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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909191/analgesia-in-clinically-relevant-rodent-models-of-sepsis
#1
Victor Jeger, Till Hauffe, Flora Nicholls-Vuille, Dominique Bettex, Alain Rudiger
Postoperative analgesia in rodent sepsis models has been considerably neglected in the past. However, intentions to model clinical practice, increasing awareness of animal ethics, efforts to apply the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement), and stricter legislation argue for a change in this respect. In this review, we describe different concepts of analgesia in rodent models of sepsis focusing on opioid agonists as well as non-opioid analgesics. Advantages and pitfalls in study design and side-effects are discussed...
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903642/behavioral-characterization-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-spiradoline-and-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-cp55940-mixtures-in-rats
#2
Vanessa Minervini, Sujata S Dahal, Charles France
Pain is a significant clinical problem and there is a need for more effective treatments with reduced adverse effects that currently limit the use of mu opioid receptor agonists. Synthetic kappa opioid receptor agonists have no abuse liability and well-documented antinociceptive effects; however, adverse effects (diuresis, dysphoria) preclude their use in the clinic. Combining kappa opioids with non-opioid drugs (cannabinoid receptor agonists) allows for smaller doses of each drug to produce antinociception...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900067/common-analgesic-agents-and-their-roles-in-analgesic-nephropathy-a-commentary-on-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Julian Yaxley
An association between non-opioid analgesic agents and chronic kidney disease has long been suspected. The presumed development of chronic renal impairment following protracted and excessive use of non-opioid analgesia is known as analgesic nephropathy. Many clinicians accept analgesic nephropathy as a real entity despite the paucity of scientific evidence. This narrative review aims to summarize the literature in the field. The weight of available observational literature suggests that long-term ingestion of paracetamol and combination mixtures of aspirin and paracetamol are likely to contribute to chronic renal impairment...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899097/antinociception-of-petroleum-ether-fraction-derived-from-crude-methanol-extract-of-melastoma-malabathricum-leaves-and-its-possible-mechanisms-of-action-in-animal-models
#4
Z A Zakaria, E S Jaios, M H Omar, S Abd Rahman, S S A Hamid, S M Ching, L K Teh, M Z Salleh, S Deny, M Taher
BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae) has been traditionally used as remedies against various ailments including those related to pain. The methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves has been proven to show antinociceptive activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most effective fraction among the petroleum ether- (PEMM), ethyl acetate- (EAMM) and aqueous- (AQMM) fractions obtained through successive fractionation of crude, dried methanol extract of M...
November 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#5
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873236/association-of-performance-status-and-pain-in-metastatic-bone-pain-management-in-the-spanish-clinical-setting
#6
Manuel Dómine Gómez, Nieves Díaz Fernández, Blanca Cantos Sánchez de Ibargüen, Luis Zugazabeitia Olabarría, Joaquina Martínez Lozano, Raúl Poza de Celis, Rafael Trujillo Vílchez, Ignacio Peláez Fernández, Jaume Capdevila Castillón, Susana Traseira Lugilde, Emilio Esteban González
INTRODUCTION: Bone metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related pain, and metastatic bone pain (MBP) is not only severe but also progressive in many patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pain management and performance status in patients with metastatic bone cancer in the Spanish clinical setting. METHODS: A 3-month follow-up prospective, epidemiologic, multicenter study was conducted in 579 patients to assess the evolution of their performance, the impact of pain control on sleep and functionality, and the degree of pain control according to analgesic treatment...
November 21, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870657/health-care-utilization-and-cost-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-pain-analysis-of-health-care-claims-data-one-year-before-and-after-intensive-interdisciplinary-pain-treatment
#7
Ann-Kristin Ruhe, Michael Frosch, Julia Wager, Roland Linder, Ingo Pfenning, Dirk Sauerland, Boris Zernikow
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in health care utilization and cost among a sample of highly impaired children and adolescents who sought a three-week intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment (IIPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Claims data from seven statutory health insurance companies were analyzed for 65 children and adolescents who sought IIPT at the German Paediatric Pain Centre. The annual health care utilization and cost were determined for the following four areas: outpatient care, inpatient care, medications, and remedies and aids...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867511/is-tapentadol-different-from-classical-opioids-a-review-of-the-evidence
#8
Richard M Langford, Roger Knaggs, Paul Farquhar-Smith, Anthony H Dickenson
Tapentadol is a single molecule able to deliver analgesia by two distinct mechanisms, a feature which differentiates it from many other analgesics. Pre-clinical data demonstrate two mechanisms of action: mu-opioid receptor agonist activity and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibition. From these, one may predict that tapentadol would be applicable across a broad spectrum of pain from nociceptive to neuropathic. The evidence in animal models suggests that norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition (NRI) is a key mechanism and may even predominate over opioid actions in chronic (and especially neuropathic) pain states, reinforcing that tapentadol is different to classical opioids and may, therefore, be an a priori choice for the treatment of neuropathic and mixed pain...
November 2016: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867330/use-of-caudal-analgesia-supplemented-with-low-dose-of-morphine-in-children-who-undergo-renal-surgery
#9
Boris Chertin, Alexander Zeldin, Stanislav Kocherov, Alexander Ioscovich, Israel A Ostrovsky, Yaacov Gozal
INTRODUCTION: To test the efficacy and safety of caudal anesthesia (CA) supplemented by low dose morphine in children who undergo renal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients aged 2 months-14 years were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups of 20 patients each: Group A (bupivacaine 0.2% with fentanyl); Group B (bupivacaine with morphine). The duration of surgery and hospitalization time were recorded. Postoperative pain score was measured by Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability scale and Wong-Baker Faces scale for those who are older...
October 2016: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864586/lifetime-prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-non-traumatic-musculoskeletal-pains-amongst-surgeons-and-patients
#10
David N Bernstein, Ankit Sood, Jos J Mellema, Yue Li, David Ring
PURPOSE: There is evidence that surgeons make different recommendations for people seeking their care than they make for themselves. There may also be differences in pain episodes and management strategies between surgeons and people seeking care, knowledge of which might improve care. We aimed to assess whether the prevalence of non-traumatic pains, treatments and other factors differed between patients and surgeons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and twenty surgeons, members of the Science of Variation Group (SOVG), and 248 patients seeking care at the Hand Service at a large academic hospital completed a survey regarding the lifetime incidence of non-traumatic pains lasting > one month using short versions of the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS-4); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2); and Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI-5)...
November 18, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819333/novel-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonist-naloxone-protects-mice-from-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#11
Peck Yin Chin, Camilla L Dorian, Mark R Hutchinson, David M Olson, Kenner C Rice, Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Sarah A Robertson
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by bacterial infection, or by sterile inflammatory insult is a primary trigger of spontaneous preterm birth. Here we utilize mouse models to investigate the efficacy of a novel small molecule TLR4 antagonist, (+)-naloxone, the non-opioid isomer of the opioid receptor antagonist (-)-naloxone, in infection-associated preterm birth. Treatment with (+)-naloxone prevented preterm delivery and alleviated fetal demise in utero elicited by i.p. LPS administration in late gestation...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809831/tailoring-a-brief-intervention-for-illicit-drug-use-and-alcohol-use-in-irish-methadone-maintained-opiate-dependent-patients-a-qualitative-process
#12
Catherine Darker, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Lucy Whiston, Rolande Anderson, Joe Barry
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend the tailoring of a brief intervention (BI) programme of research to ensure that it is both culturally and contextually appropriate for the country and the environment in which it is being tested. The majority of BI research has been conducted with non-opioid dependent participants. The current study developed a tailored BI for illicit drug use and alcohol use to a methadone maintained opioid dependent polydrug using cohort of patients...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781944/multitarget-opioid-non-opioid-ligands-in-pain-treatment-new-players-in-an-old-game-ii
#13
Rita Turnaturi, Giuseppina Aricò, Giuseppe Ronsisvalle, Lorella Pasquinucci, Carmela Parenti
Polypharmacology, or the associations between two or more drugs producing biological effects on two or more different sites of action could represent a possible therapeutic approach for the clinical management of acute and chronic pain. The multitude and complexity of neuronal mechanisms that contribute to pain transmission provide several possible targets for pharmacological intervention. Thus, multitarget ligands possessing opioid-opioid or non-opioid-opioid mechanisms of action are potential drug candidates for pain relief...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779481/a-novel-non-opioid-binding-site-for-endomorphin-1
#14
I Lengyel, F Toth, D Biyashev, I Szatmari, K Monory, C Tomboly, G Toth, S Benyhe, A Borsodi
Endomorphins are natural amidated opioid tetrapeptides with the following structure: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-1), and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-2). Endomorphins interact selectively with the μ-opioid or MOP receptors and exhibit nanomolar or sub-nanomolar receptor binding affinities, therefore they suggested to be endogenous agonists for the μ-opioid receptors. Endomorphins mediate a number of characteristic opioid effects, such as antinociception, however there are several physiological functions in which endomorphins appear to act in a fashion that does not involve binding to and activation of the μ-opioid receptor...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766404/-dipyrone-metamizole-considerations-on-monitoring-for-early-detection-of-agranulocytosis
#15
U M Stamer, U Gundert-Remy, E Biermann, J Erlenwein, W Meiβner, S Wirz, T Stammschulte
BACKGROUND: Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-opioid analgesic commonly used in Germany, which can, in very rare cases, cause life-threatening agranulocytosis. The prescribing information calls for regular monitoring of the differential blood count in cases of long-term treatment. However, there is uncertainty about how this testing should be handled in practice. OBJECTIVES: Which recommendations can be derived from the published literature for evaluating blood cell counts during treatment with metamizole and which other options for monitoring exist? METHODS: Data from recent epidemiological studies, reviews, and spontaneously reported cases were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760797/the-effects-of-music-on-pain-a-meta-analysis
#16
Jin Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain. METHODS: The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760686/commentary-the-value-of-prep-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756562/cyclic-non-opioid-dynorphin-a-analogues-for-the-bradykinin-receptors
#18
Yeon Sun Lee, Michael Remesic, Cyf Ramos-Colon, Sara M Hall, Alexander Kuzmin, David Rankin, Frank Porreca, Josephine Lai, Victor J Hruby
Nerve injury and inflammation cause up-regulation of an endogenous opioid ligand, dynorphin A (Dyn A), in the spinal cord resulting in hyperalgesia via the interaction with bradykinin receptors (BRs). This is a non-opioid neuroexcitatory effect that cannot be blocked by opioid antagonists. Our systematic structure-activity relationships study on Dyn A identified lead ligands 1 and 4, along with the key structural feature (i.e. amphipathicity) for the BRs. However, the ligands showed very low metabolic stability in plasma (t1/2 <1h) and therefore, in order to improve their metabolic stabilities with retained biological activities, various modifications were performed...
October 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752232/development-and-statistical-optimization-of-nefopam-hydrochloride-loaded-nanospheres-for-neuropathic-pain-using-box-behnken-design
#19
S Sukhbir, S Yashpal, A Sandeep
Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition such as neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 3(5) Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729121/assessment-and-management-of-pain-in-pediatric-otolaryngology
#20
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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