food and microbes, and the core of the body. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques and intersectional genetic tools, we investigated the nature of IEL responses to luminal microbes. We observed that TCRγδ IELs exhibit unique microbiota-dependent location and movement patterns in the epithelial compartment. This behavioral pattern quickly changes upon exposure to different enteric pathogens, resulting in increased interepithelial cell (EC) scanning, expression of antimicrobial genes, and glycolysis...
September 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941779/historical-and-conceptual-aspects-of-motor-disorders-in-the-psychoses
#7
German E Berrios, Ivana S Marková
Historical epistemology is a useful method to understand the longitudinal construction of the movement disorders in psychiatry. Four periods can be identified in such a process. The first, extending from Classical times to the work of Griesinger, included disorders such as catalepsy, crocidism, epilepsy and paralysis. The second period, stretching from Griesinger to Kahlbaum, concentrated on the study of melancholia attonita, stupor and catatonia. The third period, covering the time from Kahlbaum to WWI, witnessed important conceptual shifts such as: the transformation of madness into psychoses; the redefinition of movement and motility in psychiatry; the appearance of self-contained syndromes as dyskinesias, tics, akathisia, complex disorders like the cases of encephalitis lethargica, etc...
September 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941164/semi-quantitative-assessment-of-disease-risks-at-the-human-livestock-wildlife-interface-for-the-republic-of-korea-using-a-nationwide-survey-of-experts-a-model-for-other-countries
#8
J Hwang, K Lee, D Walsh, S W Kim, J M Sleeman, H Lee
Wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens have increased in importance; however, management of a large number of diseases and diversity of hosts is prohibitively expensive. Thus, the determination of priority wildlife pathogens and risk factors for disease emergence is warranted. We used an online questionnaire survey to assess release and exposure risks, and consequences of wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We also surveyed opinions on pathways for disease exposure, and risk factors for disease emergence and spread...
September 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940873/fetal-head-position-and-perineal-distension-associated-with-the-use-of-the-bd-odon-device%C3%A2-in-operative-vaginal-birth-a-simulation-study
#9
S M O'Brien, C Winter, C A Burden, M Boulvain, T J Draycott, J F Crofts
OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) the placement of the BD Odon Device on the model fetal head and (2) perineal distention during simulated operative vaginal births conducted with the BD Odon Device. DESIGN: Observational simulation study. SETTING: North Bristol NHS Trust, UK. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Four hundred and forty simulated operative vaginal births. METHODS: Three bespoke fetal mannequins were developed to represent (1) bi-parietal diameter of the 50th centile at term, (2) bi-parietal diameter at the 5th centile at term, and (3) 50th centile head with 2 cm of caput...
September 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940064/combining-structure-function-and-single-molecule-studies-on-cytoplasmic-dynein
#10
Lu Rao, Maren Hülsemann, Arne Gennerich
Cytoplasmic dynein is the largest and most intricate cytoskeletal motor protein. It is responsible for a vast array of biological functions, ranging from the transport of organelles and mRNAs to the movement of nuclei during neuronal migration and the formation and positioning of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Despite its megadalton size and its complex design, recent success with the recombinant expression of the dynein heavy chain has advanced our understanding of dynein's molecular mechanism through the combination of structure-function and single-molecule studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938173/human-infants-understanding-of-social-imitation-inferences-of-affiliation-from-third-party-observations
#11
Lindsey J Powell, Elizabeth S Spelke
Imitation is ubiquitous in positive social interactions. For adult and child observers, it also supports inferences about the participants in such interactions and their social relationships, but the origins of these inferences are obscure. Do infants attach social significance to this form of interaction? Here we test 4- to 5.5-month-old infants' interpretation of imitation, asking if the imitative interactions they observe support inferences of social affiliation, across 10 experimental conditions that varied the modality of the imitation (movement vs...
September 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937834/a-child-centered-method-of-interviewing-children-with-movement-impairments
#12
Parimala S Kanagasabai, Brigit Mirfin-Veitch, Leigh A Hale, Hilda Mulligan
AIMS: Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. METHODS: A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years...
September 22, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937309/metabolic-and-hormonal-responses-to-different-resistance-training-systems-in-elderly-men
#13
Marcos R Paunksnis, Alexandre L Evangelista, Cauê V La Scala Teixeira, Gustavo Alegretti João, Rafael M Pitta, Angelica C Alonso, Aylton Figueira, Andrey Jorge Serra, Julien S Baker, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Danilo S Bocalini
OBJECTIVE: To compare acute and sub-acute responses in hormonal profile and metabolic parameters in elderly people who participated in two methods of strength training (ST) with equalized loads. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 12 elder individuals (65 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to two training methods: constant intensity (CI, 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 75% of 1RM) and variable intensity (VI, 1st set: 12 repetitions at 67% of 1RM > 2nd set: 10 repetitions at 75% of 1RM and 3rd set: 8 repetitions at 80% of 1RM)...
September 22, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936197/functional-role-of-gonadotrope-plasticity-and-network-organization
#14
REVIEW
Brian S Edwards, Colin M Clay, Buffy S Ellsworth, Amy M Navratil
Gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary are characterized by their ability to mount a cyclical pattern of gonadotropin secretion to regulate gonadal function and fertility. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that gonadotropes exhibit dramatic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) exposure. GnRH engagement of actin is critical for gonadotrope function on multiple levels. First, GnRH-induced cell movements lead to spatial repositioning of the in vivo gonadotrope network toward vascular endothelium, presumably to access the bloodstream for effective hormone release...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935826/immediate-effect-of-laryngeal-surface-electrical-stimulation-on-swallowing-performance
#15
Keizo Takahashi, Kazuhiro Hori, Hirokazu Hayashi, Masako Fujiu-Kurachi, Takahiro Ono, Takanori Tsujimura, Jin Magara, Makoto Inoue
Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as supra- and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2 ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935698/polysomnographic-phenotypes-and-their-cardiovascular-implications-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#16
Andrey V Zinchuk, Sangchoon Jeon, Brian B Koo, Xiting Yan, Dawn M Bravata, Li Qin, Bernardo J Selim, Kingman P Strohl, Nancy S Redeker, John Concato, Henry K Yaggi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a heterogeneous disorder, and improved understanding of physiologic phenotypes and their clinical implications is needed. We aimed to determine whether routine polysomnographic data can be used to identify OSA phenotypes (clusters) and to assess the associations between the phenotypes and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of a multisite, observational US Veteran (n=1247) cohort were performed...
September 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935582/3%C3%AE-hsd-expression-in-the-cns-of-a-manakin-and-finch
#17
Joy Eaton, Devaleena S Pradhan, Julia Barske, Leonida Fusani, Virginie Canoine, Barney A Schlinger
The prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) circulates in vertebrate blood with the potential for actions on target tissues including the central nervous system (CNS). Many actions of DHEA require its conversion into more active products, some of which are catalyzed by the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD). Studies of birds show both expression and activity of 3β-HSD in brain and its importance in regulating social behavior. In oscine songbirds, 3β-HSD is expressed at reasonably high levels in brain, possibly linked to their complex neural circuitry controlling song...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935232/utilising-physiological-principles-of-motor-unit-recruitment-to-reduce-fatigability-of-electrically-evoked-contractions-a-narrative-review
#18
Trevor S Barss, Emily N Ainsley, Francisca C Claveria-Gonzalez, M John Luu, Dylan J Miller, Matheus J Wiest, David F Collins
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to produce contractions to restore movement and reduce secondary complications for individuals experiencing motor impairment. NMES is conventionally delivered through a single pair of electrodes over a muscle belly or nerve trunk using short pulse durations and frequencies between 20-40 Hz (conventional NMES). Unfortunately, the benefits and widespread use of conventional NMES are limited by contraction fatigability, which is due in large part to the non-physiological way that contractions are generated...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934745/association-between-body-composition-and-motor-performance-in-preschool-children
#19
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Stefano Lanzi, Annina E Zysset, Amar Arhab, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stuelb, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Susi Kriemler, Simone Munsch, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder
OBJECTIVE: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. METHODS: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2) participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC), and BMI...
September 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934371/some-like-it-hot-repeat-migration-and-residency-of-whale-sharks-within-an-extreme-natural-environment
#20
David P Robinson, Mohammed Y Jaidah, Steffen S Bach, Christoph A Rohner, Rima W Jabado, Rupert Ormond, Simon J Pierce
The Arabian Gulf is the warmest sea in the world and is host to a globally significant population of the whale shark Rhincodon typus. To investigate regional whale shark behaviour and movements, 59 satellite-linked tags were deployed on whale sharks in the Al Shaheen area off Qatar from 2011-14. Four different models of tag were used throughout the study, each model able to collect differing data or quantities of data. Retention varied from one to 227 days. While all tagged sharks crossed international maritime boundaries, they typically stayed within the Arabian Gulf...
2017: PloS One
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