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"Microbial ecology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223257/the-fecal-microbiome-of-dogs-with-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#1
Anitha Isaiah, Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, Jörg M Steiner, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jan S Suchodolski
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a syndrome of inadequate synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Small intestinal bacterial dysbiosis occurs in dogs with EPI, and is reversed with pancreatic enzyme therapy. However, there are no studies evaluating the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. Three day pooled fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs (n = 18), untreated (n = 7) dogs with EPI, and dogs with EPI treated with enzyme replacement therapy (n = 19)...
February 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213337/effect-of-advanced-oxidation-on-n-nitrosodimethylamine-ndma-formation-and-microbial-ecology-during-pilot-scale-biological-activated-carbon-filtration
#2
Dong Li, Ben Stanford, Eric Dickenson, Wendell O Khunjar, Carissa L Homme, Erik J Rosenfeldt, Jonathan O Sharp
Water treatment combining advanced oxidative processes with subsequent exposure to biological activated carbon (BAC) holds promise for the attenuation of recalcitrant pollutants. Here we contrast oxidation and subsequent biofiltration of treated wastewater effluent employing either ozone or UV/H2O2 followed by BAC during pilot-scale implementation. Both treatment trains largely met target water quality goals by facilitating the removal of a suite of trace organics and bulk water parameters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation was observed in ozone fed BAC columns during biofiltration and to a lesser extent in UV/H2O2 fed columns and was most pronounced at 20 min of empty bed contact time (EBCT) when compared to shorter EBCTs evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202080/mentholation-affects-the-cigarette-microbiota-by-selecting-for-bacteria-resistant-to-harsh-environmental-conditions-and-selecting-against-potential-bacterial-pathogens
#3
Jessica Chopyk, Suhana Chattopadhyay, Prachi Kulkarni, Emma Claye, Kelsey R Babik, Molly C Reid, Eoghan M Smyth, Lauren E Hittle, Joseph N Paulson, Raul Cruz-Cano, Mihai Pop, Stephanie S Buehler, Pamela I Clark, Amy R Sapkota, Emmanuel F Mongodin
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding the microbial constituents of tobacco products and their impacts on public health. Moreover, there has been no comparative characterization performed on the bacterial microbiota associated with the addition of menthol, an additive that has been used by tobacco manufacturers for nearly a century. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted bacterial community profiling on tobacco from user- and custom-mentholated/non-mentholated cigarette pairs, as well as a commercially-mentholated product...
February 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201744/synthetic-microbial-ecology-and-the-dynamic-interplay-between-microbial-genotypes
#4
Jan Dolinšek, Felix Goldschmidt, David R Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197142/home-made-cost-effective-preservation-buffer-is-a-better-alternative-to-commercial-preservation-methods-for-microbiome-research
#5
Sebastian Menke, Mark A F Gillingham, Kerstin Wilhelm, Simone Sommer
The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197130/mineralizing-filamentous-bacteria-from-the-prony-bay-hydrothermal-field-give-new-insights-into-the-functioning-of-serpentinization-based-subseafloor-ecosystems
#6
Céline Pisapia, Emmanuelle Gérard, Martine Gérard, Léna Lecourt, Susan Q Lang, Bernard Pelletier, Claude E Payri, Christophe Monnin, Linda Guentas, Anne Postec, Marianne Quéméneur, Gaël Erauso, Bénédicte Ménez
Despite their potential importance as analogs of primitive microbial metabolisms, the knowledge of the structure and functioning of the deep ecosystems associated with serpentinizing environments is hampered by the lack of accessibility to relevant systems. These hyperalkaline environments are depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), making the carbon sources and assimilation pathways in the associated ecosystems highly enigmatic. The Prony Bay Hydrothermal Field (PHF) is an active serpentinization site where, similar to Lost City (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), high-pH fluids rich in H2 and CH4 are discharged from carbonate chimneys at the seafloor, but in a shallower lagoonal environment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194679/soil-properties-and-microbial-ecology-of-a-paddy-field-after-repeated-applications-of-domestic-and-industrial-sewage-sludges
#7
Xiaoyan Liu, Wuxing Liu, Qingling Wang, Longhua Wu, Yongming Luo, Peter Christie
The effects of repeated application of two types of sewage sludge, domestic and industrial (petrochemical, PSS) sludges, into paddy fields over a 5-year period on the soil properties and microbial ecology were studied and compared with conventional NPK fertilizer application. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were significantly higher in the two sludge treatments than that in fertilized plots after 5 years. Soil concentrations of potentially toxic metals were low after 5 years of both sludge treatments, but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed differences between the two sludge types...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185400/microdiversity-shapes-the-traits-niche-space-and-biogeography-of-microbial-taxa
#8
REVIEW
Alyse A Larkin, Adam C Martiny
With rapidly improving sequencing technologies, scientists have recently gained the ability to examine diverse microbial communities at high genomic resolution, revealing that both free-living and host-associated microbes partition their environment at fine phylogenetic scales. This "microdiversity," or closely related (>97% similar 16S rRNA gene) but ecologically and physiologically distinct sub-taxonomic groups, appears to be an intrinsic property of microorganisms. However, the functional implications of microdiversity as well as its effects on microbial biogeography are poorly understood...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177786/response-of-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-under-different-culture-conditions
#9
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yuhong Fei
Roxarsone is a feed additive widely used in broiler and swine industry that has the potential to contaminate environment, mainly via the use of poultry manure as fertilizer, which results in release of inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. This study was conducted to investigate the roxarsone degradation and the response of microbial community under different culture conditions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Poultry litter was incubated for 288 h in the presence of roxarsone under light aerobic, dark aerobic, or dark anaerobic conditions, showing that roxarsone was completely degraded after 48 h of dark anaerobic incubation, while 79...
January 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167944/intestinal-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-altered-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-serum-free-fatty-acids-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Patricia López, Borja Sánchez, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
Metabolic impairments are a frequent hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are commonly found in these patients, although the underlying causes remain elusive. Recently, it has been suggested that factors other than inflammation or clinical features may be involved. The gut microbiota is known to influence the host metabolism, the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) playing a potential role. Taking into account that lupus patients exhibit an intestinal dysbiosis, we wondered whether altered FFA levels may be associated with the intestinal microbial composition in lupus patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153886/draft-genome-sequence-of-deep-sea-alteromonas-sp-strain-v450-isolated-from-the-marine-sponge-leiodermatium-sp
#11
Guojun Wang, Nolan H Barrett, Peter J McCarthy
The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies.
February 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115400/revisiting-life-strategy-concepts-in-environmental-microbial-ecology
#12
Adrian Ho, D Paolo Di Lonardo, Paul L E Bodelier
Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging...
January 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111899/applying-population-and-community-ecology-theory-to-advance-understanding-of-belowground-biogeochemistry
#13
REVIEW
Robert W Buchkowski, Mark A Bradford, Andrew Stuart Grandy, Oswald J Schmitz, William R Wieder
Approaches to quantifying and predicting soil biogeochemical cycles mostly consider microbial biomass and community composition as products of the abiotic environment. Current numerical approaches then primarily emphasise the importance of microbe-environment interactions and physiology as controls on biogeochemical cycles. Decidedly less attention has been paid to understanding control exerted by community dynamics and biotic interactions. Yet a rich literature of theoretical and empirical contributions highlights the importance of considering how variation in microbial population ecology, especially biotic interactions, is related to variation in key biogeochemical processes like soil carbon formation...
February 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108123/deb-modeling-for-nanotoxicology-microbial-ecology-and-environmental-engineering-comment-on-physics-of-metabolic-organization-by-marko-jusup-et-al
#14
Patricia A Holden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106010/models-of-life-epigenetics-diversity-cycles
#15
Kim Sneppen
This review emphasize aspects of biology that can be understood through repeated applications of simple causal rules. The selected topics include perspectives on gene regulation, phage lambda development, epigenetics, microbial ecology, as well as model approaches to diversity and punctuated equilibrium in evolution. Two outstanding features are repeatedly described. One is minimal rules to sustain specific states of a complex systems for a long time. The other is the collapse of such states and the subsequent dynamical cycle of situations that later return to new metastable states...
January 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#16
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088532/comparison-of-an-anaerobic-feed-and-split-anaerobic-aerobic-feed-on-granular-sludge-development-performance-and-ecology
#17
Benjamin J Thwaites, Petra Reeve, Nirmala Dinesh, Michael D Short, Ben van den Akker
The retrofitting of existing wastewater sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to select for rapid-settling aerobic granular sludge (AGS) over floc-based conventional activated sludge (CAS), could be a viable option to decrease reactor cycle time and increase hydraulic capacity. Successful CAS-to-AGS conversion has previously been shown to be highly dependent on having a dedicated anaerobic feed, which presents additional engineering challenges when retrofitting SBRs. In this study we compared the performance of a split anaerobic-aerobic (An-Aer) feed with that of a traditional dedicated anaerobic feed regarding AGS formation and stability, nitrogen removal performance and microbial ecology...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088423/effects-of-rumen-protected-capsicum-oleoresin-on-productivity-and-responses-to-a-glucose-tolerance-test-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
J Oh, M Harper, F Giallongo, D M Bravo, E H Wall, A N Hristov
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070331/effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-csl2-on-the-composition-and-functional-diversity-of-the-faecal-microbiota-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-with-salmonella-gallinarum
#19
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, Dong Soo Yang, Dae-Kyung Kang
BACKGROUND: The chicken gastrointestinal tract contains a diverse microbiota whose composition and structure play important roles in gut functionality. In this study, microbial shifts resulting from feed supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CSL2 were evaluated in broilers challenged and unchallenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. To analyse bacterial community composition and functionality, 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. RESULTS: The Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline was used to analyse changes in the faecal microbiota over a 24-h period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#20
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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