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Bovine Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283872/screening-food-borne-and-zoonotic-pathogens-associated-with-livestock-practices-in-the-sumapaz-region-cundinamarca-colombia
#1
Nelson E Arenas, Diego A Abril, Paola Valencia, Surabhi Khandige, Carlos Yesid Soto, Vilma Moreno-Melo
Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis by a competitive ELISA...
March 11, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281163/effect-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-map-infection-on-the-diagnostic-accuracy-for-mycobacterium-bovis-m-bovis-infection-under-field-conditions-in-cattle-belonging-to-low-m-bovis-prevalence-herds
#2
E Raffo, P Steuer, G Monti, M Salgado
Currently, the Chilean authority has implemented a National Eradication Program for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), aimed at controlling and eradicating the disease in Chile. The area under study has a low within-herd prevalence, has a relatively low number of infected herds, and is one of the major milk and beef producing areas in the country. However, so far, no attempts at eradicating the disease have been successful. It has been suggested that the diagnostic tests used were either not sensitive or specific enough...
March 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258525/exposure-of-threatened-accipitridae-to-mycobacterium-bovis-calls-for-active-surveillance
#3
Mónica V Cunha, Beatriz Azorín, Rocío G Peñuela, Teresa Albuquerque, Ana Botelho
Anthropogenic activities have cumulatively led to the dramatic decline of world populations of vultures that currently face serious survival challenges in several regions of the world. In Portugal, the three resident species qualify as endangered and are under conservation efforts, mainly in the central east and south-east regions, where habitat protection and artificial feeding stations were implemented. Concurrently, the areas under protection are highly affected by tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and wild ungulates, whose potentially infected carcasses may naturally or artificially be used as feed by local vultures...
March 3, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237231/epidemiological-investigation-of-bovine-tuberculosis-outbreaks-in-uruguay-2011-2013
#4
Catalina Picasso, Julio Alvarez, Kimberly L VanderWaal, Federico Fernandez, Andres Gil, Scott J Wells, Andres Perez
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222182/epidemiological-tracing-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-switzerland-multilocus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacterium-caprae
#5
Giovanni Ghielmetti, Simone Scherrer, Ute Friedel, Daniel Frei, Dominique Suter, Lukas Perler, Max M Wittenbrink
BACKGROUND: After 15 years of absence, in 2013 bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis and M. caprae, reemerged in the Swiss dairy cattle population. In order to identify the sources of infection as well as the spread of the agents, molecular-epidemiologic tracing by MIRU-VNTR analysis in combination with spoligotyping was performed. A total of 17 M. bovis and 7 M. caprae isolates were cultured from tuberculous bovine lymph nodes and analyzed with a set of 49 genetic markers by using automated capillary electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#6
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207828/the-wide-spectrum-high-biocidal-potency-of-bioxy-formulation-when-dissolved-in-water-at-different-concentrations
#7
Dori Dagher, Ken Ungar, Richard Robison, Fadi Dagher
Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats") are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194548/investigation-of-intra-herd-spread-of-mycobacterium-caprae-in-cattle-by-generation-and-use-of-a-whole-genome-sequence
#8
S Broeckl, S Krebs, A Varadharajan, R K Straubinger, H Blum, M Buettner
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) calculated from whole genome sequencing (WGS) are ideally suited to study evolutionary relationships of pathogens and their epidemiology. Mycobacterium caprae infections have been documented frequently in cattle and red deer along the Bavarian and Austrian Alps during the last decade. However, little is still known about the transmission within cattle holdings and possible alterations of the genomes of M. caprae during such events. The aim of this study was to study the molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in selected herds based on isolate-specific genome-wide SNPs and to perform a phylogenetic network analysis...
February 13, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#9
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177046/stable-expression-of-mycobacterium-bovis-antigen-85b-in-auxotrophic-m-bovis-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#10
Caroline Rizzi, Ana Carolina Peiter, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas, Karen Silva Leal, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Sibele Borsuk, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, responsible for causing major losses in livestock. A cost effective alternative to control the disease could be herd vaccination. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has a limited efficacy against bovine TB, but can improved by over-expression of protective antigens. The M. bovis antigen 85B demonstrates ability to induce protective immune response against bovine TB in animal models. However, current systems for the construction of recombinant BCG expressing multiple copies of the gene result in strains of low genetic stability that rapidly lose the plasmid in vivo...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176607/factors-affecting-the-gamma-interferon-test-in-the-detection-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-cattle
#11
Geoffrey W de Lisle, Richard S Green, Bryce M Buddle
The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) test has been used for many years as an ancillary test in the detection of bovine tuberculosis. We investigated the effect of skin testing and the length of time between blood collection and processing on the performance of the IFN-γ test. A series of blood samples were taken from groups of experimentally infected cattle ( n = 10), naturally infected ( n = 11), and uninfected animals ( n = 12) that were examined with a caudal fold skin test. Blood was taken on the day of tuberculin injection, 3 d later when the skin tests were read, and 11-19 d post-tuberculin injection, and was processed for the IFN-γ test at 8, 30, and 36 h postcollection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174695/the-effect-of-oral-vaccination-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-on-the-development-of-tuberculosis-in-captive-european-badgers-meles-meles
#12
Mark A Chambers, Frank Aldwell, Gareth A Williams, Si Palmer, Sonya Gowtage, Roland Ashford, Deanna J Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Francisco J Salguero, Alejandro Nunez, Allan K Nadian, Timothy Crawshaw, Leigh A L Corner, Sandrine Lesellier
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168855/vaccination-of-calves-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-reduces-the-frequency-and-severity-of-lesions-of-bovine-tuberculosis-under-a-natural-transmission-setting-in-ethiopia
#13
G Ameni, K Tafess, A Zewde, T Eguale, M Tilahun, T Hailu, A Sirak, F J Salguero, S Berg, A Aseffa, R G Hewinson, H M Vordermeier
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in Ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. In the present study, the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against bTB was assessed in Holstein-Friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. Twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG Danish SSI strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. Six weeks later, calves were introduced into a herd of M...
February 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159234/immunohistochemical-detection-of-pro-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-granulomas-in-cattle-with-natural-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#14
Ana M Canal, Natalia Pezzone, Angel Cataldi, Martín Zumarraga, Mariano Larzabal, Sergio Garbaccio, Analía Fernandez, Lucas Dominguez, Alicia Aranaz, Antonio Rodriguez-Bertos
Cellular immune response was evaluated in lymph nodes and lung with different granulomatous lesions from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. For this purpose, we assessed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by immunohistochemical assays. Immunoreaction was observed for all the cytokines analyzed. Fourteen animals displayed advanced stage IV granulomas, with intense immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and TGF-β in areas of caseous necrosis, macrophages and lymphocytes. Seven animals showed stage III granuloma, with high immunoreactivity to IFN-γ (average of 44...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155286/wildlife-livestock-interactions-and-risk-areas-for-cross-species-spread-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#15
Natascha V Meunier, Peregrine Sebulime, Richard G White, Richard Kock
The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database...
January 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152056/transmission-dynamics-and-elimination-potential-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis-in-morocco
#16
Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Hind Yahyaoui Azami, Philipp Justus Bless, Lisa Crump, Petra Lohmann, Mirjam Laager, Nakul Chitnis, Jakob Zinsstag
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an endemic zoonosis in Morocco caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which infects many domestic animals and is transmitted to humans through consumption of raw milk or from contact with infected animals. The prevalence of BTB in Moroccan cattle is estimated at 18%, and 33% at the individual and the herd level respectively, but the human M. bovis burden needs further clarification. The current control strategy based on test and slaughter should be improved through local context adaptation taking into account a suitable compensation in order to reduce BTB prevalence in Morocco and decrease the disease burden in humans and animals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143571/single-cas9-nickase-induced-generation-of-nramp1-knockin-cattle-with-reduced-off-target-effects
#17
Yuanpeng Gao, Haibo Wu, Yongsheng Wang, Xin Liu, Linlin Chen, Qian Li, Chenchen Cui, Xu Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Yong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a widely utilized platform for transgenic animal production in various species, although its off-target effects should be addressed. Several applications of this tool have been proposed in model animals but remain insufficient for transgenic livestock production. RESULTS: Here, we report the first application of single Cas9 nickase (Cas9n) to induce gene insertion at a selected locus in cattle. We identify the main binding sites of a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) protein in bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs) with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
February 1, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134065/effect-of-host-diversity-and-species-assemblage-composition-on-bovine-tuberculosis-btb-risk-in-ethiopian-cattle
#18
Dejene W Sintayehu, Ignas M A Heitkönig, Herbert H T Prins, Zewdu K Tessema, Willem F DE Boer
Current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term 'diversity' embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. We therefore tested the effects of species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon's diversity on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk in cattle in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015...
January 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130998/investigations-and-implications-of-associations-between-mycobacterial-purified-protein-derivative-hypersensitivity-and-map-antibody-elisa-in-irish-dairy-cows
#19
A E Kennedy, N Byrne, J O'Mahony, R G Sayers
Intradermal testing, involving administration of purified protein derivative (PPD), to elicit a delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) response, is used as a diagnostic tool for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and to aid in the identification of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). Further research is required to increase the diagnostic value of skin testing for MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate if animals showing DTH reactions to PPD had an associated increase in MAP ELISA response, thereby identifying potential cases of sub-clinical JD...
January 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122192/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-african-lions-panthera-leo-in-the-kruger-national-park
#20
Tashnica Taime Sylvester, Laura Elizabeth Rosen Martin, Peter Buss, Andre Gareth Loxton, Guy Anton Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Paul van Helden, Sven David Charles Parsons, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Michele Ann Miller
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are susceptible to BTB, but the impact of the disease on lion populations is unknown. In this study, we used a novel gene expression assay for chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) to measure the prevalence of M. bovis infection in 70 free-ranging lions that were opportunistically sampled in the southern and central regions of the KNP. In the southern region of the KNP, the apparent prevalence of M...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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