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Blood infection

Igor C Borges, Dafne C Andrade, Nina Ekström, Camilla Virta, Merit Melin, Annika Saukkoriipi, Maija Leinonen, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
The aim of this study was to compare the results of serological assays using pneumococcal proteins or polysaccharides for the detection of pneumococcal infection in childhood pneumonia. Serological assays measured IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply,CbpA,PspA1,PspA2,PcpA,PhtD,StkP-C,PcsB-N), C-polysaccharide [in the whole study population, n = 183], or 19 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (1,2,4,5,6B,7F,8,9 V,10A,11A,12F,14,15B,17F,18C,19F,20,23F,33F) [only in a subgroup of patients, n = 53] in paired serum samples of children aged <5 years-old hospitalized with clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Kaoru Aida, Tetsuro Kobayashi, Akira Takeshita, Erika Jimbo, Yoriko Nishida, Soroku Yagihashi, Mitsuko Hosoi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Akira Sugawara, Shin Takasawa
Recently, we reported the presence of distinct cell clusters named acinar-like cell clusters touching Langerhans islets with thin interstitial surrounding (ATLANTIS) in human pancreas. A morphological study in humans demonstrated that ATLANTIS and islet cell clusters are found together in the microenvironment enclosed by a common basement membrane, and ATLANTIS releases vesicles containing Regenerating gene protein (REG Iα) to islet cell clusters. We examined 1) the presence or absence of ATLANTIS in homozygous Reg I (mouse homologue of human REG Iα) deficient (Reg I-/- ) and wild-type mice, and 2) the possible role of ATLANTIS in the regeneration of beta cell clusters after encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus (D-variant) infection in Reg I-/- and wild-type mice...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Guan Wang, Ang Lin, Qiuju Han, Huajun Zhao, Zhigang Tian, Jian Zhang
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a foodborne Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that can cause listeriosis in humans and animals. Although phagocytes are known to be involved in the response to this infection, the role of neutrophils is not entirely clear. Here, we have demonstrated that soon after LM infection, a large number of IFN-γ-producing neutrophils quickly accumulated in the spleen, blood, and peritoneal cavity. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that neutrophils were an important source of IFN-γ...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Elizabeth M Everson, Jonah D Hocum, Grant D Trobridge
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that foamy viral (FV) vectors are a promising alternative to gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors and insulators can improve FV vector safety. However, in a previous analysis of insulator effects on FV vector safety, strong viral promoters were used to elicit genotoxic events. Here we developed and analyzed the efficacy and safety of a high-titer, clinically relevant FV vector driven by the housekeeping promoter elongation factor-1α and insulated with an enhancer blocking A1 insulator (FV-EGW-A1)...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
J Marcoval, M Bonfill-Ortí, L Martínez-Molina, F Valentí-Medina, R M Penín, O Servitje
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has reduced as a result of the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. It is currently considered a rare disease in developed countries, and there has been a paucity of clinical papers on the subject in recent years in Europe. AIM: To analyse the clinical features and evolution of the different clinical forms of KS in the past 30 years. METHODS: Patients with cutaneous lesions of KS diagnosed during the period 1987-2016 at Bellvitge Hospital (an 800-bed university referral centre in Barcelona, Spain) were enrolled...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Mohammad Abdelghani, Martina Nassif, Nico A Blom, Martijn S Van Mourik, Bart Straver, David R Koolbergen, Jolanda Kluin, Jan G Tijssen, Barbara J M Mulder, Berto J Bouma, Robbert J de Winter
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) in dysfunctioning right ventricular outflow tract conduits has evoked growing concerns. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the natural history of IE after TPVI with the Melody valve through a systematic review of published data. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for articles published until March 2017, reporting on IE after TPVI with the Melody valve...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sejal Makvana Bhavsar, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of MALDI-TOF MS coupled with antimicrobial stewardship on clinical outcomes for pediatric inpatients with bloodstream infections. METHODS: Outcomes of pediatric inpatients were compared before and after MALDI-TOF MS implementation. Outcomes measured included time until organism identification and susceptibility, duration of antibiotics, patient length of stay (LOS), mortality and hospital costs. RESULTS: 210 and 135 patient events were compared pre- and post-intervention...
May 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Usman Abubakar, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Evidence to demonstrate the prevalence and trend of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in Nigeria is scarce. This review evaluates the prevalence, trend and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical MRSA isolates reported in published studies. METHOD: Electronic search (PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar) was conducted using the following search terms: "MRSA OR Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus AND Nigeria." Reference list of selected studies was scanned to identify more studies...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Pınar Zarakolu, Çağlayan Merve Ayaz, Gökhan Metan
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium that causes various hospital acquired infections, primarily ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. The multidrug resistance problem of the bacteria all over the world, is also a problem in our center. As the treatment options are decreasing combination therapies become a current issue. It is believed that in vitro synergy tests may guide to the selection of antibiotic combinations. The aim of this study was to present the antibiotic combinations used in the treatment of carbapenem resistant A...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Kelly R Silva, Blanca E R G Bica, Eduardo S Pimenta, Rodrigo B Serafim, Mirhelen M Abreu, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa de S Santana, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, José M Peralta, Marta G Cavalcanti
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection usually presents as a mild and self-limited illness, but it may be associated with severe outcomes. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man with systemic erythematous lupus and common variable immunodeficiency who became infected with both Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus during the 2016 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient presented with intense wrist and right ankle arthritis, and ZIKV RNA and virus particles were detected in synovial tissue, blood and urine, and CHIKV RNA in serum sample, at the time of the diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Alana A S Gonçalves, Camila A de Lopes, Henrique T Gonzaga, Ana Lúcia R Gonçalves, Marcelo A Levenhagen, Luiz Carlos M de Oliveira, Julia M Costa-Cruz
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitosis that is considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of this infection is extremely important in immunocompromised patients (i.e. subjects with alcoholism). This study aimed to evaluate anti-Strongyloides immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), assess levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and determine IgG avidity in serum samples from alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals. A total of 140 blood samples were collected from male individuals (70 alcoholic and 70 nonalcoholic subjects)...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Yulin Bai, Yubang Shen, Xiao-Yan Xu, Yuqi Bai, Yuan Fang, Meng Zhang, Yiheng Miao, Xueshu Zhang, Jia-le Li
Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible 45-beta (Gadd45B) is essential for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activities, and involved in regulating growth, apoptosis, and DNA demethylation. In the present study, the cDNA of gcGadd45Ba and gcGadd45Bb in grass carp was identified. And the expression levels show that they were widely distributed in the tested tissues and showed significant immune responses both in vitro and in vivo after challenge with bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
June 19, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
D Sculier, T Doco-Lecompte, S Yerly, K J Metzner, L A Decosterd, A Calmy
OBJECTIVES: Dolutegravir (DTG) is a highly effective integrase inhibitor with a strong genetic resistance barrier and a potential role in simplified HIV maintenance treatment. We assessed the feasibility of DTG maintenance monotherapy and measured HIV reservoirs on DTG monotherapy. METHODS: An interventional, open-label, single-arm study including eight virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients switched to DTG 50 mg once daily for 24 weeks was performed...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
A Bocour, S K Greene, F Laraque, A Winters
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the USA. Estimating prevalence is critical for monitoring diagnosis, treatment, and cure and for allocating resources. Surveillance data reported to the New York City (NYC) Health Department, 2000-2015, were used to estimate HCV prevalence in NYC in 2015. The numbers who died, out-migrated or whose last RNA test was negative were removed from the count of people reported with HCV. A simulation model was used to remove estimates of people whose infection spontaneously cleared or was cured and to add an estimate of people unaware of infection...
June 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Cristina Alonso Madrigal, Manuela Dobón Rebollo, Viviana Laredo de la Torre, Luis Palomera Bernal, Francisco Agustín García Gil
INTRODUCTION: infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hemophilia. Finally, patients are considered for a liver transplantation (LT) due to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: we report the cases of congenital coagulopathy and HCV infection that underwent LT in our institution. There were three patients with hemophilia A and one patient with von Willebrand disease (vWD) type 3...
June 22, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Sern Wei Yeoh, Alex C N Holmes, Michael M Saling, Ian P Everall, Amanda J Nicoll
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection experience a range of symptoms including depression, fatigue and neurocognitive deficits, impairing quality of life. Depression, in particular, may be reactive to increased psychosocial stress, and the physical symptoms of advanced HCV or associated comorbidities. However, even patients at an early stage of HCV infection, with minimal hepatic inflammation or comorbidities, report more depressive symptoms and fatigue than the general population. Similarly, specific neurocognitive deficits occur in early stage HCV infection and are independent of the presence of depression or encephalopathy...
June 21, 2018: Hepatology International
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Pdnn Sirisena, Ankit Kumar, Sujatha Sunil
Arthropod-borne virus disease cycles constitute interactions among three primary players-the host, the vector, and the virus-in which the virus needs to interact with the host and the vector to establish its survival. While in the host, some arboviruses replicate aggressively, resulting in host pathogenicity, and manifest as a disease condition. These viruses more often utilize the vectors as reservoirs before they are transmitted to the host and therefore do not amplify to as large titers as they do in the hosts...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Sze Chuen Cesar Wong, Thomas Chi Chuen Au, Sammy Chung Sum Chan, Lawrence Po Wah Ng, Hin Fung Tsang
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known causative factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Methods: HPV DNA genotyping was performed in menstrual blood (MB) collected in napkins from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV infection and sexually active apparently normal subjects. In the same patient cohort, MB TAP1 I333V and TAP1 D637G gene polymorphisms were examined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HPV DNA to detect CIN or HPV infection was 83% (223/268), 98% (131/134), 99% (223/226) and (74%) 131/176, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gaëlle F Tchouwa, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Amandine Cournil, Nadine Lamare, Laetitia Serrano, Christelle Butel, Silvia Bertagnolio, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, Elliot Raizes, Avelin F Aghokeng
Background: Pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) has the potential to affect treatment outcome and mortality. We present here the first nationally representative PDR study conducted in Cameroon. Methods: From February to July 2015, HIV-infected ART initiators were recruited from 24 randomly selected clinics situated in both urban and rural regions. Dried blood spot specimens were collected from study participants at these clinics and centralized in a reference laboratory in Yaoundé, Cameroon, for drug resistance testing...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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