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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244129/dolutegravir-reshapes-the-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-reservoirs
#1
Pierre Gantner, Guinevere Q Lee, David Rey, Thibault Mesplede, Marialuisa Partisani, Christine Cheneau, Geneviève Beck-Wirth, Jean-Pierre Faller, Mahsa Mohseni-Zadeh, Martin Martinot, Mark A Wainberg, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Objectives: Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV reservoirs under ART is a critical step to achieve a functional HIV cure. Our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of archived HIV-1 DNA over 48 weeks in blood cells of individuals starting treatment with a dolutegravir-based regimen. Methods: Eighty blood samples were prospectively and longitudinally collected from 20 individuals (NCT02557997) including: acutely (n = 5) and chronically (n = 5) infected treatment-naive individuals, as well as treatment-experienced individuals who switched to a dolutegravir-based regimen and were either virologically suppressed (n = 5) or had experienced treatment failure (n = 5)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#2
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244001/transmissibility-of-intra-host-hepatitis-c-virus-variants
#3
David S Campo, June Zhang, Sumathi Ramachandran, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Intra-host hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations are genetically heterogeneous and organized in subpopulations. With the exception of blood transfusions, transmission of HCV occurs via a small number of genetic variants, the effect of which is frequently described as a bottleneck. Stochasticity of transmission associated with the bottleneck is usually used to explain genetic differences among HCV populations identified in the source and recipient cases, which may be further exacerbated by intra-host HCV evolution and differential biological capacity of HCV variants to successfully establish a population in a new host...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243405/bluetongue-virus-serotype-27-experimental-infection-of-goats-sheep-and-cattle-with-three-btv-27-variants-reveal-atypical-characteristics-and-likely-direct-contact-transmission-btv-27-between-goats
#4
E Bréard, C Schulz, C Sailleau, C Bernelin-Cottet, C Viarouge, D Vitour, B Guillaume, G Caignard, A Gorlier, H Attoui, M Gallois, B Hoffmann, S Zientara, M Beer
Bluetongue virus (BTV) hitherto consisted of 26 recognized serotypes, of which all except BTV-26 are primarily transmitted by certain species of Culicoides biting midges. Three variants of an additional 27th bluetongue virus serotype (BTV-27v01-v03) were recently detected in asymptomatic goats in Corsica, France, 2014-2015. Molecular characterization revealed genetic differences between the three variants. Therefore, in vivo characteristics were investigated by experimental infection of a total of 15 goats, 11 sheep and 4 cattle with any one of the three variants in separated animal trials...
December 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243318/effect-of-maturity-and-infection-on-the-rate-of-relaxation-of-the-respiratory-muscles-in-ventilated-newborn-infants
#5
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Paul Dixon, Anne Greenough
AIM: To assess the respiratory muscle time constant of relaxation (τ), an index of respiratory muscle function in ventilated newborns. METHODS: Sixty-two infants (42 born prematurely) with a median gestational age of 29 [interquartile range (IQR) 26-37] weeks were prospectively studied. Measurement of τ was done during spontaneous breathing on endotracheal continuous positive airway pressure prior to extubation and τ was calculated from the reciprocal of the slope of the airway pressure decline versus time...
December 15, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243310/coriolus-versicolor-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-with-pi3k-akt-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways-involved-in-diabetic-skeletal-muscle
#6
Hui-Min Xian, Hui Che, Ying Qin, Fan Yang, Song-Yan Meng, Xiao-Guang Li, Yun-Long Bai, Li-Hong Wang
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are usually with poor immunity and easier to suffer from cancer and microbial infections. Herein, we report an efficient anti-diabetic medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor (CV). This study aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-insulin-resistance effects of CV aqueous extract in myoblasts (L6 cells) and skeletal muscle of T2DM rat. Our results showed that CV extract treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, whereas CV extract increased glucose consumption in insulin resistant L6 cells...
December 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243060/synovial-aspiration-and-serological-testing-in-two-stage-revision-arthroplasty-for-prosthetic-joint-infection-evaluation-before-reconstruction-with-a-mean-follow-up-of-twenty%C3%A2-seven%C3%A2-months
#7
Heinrich M L Mühlhofer, C Knebel, Florian Pohlig, Susanne Feihl, Norbert Harrasser, Johannes Schauwecker, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe
INTRODUCTION: The two-stage revision protocol is the gold standard for controlling and treating low-grade prosthetic joint infections of total hip and total knee arthroplasty. The antibiotic pause for diagnostic reasons before reconstruction (stage two) is discussed in relation to the persistence of the infection and the development of resistant bacterial strains. Serological markers and a synovial analysis are commonly used to exclude the persistence of infection. Therefore, we asked (1) is the serological testing of C-reactive protein and leucocytes a valuable tool to predict a persistence of infection? and (2) what is the role of synovial aspiration of Plymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) spacers in hip and knee joints? MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twelve patients who were MSIS criteria-positive for a prosthetic joint infection were studied, including 45 total hip arthroplasties (THA) and 67 total knee artrhoplasties (TKA) patients...
December 14, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242954/-abdominal-lymphatic-malformations-german-version
#8
REVIEW
W A Wohlgemuth, L M Dendl, R Brill, F Stangl, D Stoevesandt, A G Schreyer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal lymphatic malformations (LM) are relatively rare findings in the differential diagnosis of focal abdominal lesions; however, they represent a challenge especially in younger patients. The aim of this review article is to provide up-to-date information about the different kinds of LM manifestations. In addition, related syndromes and typical imaging features to facilitate the diagnosis are discussed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation of abdominal LM is unspecific, whereby most are asymptomatic and comprise incidental findings of thin-walled cystic masses anywhere in the abdomen...
December 14, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242186/biased-igh-vdj-gene-repertoire-and-clonal-expansions-in-b-cells-of-chronically-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals
#9
Felicia A Tucci, Simo Kitanovski, Patricia Johansson, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Alisan Kahraman, Jan Dürig, Daniel Hoffmann, Ralf Küppers
Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently develop mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), a monoclonal expansion of IgM+ autoreactive B cells, and also have an increased B cell lymphoma risk. Whether HCV infection also impacts the B cell compartment and the B cell receptor repertoire in patients not affected by MC or lymphomas is poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood B cells of 30 MC-negative HCV-infected patients and 15 healthy controls revealed that frequencies of class-switched memory B cells were increased in the patients, whereas frequencies of transitional and naive B cells were decreased...
December 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242141/molecular-and-epidemiological-evidence-of-patient-to-patient-hepatitis-c-virus-transmission-in-a-scottish-emergency-department
#10
I Johannessen, J Danial, D B Smith, J Richards, L Imrie, A Rankin, L J Willocks, C Evans, C Leen, P Gibson, P Simmonds, D Goldberg, A McCallum, K Roy
BACKGROUND: Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the health care setting is rare. Routine infection prevention and control (IPC) measures mean this should be a preventable never event. This paper investigates the diagnosis of acute healthcare associated HCV infection. METHODS: Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a case of acute HCV infection associated with nosocomial exposure. RESULTS: Detailed investigation of the treatment history of a patient with acute HCV infection identified transmission from a co-attending patient in an Emergency Department as the likely source; this possibility was confirmed by virus sequence analysis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242012/outcomes-of-immunocompetent-children-presenting-with-fever-and-neutropenia
#11
Osnat Wittmann, Ayelet Rimon, Dennis Scolnik, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Neutropenia may alarm clinicians and prompt extensive evaluation in children with fever, even in immunocompetent patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine outcomes in previously healthy febrile children presenting to the emergency department with severe neutropenia. METHODS: We reviewed data from infants and children aged 3-36 months with fever and severe neutropenia, defined as a peripheral neutrophil count <500 × 103/μL, at our institution between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241843/quantifying-the-effect-of-diabetes-on-surgical-hand-and-forearm-infections
#12
Ketan Sharma, Deng Pan, James Friedman, Jenny L Yu, Aaron Mull, Amy M Moore
PURPOSE: Diabetes has long been established as a risk factor for hand and forearm infections. The purpose of this study was to review the effect of glycemic factors on outcomes among diabetic patients with surgical upper-extremity infections. We hypothesized that diabetic inpatients may benefit from stronger peri-infection glycemic control. METHODS: A prospective cohort study enrolled diabetic and nondiabetic surgical hand and forearm infections over 3 years. Glycemic factors included baseline glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose (BG) at presentation, and inpatient BG...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241668/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-a-strong-predictor-of-atherosclerotic-carotid-plaques-in-older-adults
#13
T Corriere, S Di Marca, E Cataudella, A Pulvirenti, S Alaimo, B Stancanelli, L Malatino
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation, has been reported to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, but its predictive role of the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques remains undefined. This study aims to assess this association which gives additional value to this biomarker, with respect to the main risk factors, in the prediction of carotid atherosclerosis in older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 324 patients, aged ≥65 years, without hematopoietic disorders, and/or history of malignancies, evidence of acute infections, chronic inflammatory status, and history of glucocorticoid therapy within the past three months, hospitalized in the Unit of Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy from January 2014 to December 2016...
November 5, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241647/safety-of-currently-licensed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-vaccines-in-the-united-states-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-2005-2015
#14
Penina Haber, Pedro L Moro, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Beth Hibbs, Sarah F Schillie, Noele P Nelson, Rongxia Li, Brock Stewart, Maria V Cano
INTRODUCTION: Currently four recombinant hepatitis B (HepB) vaccines are in use in the United States. HepB vaccines are recommended for infants, children and adults. We assessed adverse events (AEs) following HepB vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of AEs following single antigen HepB vaccine and HepB-containing vaccines (either given alone or with other vaccines), from January 2005 - December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241629/the-expression-of-mirc1-mir17-92-cluster-in-sputum-samples-correlates-with-pulmonary-exacerbations-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
Kathrin Krause, Benjamin T Kopp, Mia F Tazi, Kyle Caution, Kaitlin Hamilton, Asmaa Badr, Chandra Shrestha, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes, Frank Robledo, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Brett G Klamer, Xiaoli Zhang, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Narasimham L Parinandi, Stephen E Kirkby, Duaa Dakhlallah, Karen S McCoy, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Amal O Amer
INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-organ disorder characterized by chronic sino-pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many patients with CF suffer from repeated pulmonary exacerbations that are predictors of worsened long-term morbidity and mortality. There are no reliable markers that associate with the onset or progression of an exacerbation or pulmonary deterioration. Previously, we found that the Mirc1/Mir17-92a cluster which is comprised of 6 microRNAs (Mirs) is highly expressed in CF mice and negatively regulates autophagy which in turn improves CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241072/combined-efficacy-of-oseltamivir-isoprinosine-and-ellagic-acid-in-influenza-a-h3n2-infected-mice
#16
Elitsa L Pavlova, Lora S Simeonova, Galina A Gegova
Influenza pathogenesis comprises a complex cascade of impaired cellular processes resulting from the viral replication and exaggerated immune response accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative stress, destructing membranous structures and tissues. By classical virological and biochemical methods we compared and evaluated the therapeutic effects of 2.5mg/kg/day of the antiviral drug - oseltamivir (OS), 500mg/kg/day of the immune modulator - isoprinosine (IP) and 500mg/kg/day of the antioxidant agent ellagic acid (EA) with a focus on their combined activities in influenza H3N2 virus-infected mice...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#17
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240922/prevalence-magnitude-and-correlates-of-hiv-1-genital-shedding-in-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Caroline C King, Sascha R Ellington, Nicole L Davis, Robert W Coombs, Maria Pyra, Ting Hong, Nelly Mugo, Rena C Patel, Jairam R Lingappa, Jared M Baeten, Athena P Kourtis
Background: Genital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA shedding can continue despite HIV being undetectable in blood, and can be associated with transmission. Methods: We included African women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Linear and generalized linear mixed models were used to compare the magnitude and prevalence of genital shedding, respectively, by time since ART initiation. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess predictors of genital shedding among women with undetectable plasma viral load (VL)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240636/the-etiology-of-genital-ulcer-disease-and-coinfections-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-zimbabwe-results-from-the-zimbabwe-sti-etiology-study
#19
More Mungati, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Mufuta Tshimanga, Peter H Kilmarx, Justice Nyakura, Gerald Shambira, Vitalis Kupara, David A Lewis, Elizabeth Gonese, Beth A Tippett Barr, H Hunter Handsfield, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
BACKGROUND: In many countries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are treated syndromically. Thus, patients diagnosed as having genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Zimbabwe receive a combination of antimicrobials to treat syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and genital herpes. Periodic studies are necessary to assess the current etiology of GUD and assure the appropriateness of current treatment guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 6 geographically diverse clinics in Zimbabwe serving high numbers of STI cases to enroll men and women with STI syndromes, including GUD...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240633/sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-of-hiv-positive-medicare-and-medicaid-enrollees-falls-short-of-guidelines
#20
Raphael J Landovitz, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men with HIV have high sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends at least yearly STI screening of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: We calculated testing rates for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among HIV-positive Californians with Medicare or Medicaid insurance in 2010. Logistic regressions estimated how testing for each bacterial STI relates to demographic and provider factors...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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