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Aging men

Paul C Cremer, Yuping Wu, Haitham M Ahmed, Lee M Pierson, Danielle M Brennan, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Clinton A Brawner, Jonathan K Ehrman, Steven J Keteyian, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Leslie Cho
Importance: Risk assessment tools for exercise treadmill testing may have limited external validity. Cardiovascular mortality has decreased in recent decades, and women have been underrepresented in prior cohorts. Objectives: To determine whether exercise and clinical variables are associated with differential mortality outcomes in men and women and to assess whether sex-specific risk scores better estimate all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 59 877 patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF cohort) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, and 49 278 patients seen at the Henry Ford Hospital (FIT cohort) from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2009...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Jin-Young Jang, Yong Chan Shin, Youngmin Han, Joon Seong Park, Ho-Seong Han, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Dong Sup Yoon, Jae Keun Kim, Yoo Seok Yoon, Dae Wook Hwang, Chang Moo Kang, Woo Jung Lee, Jin Seok Heo, Mee Joo Kang, Ye Rim Chang, Jihoon Chang, Woohyun Jung, Sun-Whe Kim
Importance: The rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after distal pancreatectomy ranges from 13% to 64%. To prevent POPF, polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was introduced, but its effect has been evaluated only in small numbers of patients and retrospective studies. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of PGA mesh in preventing POPF after distal pancreatectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective randomized clinical, single-blind (participant), parallel-group trial at 5 centers between November 2011 and April 2014...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Adewole S Adamson, Elizabeth A Suarez, April R Gorman
Importance: Prescription underuse is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. A significant proportion of underuse is owing to primary nonadherence, defined as the rate at which patients fail to fill and pick up new prescriptions. Although electronic prescribing increases coordination of care and decreases errors, its effect on primary nonadherence is less certain. Objectives: To analyze factors associated with primary nonadherence to dermatologic medications and study whether electronic prescribing affects rates of primary nonadherence...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Antti Latvala, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Tomas Jernberg, Catarina Almqvist, David Mataix-Cols, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein
Importance: Differences in cardiovascular autonomic activity between individuals with psychiatric disorders and healthy controls have been observed, but whether cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities are associated with subsequent psychiatric disorders is unknown. Objective: To investigate whether differences in cardiac autonomic function as indexed by resting heart rate and blood pressure are associated with psychiatric disorders during the lifetime of men in Sweden...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Paul M Evitts, Heather Starmer, Kristine Teets, Christen Montgomery, Lauren Calhoun, Allison Schulze, Jenna MacKenzie, Lauren Adams
Purpose: There is currently minimal information on the impact of dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma on listeners. Considering the high incidence of voice disorders with professional voice users, it is important to understand the impact of a dysphonic voice on their audiences. Methods: Ninety-one healthy listeners (39 men, 52 women; mean age = 23.62 years) were presented with speech stimuli from 5 healthy speakers and 5 speakers diagnosed with dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Rogerio Canuto, Nayara Lopes Gomes, Vera Lúcia Ferreira Mendes, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de Goulart, Lenildo de Moura
Objective: To describe the self-reported prevalence of intellectual disability, physical, hearing and visual, according to sociodemographic variables, degree of limitation and frequency of rehabilitation service use. Methods: Data from the National Health Survey, a population survey. the self-reported prevalence of physical, mental, visual and hearing were calculated and their 95% confidence intervals, stratified by sex, age, race / color, for Brazil, place of residence and Major Regions...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Aline Sarturi Ponte, Elenir Fedosse
This study correlated the impact of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) on the labor activity of individuals of working age on their quality of life (QOL) and that of their relatives/caregivers. It involved qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (descriptive) research. Forty-eight individuals with ABI and 27 relatives/caregivers were interviewed. The correlation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (52...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, M Reuel Friedman, Vanessa Schick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Wendy Bostwick, Elizabeth Bartelt, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, David Pletta, Michael Reece, Theo G M Sandfort
: As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U...
2016: PloS One
Katharine Kripke, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Gertrude Ncube, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Elizabeth Gold, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Natalie Kruse-Levy, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined. METHODS: Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future...
2016: PloS One
Michel Tchuenche, Vibhuti Haté, Dacia McPherson, Eurica Palmer, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income). Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
Uduak U Andy, Camille P Vaughan, Kathryn L Burgio, Foluke M Alli, Patricia S Goode, Alayne D Markland
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of constipation, fecal incontinence (FI), and combined symptoms and to identify shared factors associated with bowel symptoms in older U.S. men and women DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010). PARTICIPANTS: Women and men aged 50 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Constipation was defined as hard stool consistency on the validated Bristol Stool Form Scale or stool frequency of fewer than three bowel movements per week...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Olga Theou, Edwin C K Tan, J Simon Bell, Tina Emery, Leonie Robson, John E Morley, Kenneth Rockwood, Renuka Visvanathan
OBJECTIVES: To compare the FRAIL-NH scale with the Frailty Index in assessing frailty in residential aged care facilities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Six Australian residential aged care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 383, mean aged 87.5 ± 6.2, 77.5% female). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was assessed using the 66-item Frailty Index and the FRAIL-NH scale. Other measures examined were dementia diagnosis, level of care, resident satisfaction with care, nurse-reported resident quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and professional caregiver burden...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Maurizio Ponz de Leon, Monica Pedroni, Luca Roncucci, Federica Domati, Giuseppina Rossi, Giulia Magnani, Annalisa Pezzi, Rossella Fante, Luca Reggiani Bonetti
Attenuated polyposis could be defined as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in which synchronous polyps of the large bowel range between 10 and 99. We analysed all cases of attenuated polyposis observed over the last 30 years with the objectives: (A) to classify the disease according to different type and proportion of polyps; (B) To ascertain the contribution of APC and MutYH genes; (C) to discover features which could arise the suspicion of mutations; (D) To obtain indications for management and follow-up...
October 25, 2016: Familial Cancer
Won Hyuk Chang, Jung Min Hwang, Kyeong Eun Uhm, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Yun-Hee Kim
The objective of this study was to assess the functional state of corticospinal projections in the non-dominant hand according to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms. We investigated this in 34 healthy right-handed individuals (12 men, mean age 27.4 ± 3.4 years) who underwent two experimental sessions consisting of corticospinal excitability measurements with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and hand motor function assessments with a sequential finger motor task of the non-dominant hand...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Katarina Novak, Davorka Vrdoljak, Igor Jelaska, Josip Anđelo Borovac
BACKGROUND: The goal of this observational cohort study was to examine gender-specific differences in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in-hospital complications and mortality. METHODS: A cohort of 1550 patients with the primary diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the study over a period of 4 years. The in-hospital mortality and complications were analyzed as the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Women were significantly older compared to men (71 ± 11 years vs...
October 25, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Jana Pelclová, Karel Frömel, Emil Řepka, Ladislav Bláha, Aleš Suchomel, Igor Fojtík, Dana Feltlová, Petr Valach, Svatopluk Horák, Jiří Nykodým, Michal Vorlíček
Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25-65 years) from 2008 to 2013. Participants were Czech national citizens whose physical activity was assessed objectively using a Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for seven consecutive days in the period 2008 to 2013. The final sample was 4647 Czech adults [M age 41...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wilson Bautista-Molano, Robert B M Landewé, Cesar Serna, Rafael Valle-Oñate, Désirée van der Heijde
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the patients' characteristics associated with the clinical decision to request SI-MRI and/or HLA-B27 in patients with SpA in daily practice. METHODS: Patients referred to a rheumatology outpatient-clinic in a national referral-centre were selected. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of SpA according to the rheumatologist were included. SI-MRI and HLA-B27 was available for patients in whom the rheumatologists had ordered these tests. Characteristics associated with ordering SI-MRI or HLA-B27 were identified with univariable analyses...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Andre B Rosay, Carrie F Mulford
This study examines the prevalence and correlates of psychological abuse and physical abuse against women and men aged 70 or older. Self-report data from 2,185 respondents in the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) were used to create weighted estimates for past-year experiences of abuse. Correlates were then examined using survey logistic regression models. More than 1 in 10 adults who are 70 years of age or older (14.0%) have experienced some form of abuse in the past year, with 12...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
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