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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897446/the-influence-of-visual-vestibular-and-hindlimb-proprioceptive-ablations-on-landing-preparation-in-cane-toads
#1
S M Cox, L J Ekstrom, G B Gillis
Coordinated landing from a jump requires preparation, which must include appropriate positioning and configuration of the landing limbs and body to be successful. While well studied in mammals, our lab has been using the cane toad (Rhinella marinus) as a model for understanding the biomechanics of controlled landing in anurans, animals that use jumping or bounding as their dominant mode of locomotion. In this paper, we report new results from experiments designed to explore how different modes of sensory feedback contribute to previously identified features of coordinated landing in toads...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873392/facial-expressions-and-pair-bonds-in-hylobatids
#2
Brittany Florkiewicz, Gabriella Skollar, Ulrich H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849550/effectiveness-of-serious-games-for-leap-motion-on-the-functionality-of-the-upper-limb-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-feasibility-study
#3
Edwin Daniel Oña, Carlos Balaguer, Roberto Cano-de la Cuerda, Susana Collado-Vázquez, Alberto Jardón
The design and application of Serious Games (SG) based on the Leap Motion sensor are presented as a tool to support the rehabilitation therapies for upper limbs. Initially, the design principles and their implementation are described, focusing on improving both unilateral and bilateral manual dexterity and coordination. The design of the games has been supervised by specialized therapists. To assess the therapeutic effectiveness of the proposed system, a protocol of trials with Parkinson's patients has been defined...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800408/empowering-latina-breast-cancer-patients-to-make-informed-decisions-about-clinical-trials-a-pilot-study
#4
Patricia Chalela, Edgar Muñoz, Kipling J Gallion, Virginia Kaklamani, Amelie G Ramirez
Minority representation in clinical trials is vital for researchers to assess differential effects in outcomes of therapies on biological and genetic characteristics among groups. This study assessed the effect of Choices, a bilingual multi-component intervention, on perceived understanding of clinical trials, agreement with stages of decision readiness and consideration of clinical trials as a treatment option, among Latina breast cancer patients. This randomized controlled pilot study compared Choices with a control condition providing general clinical trial information to eligible patients...
May 23, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797280/touch-the-table-before-the-target-contact-with-an-underlying-surface-may-assist-the-development-of-precise-visually-controlled-reach-and-grasp-movements-in-human-infants
#5
Jenni M Karl, Alexis M Wilson, Marisa E Bertoli, Noor S Shubear
Multiple motor channel theory posits that skilled hand movements arise from the coordinated activation of separable neural circuits in parietofrontal cortex, each of which produces a distinct movement and responds to different sensory inputs. Prehension, the act of reaching to grasp an object, consists of at least two movements: a reach movement that transports the hand to a target location and a grasp movement that shapes and closes the hand for target acquisition. During early development, discrete pre-reach and pre-grasp movements are refined based on proprioceptive and tactile feedback, but are gradually coordinated together into a singular hand preshaping movement under feedforward visual control...
May 24, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772388/key-risk-indicators-for-accident-assessment-conditioned-on-pre-crash-vehicle-trajectory
#6
X Shi, Y D Wong, M Z F Li, C Chai
Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation...
May 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#7
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764639/web-based-versus-face-to-face-interprofessional-team-encounters-with-standardized-patients
#8
Kelly A Lempicki, Christine S Holland
BACKGROUND: Challenges exist in developing interprofessional education (IPE) activities including coordinating schedules and obtaining appropriate space for teams to work. Virtual worlds have been explored as a means to overcome some of these challenges. We sought to develop a web-based interprofessional team interaction with a standardized patient (SP), as compared to a face-to-face SP interaction, focusing on the competency area of interprofessional communication. INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITY: Interprofessional teams of students were randomized to complete a web-based or face-to-face SP encounter...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761961/-study-on-method-of-laparoscopic-training-based-on-eye-gaze-tracking-techniques
#9
Mingzhe Xu, Shuyi Wang, Shasha Ye
In current domestic research on laparoscopic training, researchers usually consider instrument movement path in the hand-eye coordination relationship. However, they ignore the information contained in visual cues by which could guide and control instrument movements. Studies in other areas have shown that trainers can improve their perceptual-motor skills by gaze training. This paper was designed to examine the effectiveness of eye gaze tracking technology in laparoscopic training and to analyze gaze strategy of the subjects in different training methods...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745752/predicting-volleyball-serve-reception-at-group-level
#10
Ana Paulo, Frank T J M Zaal, Ludovic Seifert, Sofia Fonseca, Duarte Araújo
In a group-serve-reception task, how does serve-reception become effective? We addressed "who" receives/passes the ball, what task-related variables predict action mode selection and whether the action mode selected was associated with reception efficacy. In 182 serve-receptions we tracked the ball and the receivers' heads with two video-cameras to generate 3D world-coordinates reconstructions. We defined receivers' reception-areas based on Voronoi diagrams (VD). Our analyses of the data showed that this approach was accurate in describing "who" receives the serve in 95...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745349/automated-moth-flight-analysis-in-the-vicinity-of-artificial-light
#11
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738942/functional-variability-in-the-flight-phase-of-one-metre-springboard-forward-dives
#12
Mohsen Sayyah, Michael J Hiley, Mark A King, Maurice R Yeadon
In springboard diving, low variability in takeoff conditions and in the somersault orientation angle at water entry is to be expected since consistency and accuracy are necessary for a good dive. A diver's adjustment of body configuration during flight may be a deliberate compensation for variations in takeoff conditions, leading to increased joint angle variability and decreased entry angle variability. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which a diver pre-plans the aerial phase and then makes adjustments in flight to control the entry angle in one metre springboard forward dives...
May 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689084/does-intrauterine-crowding-affect-locomotor-development-a-comparative-study-of-motor-performance-neuromotor-maturation-and-gait-variability-among-piglets-that-differ-in-birth-weight-and-vitality
#13
Charlotte Vanden Hole, Peter Aerts, Sara Prims, Miriam Ayuso, Steven Van Cruchten, Chris Van Ginneken
In polytocous species, such as pigs, the growth of an individual fetus is affected by competition from its littermates and the sow. This intrauterine competition greatly influences postnatal traits such as birth weight and vitality (physical strength). A lowered vitality is most often observed among low birth weight piglets. Since it has been argued that locomotion might be key to unraveling vitality-related differences, we compared gait development in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets) with piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets) by means of spatio-temporal gait analysis during locomotion at self-selected speed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665592/-videothoracoscopic-sympathetic-clipping-in-a-patient-with-azygos-lobe-intraoperative-management-to-avoid-potential-complications
#14
Waldemar Schreiner, Iurii Mykoliuk, Wojciech Dudek, Horia Sirbu
INTRODUCTION: Sympathetic clipping in the presence of an azygos lobe is a rare combination. Anatomical relations between the sympathetic trunk and the mesoazygos impede surgical handling and can be associated with potential complications. INDICATION: We report the case of a 25-year old woman with grade III palmoplantar and axillary hyperhidrosis with azygos lobe incidentally found on preoperative chest X-ray. METHOD: Our intraoperative video shows a step-by-step approach to the sympathetic trunk in the presence of the azygos lobe, involving thoracoscopic looping and precise clip application onto the sympathetic trunk...
April 17, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659547/multi-sensor-registration-in-high-precision-cmm-based-on-a-composite-standard
#15
Yan Zhao, Yiwen Wang, Xiuling Ye, Zhong Wang, Luhua Fu, Changjie Liu, Zhiwei Wang
Registration is a critical step in multi-sensor dimensional measurement. As the accuracy of registration directly impacts the quality of final results, a reference sphere as a common standard is problematic in high-precision registration. In this paper, a novel method based on a composite standard is proposed to fuse the multiple heterogeneous sensors in high-precision coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), which will void the drawbacks of a reference sphere. The composite standard consists of a cone and cylinder, which share a same central axis...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657116/gaze-and-the-control-of-foot-placement-when-walking-in-natural-terrain
#16
Jonathan Samir Matthis, Jacob L Yates, Mary M Hayhoe
Human locomotion through natural environments requires precise coordination between the biomechanics of the bipedal gait cycle and the eye movements that gather the information needed to guide foot placement. However, little is known about how the visual and locomotor systems work together to support movement through the world. We developed a system to simultaneously record gaze and full-body kinematics during locomotion over different outdoor terrains. We found that not only do walkers tune their gaze behavior to the specific information needed to traverse paths of varying complexity but that they do so while maintaining a constant temporal look-ahead window across all terrains...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616887/upper-limb-muscle-activation-during-sports-video-gaming-of-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Jeffrey P Jaramillo, M Elise Johanson, B Jenny Kiratli
OBJECTIVE: Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596584/high-volume-intensive-training-course-a-new-paradigm-for-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-education
#18
Alan D L Sihoe, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Timothy Y Yang, Yuming Zhu, Gening Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The emergence of ultra-high-volume centres promises new opportunities for thoracic surgical training. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel observership course in teaching video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) at an ultra-high-volume centre. METHODS: Two-week courses in VATS at a specialist unit now performing >10 000 major lung resections annually (>50 daily on average) were attended by 230 surgeons from around the world from 2013 to 2016...
March 27, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573697/changes-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-design-affect-in-vivo-kinematics-in-a-redesigned-total-knee-system-a-fluoroscopy-study
#19
Francesco Zambianchi, Francesco Fiacchi, Vincenzo Lombari, Luca Venturelli, Andrea Marcovigi, Andrea Giorgini, Fabio Catani
BACKGROUND: Journey II Bi-Cruciate-Stabilized knee system was designed to overcome the complications of Journey Bi-Cruciate-Stabilized, including ilio-tibial band inflammation and episodes of dislocation. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in knee kinematics between the first and second-generation design by means of video-fluoroscopy. Re-designed prosthesis in-vivo kinematics was analyzed during activities of daily living and results were eventually compared with those of the previous system, as reported in a previously published study...
May 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548061/the-role-of-virtual-rehabilitation-in-total-and-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty
#20
Morad Chughtai, John J Kelly, Jared M Newman, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Anil Bhave, Michael C Kolczun, Michael A Mont
This study evaluated the use of telerehabilitation during the postoperative period for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Specifically, this study evaluated the following: (1) patient compliance and adherence to the program, (2) time spent performing physical therapy exercises, (3) the usability of the virtual rehabilitation platform, and (4) clinical outcome scores in a selected primary knee arthroplasty cohort. A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent TKA ( n  = 18) or UKA ( n  = 139)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
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