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Grace H Hwang, Jessica L Hopkins, Philip W Jordan
Chromatin spread techniques have been widely used to assess the dynamic localization of various proteins during gametogenesis, particularly for spermatogenesis. These techniques allow for visualization of protein and DNA localization patterns during meiotic events such as homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and DNA repair. While a few protocols have been described in the literature, general chromatin spread techniques using mammalian prophase oocytes are limited and difficult due to the timing of meiosis initiation in fetal ovaries...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cedric Allier, Romaric Vincent, Fabrice Navarro, Mathilde Menneteau, Lamya Ghenim, Xavier Gidrol, Thomas Bordy, Lionel Hervé, Olivier Cioni, Sabine Bardin, Michel Bornens, Yves Usson, Sophie Morales
Here, we demonstrate that lens-free video microscopy enables us to simultaneously capture the kinetics of thousands of cells directly inside the incubator and that it is possible to monitor and quantify single cells along several cell cycles. We describe the full protocol used to monitor and quantify a HeLa cell culture for 2.7 days. First, cell culture acquisition is performed with a lens-free video microscope, and then the data is analyzed following a four-step process: multi-wavelength holographic reconstruction, cell-tracking, cell segmentation and cell division detection algorithms...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Klim McPherson, Shaymaa Al Waheidi
BACKGROUND: There has been extensive debate about whether mammographic screening has done more good than harm. Recent reviews showed that women who undergo mammographic screening are more likely to have a tumour that was an overdiagnosis and therefore would not cause them problems. In the Gaza Strip, a strong forum of people advocate an increase in mammographic screening, and the aim of this study was to establish the evidence for this view. METHODS: Research papers that have focused on breast screening in the Gaza Strip or elsewhere in the occupied Palestinian territory were reviewed...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Celeste H Claudio, Zoelle B Dizon, Tessie W October
BACKGROUND: Accessible information about palliative care available to the public on the Internet is growing. We do not know whether this information is consistent with the current accepted definition of palliative care. AIM: To identify resources on the Internet and social media regarding palliative care and evaluate the information conveyed. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of "palliative care" search results. SETTING: Top 10 Google websites, top 10 most viewed YouTube videos, and social media platforms, Facebook and Twitter, were searched...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Marcin Zieliński, Tomasz Nabialek, Juliusz Pankowski
Background: The aim of the study is a description of surgical technique of uniportal transcervical video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for pulmonary lobectomy. Methods: We used a collar neck incision (transcervical) of an average length 5-8 centimeters. The manubrium of the sternum is elevated with a hook connected to the Zakopane II frame (Aesculap-Chifa, B. Braun, Nowy Tomyśl, Poland). The first step is a transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA), for improved staging and possible improved survival...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Carl A Johnson, Amber L Melvin, Brandon F Lebow, Amanda Yap, Peter A Knight
Aortic valve replacement through minimally invasive access is increasing. These procedures have several advantages over conventional sternotomy including decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay and decreased ventilation time. The right anterior mini-thoracotomy (RAM) approach is potentially attractive in that it completely spares the sternum leading to improved cosmesis, reduced blood loss, and improved patient satisfaction. However, this approach is underutilized due to anticipated technical challenges including difficulty with visualization and annular suture placement...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Carl A Johnson, Katherine L Wood, Amber L Melvin, Brandon F Lebow, Peter A Knight
Aortic root replacement is typically performed through a median sternotomy. The right anterior mini-thoracotomy approach has been shown to decrease hospital length of stay in aortic valve surgery when compared to sternotomy. This approach is rare in ascending aortic surgery due to technical challenges which include exposure and annular suture placement. Automated suturing technology is now available to facilitate the placement of annular sutures. The use of a camera greatly enhances visualization of the aortic root...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Federico Davini, Sara Ricciardi, Carmelina Cristina Zirafa, Ilenia Cavaliere, Gaetano Romano, Franca Melfi
Background: The incidental detection of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is currently increasing due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) during the follow up in oncological patients or in screening trials. A quick and definitive histological diagnosis of these nodes is mandatory as, in case of primitive lung cancer, an early detection could improve both surgical results and prognosis. The minimally invasive pulmonary resection (MIPR) is the gold standard procedure for diagnosis and treatment of small lung nodules, but it can be difficult to localize deep nonpalpable nodes that lie in the lung parenchyma...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Massimo Osvaldo Jaus, Annarita Forcione, Alessandro Gonfiotti, Francesco Carleo, Alessia Raffaella De Massimi, Luigi Carbone, Marco Di Martino, Giuseppe Cardillo
Nowadays the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that invades the chest wall is still questioned. The classic approach is a lobectomy that requires chest wall resection through thoracotomy, but thanks to the progress in the field of thoracoscopic surgery, this procedure can be performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Major advances have been made in recent years both in the surgical technique associated with thoracoscopy and in the instrumentation available today. This has allowed the use of thoracoscopic technique even in advanced disease...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Paolo Lucciarini, Florian Augustin, Herbert Thomas Maier, Francesco Zaraca, Thomas Schmid
The aim of this study was to explore intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Vascular and bronchial injuries, after a robust learning curve, can be sometimes successfully managed by VATS. During a VATS lobectomy, it is necessary: to be prepared in potentially dangerous situations; to think about strategies to handle intraoperative complications and to share these strategies with your own staff. Herein we present some videos showing cases where vascular injuries led to conversion and others where a minimally-invasive trouble shooting of intraoperative complications was achieved...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Joseph T Gamboa, Edward C Shin, Neil P Pathare, Patrick J McGahan, James L Chen
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are an unfortunate and devastating injury in the athletic patient. Surgical reconstruction of the ACL with a taut graft construct is necessary to restore knee stability and help expedite the patient's return to an active lifestyle. Arthroscopy-assisted ACL reconstruction can be a technically involved procedure, where strong fixation limits graft motion to allow sufficient healing within the tibial and femoral tunnels at the bone-tendon interfaces. Loss of tension in a graft can cause symptomatic anterior or rotatory instability and potential retear of the ACL graft...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
David P Trofa, Joseph M Lombardi, Manish S Noticewala, Christopher S Ahmad
Reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) remains the gold standard for treating overhead throwing athletes with valgus instability secondary to UCL pathology. Although surgical techniques for reconstruction have evolved over time, current methods allow 90% of patients to return to their preinjury level of activity. Despite encouraging results with reconstruction, UCL repair remains a valuable treatment option for patients with UCL pathology fitting specific criteria. There are a number of advantages associated with a direct repair, and further, the development of collagen-coated sutures for ligament repair augmentation makes this procedure an attractive surgical option under the correct circumstances...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Mikhail E Kandel, Michael Fanous, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gabriel Popescu
As a label-free, nondestructive method, phase contrast is by far the most popular microscopy technique for routine inspection of cell cultures. However, features of interest such as extensions near cell bodies are often obscured by a glow, which came to be known as the halo . Advances in modeling image formation have shown that this artifact is due to the limited spatial coherence of the illumination. Nevertheless, the same incoherent illumination is responsible for superior sensitivity to fine details in the phase contrast geometry...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Priyadarshini Panda, Narayan Srinivasa
A fundamental challenge in machine learning today is to build a model that can learn from few examples. Here, we describe a reservoir based spiking neural model for learning to recognize actions with a limited number of labeled videos. First, we propose a novel encoding, inspired by how microsaccades influence visual perception, to extract spike information from raw video data while preserving the temporal correlation across different frames. Using this encoding, we show that the reservoir generalizes its rich dynamical activity toward signature action/movements enabling it to learn from few training examples...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
C O S Sorzano, E Fernández-Giménez, V Peredo-Robinson, J Vargas, T Majtner, G Caffarena, J Otón, J L Vilas, J M de la Rosa-Trevín, R Melero, J Gómez-Blanco, J Cuenca, L Del Cano, P Conesa, R Marabini, J M Carazo
The introduction of Direct Electron Detector (DED) videos in the Electron Microscope field has boosted Single Particle Analysis to a point in which it is currently considered to be a key technique in Structural Biology. In this article we introduce an approach to estimate the DED camera gain at each pixel from the movies themselves. This gain is needed to have the set of recorded frames into a coherent gray level range, homogeneous over the whole image. The algorithm does not need any other input than the DED movie itself, being capable of providing an estimate of the camera gain image, helping to identify dead pixels and cases of incorrectly calibrated cameras...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Dianne J Crellin, Denise Harrison, Nick Santamaria, Hamidul Huque, Franz E Babl
The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale (FLACC) is one of the most commonly and widely used behavioural observation pain scales. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric and practical properties of the FLACC scale to quantify procedural pain in infants and young children. Twenty-six clinicians independently applied the FLACC scale to segments of video collected from 100 children aged six to 42 months undergoing a procedure. Video segments were scored by four reviewers. Inter- and intra-rater reliability coefficients were high (0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Florian B Pokorny, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Christa Einspieler, Dajie Zhang, Ralf Vollmann, Sven Bölte, Markus Gugatschka, Björn W Schuller, Peter B Marschik
BACKGROUND: Early speech-language development of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been repeatedly characterised by a co-occurrence of apparently typical and atypical vocalisations. AIMS: To describe specific features of this intermittent character of typical versus atypical early RTT-associated vocalisations by combining auditory Gestalt perception and acoustic vocalisation analysis. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We extracted N = 363 (pre-)linguistic vocalisations from home video recordings of an infant later diagnosed with RTT...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Marjan Waterloos, Tom Claeys, Maxime Sempels, Erik Van Laecke, Piet Hoebeke, Anne-Françoise Spinoit
The adrenogenital syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder in which an enzyme defect in the steroid pathway leads to excessive prenatal exposure of androgens. In the female fetus, masculinization of the external genitalia is observed. Surgery aims for functional and aesthetical reconstruction. Many techniques have been described. A video of our modified pull-through reconstruction technique is hereby presented. A retrospective descriptive database was created with patients who underwent genitoplasty for a CAH-associated genital condition...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
K Taghavi, I Mushtaq
Retroperitoneoscopic heminephrectomy has multiple potential benefits in both infants and children. This article reviewed technical aspects of the procedure, and provided illustrations and an operative video demonstration. The vital first step is a 'critical view' of the collecting system/vascular supply of both upper/lower moieties. Dividing the lateral renal attachments later in the dissection allows passive retraction of the hilum, facilitating this dissection.
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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