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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053932/the-patterns-of-in-vitro-cell-death-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-distinct-bcg-vaccine-strains-are-differentially-induced-in-human-mononuclear-cells
#1
C Ponte, M Hacker, M Moraes, L Castello-Branco, F Silva, P Antas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053912/community-based-screening-of-hepatitis-c-with-a-one-step-rna-detection-algorithm-from-dried-blood-spots-analysis-of-key-populations-in-barcelona-spain
#2
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053867/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-peafowl-pavo-cristatus-toll-like-receptor-7
#3
H Song, M Zhang, W Gao, L Wu, G Li
In order to clone the peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene and study its biological function, the peafowl TLR7 coding sequences (CDS) were amplified by PCR of cDNA from the whole spleen of peafowl. The full-length sequence of the peafowl TLR7 gene CDS is 3,141 bp and encodes a 1,046-amino acid protein with a classic TLR composition of 16 leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Insertions of amino acids were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR5, LRR7, LRR9, LRR11, LRR12, LRR14, and LRR15; and position 10 of LRR11...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053737/screening-for-hiv-hepatitis-b-and-syphilis-on-dried-blood-spots-a-promising-method-to-better-reach-hidden-high-risk-populations-with-self-collected-sampling
#4
Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Rosalie Heuts, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe
INTRODUCTION: Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053425/association-of-mannose-binding-lectin-rs1800450-and-tumor-necrotic-factor-%C3%AE-rs1800620-polymorphism-with-helicobacter-pylori-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Elnaz Mortazavi, Behnaz Eslami, Parisa Aghahosseini, Fatemeh Ahron, Armagan Amininejad, Sepideh Mahmoodi, Hadis Satarpour, Nilofar Radmanesh, Hossein Rassi
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the prevalent type of diabetes, including 90% of the cases world-wide. Helicobacter pylori plays a pathogenic role in the development of T2DM. The host genetic factors have a significant impact on the clinical outcome and anatomical distribution of H. pylori infection and polymorphisms in several genes such as tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and are considered to increase the risk for the development of T2DM. In this study, we investigate the prevalence rate of H...
October 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053015/susceptibility-biomarker-detection-in-urine-exfoliate-dna
#6
Pieranna Chiarella, Damiano Carbonari, Pasquale Capone, Delia Cavallo, Sergio Iavicoli, Antonella Mansi, Renata Sisto, Giovanna Tranfo
AIM: The occupational biomonitoring of exposures to carcinogens is carried out by measuring dose (metabolites) and susceptibility biomarkers (gene polymorphisms) in two biological matrices: urine for metabolite detection and blood for genotyping. Blood is the most common substrate but has some disadvantages including: invasiveness of the harvesting technique; need of specialized staff and equipment; and high infection risk. METHODS & RESULTS: We propose our in-house approach using urine as single sample in 20 volunteers for simultaneous detection of dose and susceptibility biomarkers in order to verify efficacy and feasibility...
October 20, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052521/high-seroprevalance-of-neospora-caninum-in-dogs-in-victoria-australia-compared-to-20%C3%A2-years-ago
#7
Sarah Sloan, Jan Šlapeta, Abdul Jabbar, Jaimie Hunnam, Bert De Groef, Grant Rawlin, Christina McCowan
BACKGROUND: Canids are definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, the leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. For horizontal transmission from canids to occur, oocysts of N. caninum must be shed by the definitive host into the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts such as cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of N. caninum in canids in Victoria, Australia's leading dairy producing state. RESULTS: Neospora-like oocysts were observed in 8% (18/234) of faecal samples from wild dogs, domestic dogs and red foxes from Victoria, Australia...
October 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052469/vitamin-d-and-l-isoleucine-promote-antimicrobial-peptide-hbd-2-production-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-elderly-individuals
#8
Julio E Castañeda-Delgado, Zajda Araujo, Irma Gonzalez-Curiel, Carmen J Serrano, Cesar Rivas Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Elderly individuals are susceptible to develop infectious diseases; promoting innate immunity to prevent infections is a key issue. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. L-isoleucine and vitamin D are important molecules that induce hBD-2. The Aim of this study was to determine the use L-isoleucine and Vitamin D to induce hBD-2 in cells from healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with recurrent infections. We explored three groups: young adults (n = 20) used as control group, elderly adults (n = 18) and elderly with recurrent infections (n = 11)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052354/revisiting-the-ancylostoma-caninum-secretome-provides-new-information-on-hookworm-host-interactions
#9
Taylor Morante, Catherine Shepherd, Constantin Constantinoiu, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Hookworm infection is a major tropical parasitic disease affecting almost 500 million people worldwide. These soil-transmitted helminths can survive for many years in the intestine of the host, where they feed on blood, causing iron deficiency anaemia and other complications. These parasites release a variety of molecules known as excretory/secretory products (ESPs) that are involved in many different biological processes that govern parasite survival. Using a combination of separation techniques such as SDS-PAGE and OFFGEL electrophoresis, in combination with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry we have reanalysed the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, ESPs (AcES)...
October 20, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052340/absence-of-neurocognitive-disadvantage-associated-with-paediatric-hiv-subtype-a-infection-in-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Paul Bangirana, Theodore D Ruel, Michael J Boivin, Satish K Pillai, Leila B Giron, Alla Sikorskii, Asish Banik, Jane Achan
INTRODUCTION: Infection with HIV subtype A has been associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes compared to HIV subtype D in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we sought to determine whether subtype-specific differences are also observed among children receiving ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children were recruited from a clinical trial in which they were randomized to receive either lopinavir (LPV)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)- based ART (NCT00978068)...
October 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052242/emerging-infectious-disease-outbreaks-estimating-disease-risk-in-australian-blood-donors-travelling-overseas
#11
A Coghlan, V C Hoad, C R Seed, R Lp Flower, R J Harley, D Herbert, H M Faddy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: International travel assists spread of infectious pathogens. Australians regularly travel to South-eastern Asia and the isles of the South Pacific, where they may become infected with infectious agents, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses that pose a potential risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, donors are temporarily restricted from donating for fresh component manufacture following travel to many countries, including those in this study...
October 19, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052139/parasite-associated-cancers-blood-flukes-liver-flukes
#12
Meng Feng, Xunjia Cheng
Parasitic infection remains as a persistent public health problem and can be carcinogenic. Three helminth parasites, namely, Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke) and Opisthorchis viverrini as well as Schistosoma haematobium (blood fluke), are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Infection with liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2011)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052136/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-and-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#13
Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus discovered to cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly aggressive blood cancer. HTLV-1 research in the past 35 years has been most revealing in the mechanisms of viral oncogenesis. HTLV-1 establishes a lifelong persistent infection in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The infection outcome is governed by host immunity. ATL develops in 2-5% of infected individuals 30-50 years after initial exposure. HTLV-1 encodes two oncoproteins Tax and HBZ, which are required for initiation of cellular transformation and maintenance of cell proliferation, respectively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052092/a-72-h-intervention-for-improvement-of-the-rate-of-optimal-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#14
R Murri, F Taccari, T Spanu, T D'Inzeo, I Mastrorosa, F Giovannenze, G Scoppettuolo, G Ventura, C Palazzolo, M Camici, S Lardo, B Fiori, M Sanguinetti, R Cauda, M Fantoni
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are implemented to optimize the use of antibiotics and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many antimicrobial stewardship interventions have demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, the duration of antimicrobial therapy, and mortality. We evaluated the benefits of a combination of rapid diagnostic tests and an active re-evaluation of antibiotic therapy 72 h after the onset of bloodstream infection (BSI). All patients with BSI from November 2015 to November 2016 in a 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, where an Infectious Disease Consultancy Unit (Unità di Consulenza Infettivologica, UDCI) is available, were re-evaluated at the bedside 72 h after starting antimicrobial therapy and compared to two pre-intervention periods: the UDCI was called by the ward physician for patients with BSI and the UDCI was called directly by the microbiologist immediately after a pathogen was isolated from blood cultures...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051881/fracture-management-in-pyknodysostosis-a-rare-case-report
#15
G Subramanya Gandhi, V Vijayanarasimhan, Lionel John, S Kailash, E Sathish Balaji
INTRODUCTION: Pyknodysostosis is congenital osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia of a rare entity. It is an autosomal recessive disease which presents with short stature and generalized osteosclerosis of skeleton as result of decreased bone turnover. Here, the authors report a case of pyknodysostosis who presented to our emergency room with a pathological fracture in the shaft of the femur for which operative intervention was carried out. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female presented to our emergency room with a history of trivial injury to right thigh region and was diagnosed as fracture in her right femur shaft region...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051761/predicting-risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma-utility-of-immune-profiling
#16
Benjamin W Teh, Simon J Harrison, Cody Charles Allison, Monica A Slavin, Tim Spelman, Leon J Worth, Karin A Thursky, David Ritchie, Marc Pellegrini
BACKGROUND: A translational study in patients with myeloma to determine the utility of immune profiling to predict infection risk in patients with hematological malignancy was conducted. METHODS: Baseline, end of induction, and maintenance peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 patients were evaluated. Immune cell populations and cytokines released from 1 × 10(6) cells/ml cultured in the presence of a panel of stimuli (cytomegalovirus, influenza, S. pneumoniae, phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin) and in media alone were quantified...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051609/liquid-infused-nitric-oxide-releasing-linorel-silicone-for-decreased-fouling-thrombosis-and-infection-of-medical-devices
#17
Marcus J Goudie, Jitendra Pant, Hitesh Handa
Recent reports on liquid-infused materials have shown promise in creating ultra-low fouling surfaces, but are limited in their ability to prevent bacterial proliferation and prevent platelet activation in blood-contacting applications. In this work, a liquid-infused nitric oxide-releasing (LINORel) material is created by incorporating the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and silicone oil in commercial medical grade silicone rubber tubing through a solvent swelling process. This combination provides several key advantages over previous NO-releasing materials, including decreased leaching of NO donor, controlled release of NO, and maintenance of ultra-low fouling property of liquid-infused materials...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051603/quantitative-assessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-opening-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-hyaluronidase-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#18
Su Luo, Qing Cao, Ke Ma, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen causing meningitis in animals and humans. However, little is known about the entry of S. agalactiae into brain tissue. In this study, we developed a BALB/c mouse model based on the intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-positive Escherichia coli M5 as an indicator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Under physiological conditions, the BBB is impermeable to E. coli M5. In pathological conditions caused by S. agalactiae, E. coli M5 is capable of penetrating the brain through a disrupted BBB...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051342/-68-ga-nota-functionalized-ubiquicidin-cytotoxicity-biodistribution-radiation-dosimetry-and-first-in-human-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-imaging-of-infections
#19
Thomas Ebenhan, Mike Sathekge, Thabo Lenagana, Michel Koole, Olivier Gheysens, Thavendran Govender, Jan R Zeevaart
Ubiquicidin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with great potential for nuclear imaging of infectious diseases as its cationic-rich fragment TGRAKRRMQYNRR (UBI) has been functionalized with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) to allow complexation to Gallium-68 ((68)Ga-NOTA-UBI). We herein assess the cytotoxicity, radiation dosimetry for (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI and a first-in-human evaluation to diagnose infectious processes. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated in green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells and MT-4 leucocytes...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051184/novel-use-of-hydroxyurea-in-an-african-region-with-malaria-noharm-a-trial-for-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#20
Robert O Opoka, Christopher M Ndugwa, Teresa S Latham, Adam Lane, Heather A Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James S Hodges, Russell E Ware, Chandy C John
Hydroxyurea treatment is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) living in high-resource malaria-free regions, but its safety and efficacy in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest sickle cell burden exists, remain unknown. In vitro studies suggest hydroxyurea could increase malaria severity, and hydroxyurea-associated neutropenia could worsen infections. NOHARM was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in malaria-endemic Uganda, comparing hydroxyurea to placebo at 20 ± 2...
October 19, 2017: Blood
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