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Bovine Tuberculosis

Juan José Palacios, Yurena Navarro, Beatriz Romero, Ana Penedo, Ángela Menéndez González, M Dolores Pérez Hernández, Ana Fernández-Verdugo, Francisca Copano, Aurora Torreblanca, Emilio Bouza, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan, Darío García-de-Viedma
Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
A Robertson, R J Delahay, G J Wilson, I J Vernon, R A McDonald, J Judge
Knowledge of badger distribution is important for the management of bovine tuberculosis. At the farm level, typically the only information on badger activity available is from the farmers themselves. This study compares how well farmer perceptions of badger activity match data obtained from ecological surveys. Farmer estimates of numbers of badger setts (burrows) surrounding their farms were generally correlated with field survey results, but tended to be underestimates. Farmers correctly recorded 50 per cent of setts recorded in surveys, with larger setts and active setts more likely to be correctly recorded...
October 18, 2016: Veterinary Record
Jon Bielby, Flavie Vial, Rosie Woodroffe, Christl A Donnelly
Bovine tuberculosis is an important disease affecting the UK livestock industry. Controlling bovine tuberculosis (TB) is made more complex by the presence of a wildlife host, the Eurasian badger, Meles meles. Repeated large-scale badger culls implemented in the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) were associated with decreased cattle risks inside the culling area, but also with increased cattle risks up to the 2km outside the culling area. Intermediate reductions in badger density, as achieved by localised reactive culling in the RBCT, significantly increased cattle TB...
2016: PloS One
Bryce M Buddle, H Martin Vordermeier, R Glyn Hewinson
In this article we present experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection models in domestic livestock species and how these models were applied to vaccine development, biomarker discovery, and the definition of specific antigens for the differential diagnosis of infected and vaccinated animals. In particular, we highlight synergies between human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) research approaches and data and propose that the application of bovine TB models could make a valuable contribution to human TB vaccine research and that close alignment of both research programs in a one health philosophy will lead to mutual and substantial benefits...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Arata Hidano, Tim E Carpenter, Mark A Stevenson, M Carolyn Gates
Many countries implement regionalisation as a measure to control economically important livestock diseases. Given that regionalisation highlights the difference in disease risk between animal subpopulations, this may discourage herd managers in low-risk areas from purchasing animals from high-risk areas to protect the disease-free status of their herds. Using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand as a case example, we develop a novel network simulation model to predict how much the frequency of cattle movements between different disease control areas (DCAs) could theoretically change if herd managers adopted the safest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the lowest risk of bTB), if herd managers adopted the riskiest practices (preferentially purchasing cattle from areas with the greatest risk of bTB), or if herd managers made trade decisions completely at random (purchasing cattle without consideration for bTB disease risk)...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Francisco Olea-Popelka, Adrian Muwonge, Alejandro Perera, Anna S Dean, Elizabeth Mumford, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel, Simona Forcella, Benjamin J Silk, Lucica Ditiu, Ahmed El Idrissi, Mario Raviglione, Ottorino Cosivi, Philip LoBue, Paula I Fujiwara
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognised as the primary cause of human tuberculosis worldwide. However, substantial evidence suggests that the burden of Mycobacterium bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, might be underestimated in human beings as the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis. In 2013, results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of global zoonotic tuberculosis showed that the same challenges and concerns expressed 15 years ago remain valid. These challenges faced by people with zoonotic tuberculosis might not be proportional to the scientific attention and resources allocated in recent years to other diseases...
September 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
Regardless of host, pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granuloma, tubercle or tuberculoid granuloma. Granulomas represent a distinct host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathogens such as M. bovis. Granulomas are composed of specific cell types including epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes and a morphologically distinctive cell type, the multinucleated giant cell...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
S H Downs, J M Broughan, A V Goodchild, P A Upton, P A Durr
Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Diana Gassó, Joaquín Vicente, Gregorio Mentaberre, Ramón Soriguer, Rocío Jiménez Rodríguez, Nora Navarro-González, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Santiago Lavín, Pedro Fernández-Llario, Joaquim Segalés, Emmanuel Serrano
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS). The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE); hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in wild reservoirs...
2016: PloS One
Mukesh Kumar Thakur, Dharmender Kumar Sinha, Bhoj Raj Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Ehsan Gharib Mombeni, Nader Mosavari, Morad Moradi Gravand, Abdol Amir Rezai, Rohollah Keshavarz, Keyvan Tadayon, Reza Bakhshi, Reza Behmanesh
At present, most of Iran is free of bovine tuberculosis (TB). The strategy of control and eradication in Iran involves a tuberculation test and slaughter of reactors, a procedure transformed the present-day prevalence of TB into a sporadic occurrence. This paper describes the first report of bovine tuberculosis in a European fallow deer (Dama dama dama) in Iran. The deer was emaciated and found dead in the Hoveize Provincial Zoo Park. Post-mortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous and suppurative abscesses in the lungs and mesenteric lymph nodes...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho, Sidra Ezidio Gonçalves Vasconcellos, Marina de Azevedo Issa, Paulo Martins Soares Filho, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho Mota, Flábio Ribeiro de Araújo, Ana Carolina da Silva Carvalho, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Philip Noel Suffys, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza Figueiredo, Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás...
2016: PloS One
Shari Fell, Stephanie Bröckl, Mathias Büttner, Anna Rettinger, Pia Zimmermann, Reinhard K Straubinger
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), which is caused by Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae, is a notifiable animal disease in Germany. Diagnostic procedure is based on a prescribed protocol that is published in the framework of German bTB legislation. In this protocol small sample volumes are used for DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR analyses. As mycobacteria tend to concentrate in granuloma and the infected tissue in early stages of infection does not necessarily show any visible lesions, it is likely that DNA extraction from only small tissue samples (20-40 mg) of a randomly chosen spot from the organ and following PCR testing may result in false negative results...
2016: BMC Microbiology
F J Salguero, S Gibson, W Garcia-Jimenez, J Gough, T S Strickland, H M Vordermeier, B Villarreal-Ramos
Cattle vaccination against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has been proposed as a supplementary method to help control the incidences of this disease. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only viable candidate vaccine for immunization of cattle against bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In an attempt to characterize the differences in the immune response following M. bovis infection between BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals, a combination of gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses was used...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Azlan Che-Amat, Maria Ángeles Risalde, David González-Barrio, Jose Antonio Ortíz, Christian Gortázar
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) is challenging and might require combining cellular and humoral diagnostic tests. Repeated skin-testing with mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs) might sensitize or desensitize the subjects to both kinds of diagnostic tools. We evaluated the effect of repeated (every 6 months) comparative tuberculin skin testing on skin test and ELISA responsiveness in farmed red deer hinds from a TB-free herd. Eighteen 8-month old hinds were inoculated with bovine and avian PPDs and the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), as positive control and concurrently tested by ELISA for antibodies against avian (avian PPD, aPPD and protoplasmatic antigen 3, PPA3) and bovine antigens (bPPD and MPB70)...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
J Awah-Ndukum, J Temwa, V Ngu Ngwa, M M Mouiche, D Iyawa, P A Zoli
Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68...
2016: Veterinary Medicine International
Alejandro Nava Vargas, Feliciano Milián Suazo, Germinal Jorge Cantó Alarcón, Yezenia Rubio Venegas, Roberto Guerrero Solorio, Elba Rodríguez Hernández, Oscar Pizano Martìnez
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), which affects cattle, animal species and humans. To determinate the genetic structure of strains of M. bovis in mexican cattle, 467 isolates obtained from 2009 to 2010 from different regions of Mexico with known spoligotype were included in the study. The isolates were genotyped by interspersed repeated mycobacterial units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) obtaining 13 MIRU-VNTR groups. When combining MIRU-VNTR patterns with its spolygotypes, the Hunter genetic discrimination index (HGDI), we obtained 421 genetic patterns distributed in 17 groups...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maud Marsot, Marina Béral, Axelle Scoizec, Yoann Mathevon, Benoit Durand, Aurélie Courcoul
Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne)...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
L P Doyle, E A Courcier, A W Gordon, M J H O'Hagan, F D Menzies
This study investigated 8058 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) confirmed breakdowns occurring in Northern Ireland during the period 2005-2010 inclusive. The methodology used two case-control studies; one determined the risk factors associated with long duration bTB breakdowns and the other with recurrent bTB breakdowns. The analyses were implemented using a generalized linear mixed model analysis with variables relating to repeated measures on herds, locality and year of breakdown included as random effects. The case definition for long duration breakdowns (n=679) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration greater than one year...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hadar Feinberg, Neela D S Rambaruth, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Kristian M Jacobsen, Rasmus Djurhuus, Thomas B Poulsen, William I Weis, Maureen E Taylor, Kurt Drickamer
The macrophage receptor mincle binds to trehalose dimycolate on the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Signaling initiated by this interaction leads to cytokine production, which underlies the ability of mycobacteria to evade the immune system and also to function as adjuvants. In previous work the mechanism for binding of the sugar headgroup of trehalose dimycolate to mincle has been elucidated, but the basis for enhanced binding to glycolipid ligands, in which hydrophobic substituents are attached to the 6-hydroxyl groups, has been the subject of speculation...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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