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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346805/brachytherapy-for-patients-with-prostate-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-cancer-care-ontario-joint-guideline-update
#1
Joseph Chin, R Bryan Rumble, Marisa Kollmeier, Elisabeth Heath, Jason Efstathiou, Tanya Dorff, Barry Berman, Andrew Feifer, Arthur Jacques, D Andrew Loblaw
Purpose To jointly update the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer to account for new evidence. Methods An Update Panel conducted a targeted systematic literature review and identified more recent randomized controlled trials comparing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with brachytherapy in men with prostate cancer. Results Five randomized controlled trials provided the evidence for this update. Recommendations For patients with low-risk prostate cancer who require or choose active treatment, low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR) alone, EBRT alone, and/or radical prostatectomy (RP) should be offered to eligible patients...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346544/epigenetic-silencing-of-v-d-j-recombination-is-a-major-determinant-for-selective-differentiation-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Yutaka Saito, Chie Sugimoto, Toutai Mituyama, Hiroshi Wakao
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) are innate-like T cells that play a pivotal role in the host defense against infectious diseases, and are also implicated in autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Recent studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from MAITs selectively redifferentiate into MAITs without altering their antigen specificity. Such a selective differentiation is a prerequisite for the use of MAITs in cell therapy and/or regenerative medicine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346517/cd22-is-required-for-formation-of-memory-b-cell-precursors-within-germinal-centers
#3
Craig P Chappell, Kevin E Draves, Edward A Clark
CD22 is a BCR co-receptor that regulates B cell signaling, proliferation and survival and is required for T cell-independent Ab responses. To investigate the role of CD22 during T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses and memory B cell formation, we analyzed Ag-specific B cell responses generated by wild-type (WT) or CD22-/- B cells following immunization with a TD Ag. CD22-/- B cells mounted normal early Ab responses yet failed to generate either memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells, whereas WT B cells formed both populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346400/t-lymphocyte-homing-an-underappreciated-yet-critical-hurdle-for-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Robert Sackstein, Tobias Schatton, Steven R Barthel
Advances in cancer immunotherapy have offered new hope for patients with metastatic disease. This unfolding success story has been exemplified by a growing arsenal of novel immunotherapeutics, including blocking antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, clinical benefit remains highly variable and patient-specific, in part, because all immunotherapeutic regimens vitally hinge on the capacity of endogenous and/or adoptively transferred T-effector (Teff) cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to home efficiently into tumor target tissue...
March 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346319/effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-on-hiv-1-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-in-subtype-b-and-subtype-c-infected-cohorts
#5
Vijaya Madhavi, Archana Kulkarni, Ashwini Shete, Wen Shi Lee, Milla R Mclean, Anne B Kristensen, Manisha Ghate, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Matthew S Parsons, Anthony Kelleher, David A Cooper, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Madhuri Thakar, Stephen J Kent
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in immune therapies to clear the latent HIV-1 after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is limited information on the effect of cART on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and no studies have directly compared ADCC in HIV-1 subtype B- and subtype C-infected subjects. The effect of improving immunocompetence on ADCC to influenza also remains unexplored. METHODS: The effect of cART on HIV-1- and influenza-specific ADCC was analyzed in two cohorts (39 subtype B- and 47 subtype C-infected subjects) before and after two years of cART...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346102/phage-display-derived-ligand-for-mucosal-transcytotic-receptor-gp-2-promotes-antigen-delivery-to-m-cells-and-induces-antigen-specific-immune-response
#6
Inam Ullah Khan, Jiansheng Huang, Rui Liu, Jingbo Wang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Successful oral immunization depends on efficient delivery of antigens (Ags) to the mucosal immune induction site. Glycoprotein-2 (GP-2) is an integral membrane protein that is expressed specifically on M cells within follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and serves as transcytotic receptor for luminal Ags. In this study, we selected peptide ligands against recombinant human GP-2 by screening a phage display library and evaluated their interaction with GP-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Selected peptides were conjugated to the C-terminal of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and evaluated for their ability to induce an immune response in mice...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#7
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345691/surface-plasmon-resonance-imaging-for-abh-antigen-detection-on-red-blood-cells-and-in-saliva-secretor-status-related-abo-subgroup-identification
#8
Patjaree Peungthum, Krisda Sudprasert, Ratthasart Amarit, Armote Somboonkaew, Boonsong Sutapun, Apirom Vongsakulyanon, Wuttigrai Seedacoon, Pimpun Kitpoka, Mongkol Kunakorn, Toemsak Srikhirin
Low antigenic expression of ABO subgroup system on red blood cell (RBC) is cause of discrepancy between forward and reverse blood typing in the standard agglutination technique. Neutralization agglutination is employed for verification of the detection of ABH substances in saliva. However, the neutralization technique is complicated, time-consuming and requires expertise. To overcome these drawbacks, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging was developed for ABH antigen detection on RBCs and in saliva. An antibody array was designed to classify the ABO subgroups by anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies; the array was immobilized on a carboxymethyl-dextran sensor-surface...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345628/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-human-conjunctiva-and-immune-signatures-in-human-dry-eye-disease
#9
Tanima Bose, Ryan Lee, Aihua Hou, Louis Tong, K George Chandy
Non-recirculating resident memory (TRM) and recirculating T cells mount vigorous immune responses to both self and foreign antigens in barrier tissues like the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract. Using impression cytology followed by flow cytometry we identified two TRM subsets and four recirculating T-subsets in the healthy human ocular surface. In dry eye disease, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed two clusters of patients with distinct T-cell signatures. Increased conjunctival central memory and naïve T cells characterized Cluster-1 patients, and increased CD8(+) TRMs and CD4(+) recirculating memory T cells characterized Cluster-2 patients...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345545/diagnostic-significance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-t-cell-assays-for-active-tuberculosis
#10
Wei-Xia Xuan, Ting-Ting Lu, Zheng Wang, Yun-Xia An, Xiao-Ju Zhang
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) with negative results of sputum smear is difficult to be identified. Till now, there is no effective and noninvasive diagnostic method. This study evaluated the diagnostic power of Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-cell (T.SPOT®.TB) assays for active TB. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 450 suspected TB patients that were hospitalized in the Respiratory Department of Henan Province People's Hospital from June 2015 to June 2016...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345351/shape-memory-characteristics-of-o157-antigenic-cavities-generated-on-nanocomposites-consisting-of-copolymer-encapsulated-gold-nanoparticles
#11
Takamasa Kinoshita, Dung Quang Nguyen, Dung Quynh Le, Kengo Ishiki, Hiroshi Shiigi, Tsutomu Nagaoka
Nanometer-sized composite particles, which consisted of gold nanoparticles encapsulated by an N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer, were successfully synthesized using a one-step process. Shape complementary cavities of the O157-antigen were formed on the composite utilizing temperature-dependent affinity changes of the copolymer. The composite bound to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 at 298 K and enhanced light-scattering intensity of the cell due to the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345277/evolution-of-antigenic-diversity-in-the-tick-transmitted-bacterium-borrelia-afzelii-a-role-for-host-specialization
#12
Lars Råberg, Åsa Hagström, Martin Andersson, Simona Bartkova, Kristin Scherman, Maria Strandh, Barbara Tschirren
Antigenic diversity in pathogenic microbes can be a result of at least three different processes: diversifying selection by acquired immunity, host-pathogen coevolution, and/or host specialization. Here, we investigate if host specialization drives diversity at ospC (which encodes an immunodominant surface protein) in the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia afzelii. We determined prevalence and infection intensity of ospC strains in naturally infected wild mammals (rodents and shrews) by 454 amplicon sequencing in combination with qPCR...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345271/immunosuppression-with-mtor-inhibitors-prevents-the-development-of-donor-specific-antibodies-after-liver-transplant
#13
Katharina Willuweit, Andreas Heinold, Jassin Rashidi-Alavijeh, Falko M Heinemann, Peter A Horn, Andreas Paul, Guido Gerken, Kerstin Herzer
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are an important cause of complications after solid-organ transplant. Risk factors and, thus, strategies for preventing DSA development are not well defined. METHODS: The DSA status of 400 patients who underwent LT at the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Essen, was determined. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies were detected by single-antigen bead technology. The strength of DSAs was reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)...
March 26, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345023/enhancement-of-psma-directed-car-adoptive-immunotherapy-by-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade
#14
Inna Serganova, Ekaterina Moroz, Ivan Cohen, Maxim Moroz, Mayuresh Mane, Juan Zurita, Larissa Shenker, Vladimir Ponomarev, Ronald Blasberg
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies has shown remarkable responses, but the same level of success has not been observed in solid tumors. A new prostate cancer model (Myc-CaP:PSMA(+)) and a second-generation anti-hPSMA human CAR T cells expressing a Click Beetle Red luciferase reporter) were used to study hPSMA targeting and assess CAR T cell trafficking and persistence by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). We investigated the antitumor efficacy of human CAR T cells targeting human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA), in the presence and absence of the target antigen; first alone and then combined with a monoclonal antibody targeting the human programmed death receptor 1 (anti-hPD1 mAb)...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345003/expansion-of-human-tregs-from-cryopreserved-umbilical-cord-blood-for-gmp-compliant-autologous-adoptive-cell-transfer-therapy
#15
Howard R Seay, Amy L Putnam, Judit Cserny, Amanda L Posgai, Emma H Rosenau, John R Wingard, Kate F Girard, Morey Kraus, Angela P Lares, Heather L Brown, Katherine S Brown, Kristi T Balavage, Leeana D Peters, Ashley N Bushdorf, Mark A Atkinson, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs) are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344989/efficient-presentation-of-multiple-endogenous-epitopes-to-both-cd4-and-cd8-diabetogenic-t-cells-for-tolerance
#16
Shamael R Dastagir, Jorge Postigo-Fernandez, Chunliang Xu, James H Stoeckle, Rebuma Firdessa-Fite, Rémi J Creusot
Antigen-specific immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes, typically via delivery of a single native β cell antigen, has had little clinical benefit to date. With increasing evidence that diabetogenic T cells react against multiple β cell antigens, including previously unappreciated neo-antigens that can be emulated by mimotopes, a shift from protein- to epitope-based therapy is warranted. To this end, we aimed to achieve efficient co-presentation of multiple major epitopes targeting both CD4(+) and CD8(+) diabetogenic T cells...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344889/loss-of-tapasin-in-human-lung-and-colon-cancer-cells-and-escape-from-tumor-associated-antigen-specific-ctl-recognition
#17
Yosuke Shionoya, Takayuki Kanaseki, Sho Miyamoto, Serina Tokita, Ayumi Hongo, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Vitaly Kochin, Kazue Watanabe, Ryota Horibe, Hiroshi Saijo, Tomohide Tsukahara, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Hiroki Takahashi, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) lyse target cells after recognizing the complexes of peptides and MHC class I molecules (pMHC I) on cell surfaces. Tapasin is an essential component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC) and its absence influences the surface repertoire of MHC class I peptides. In the present study, we assessed tapasin expression in 85 primary tumor lesions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, demonstrating that tapasin expression positively correlated with patient survival. CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of tumor lesions was synergistically observed with tapasin expression and correlated positively with survival...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344888/pre-emptive-and-therapeutic-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-phenotype-and-effector-function-of-t-cells-impact-on-clinical-response
#18
Corey Smith, Victor Lee, Andrea Schuessler, Leone Beagley, Sweera Rehan, Janice Tsang, Vivian Li, Randal Tiu, David Smith, Michelle A Neller, Katherine K Matthews, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Jacqueline Burrows, Glen M Boyle, Daniel Chua, Benedict Panizza, Sandro V Porceddu, John Nicholls, Dora Kwong, Rajiv Khanna
Adoptive T cell therapy has emerged as a powerful strategy to treat human cancers especially haematological malignancies. Extension of these therapies to solid cancers remains a significant challenge especially in the context of defining immunological correlates of clinical responses. Here we describe results from a clinical study investigating autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cells generated using a novel AdE1-LMPpoly vector to treat patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) either pre-emptively in at-risk patients with no or minimal residual disease (N/MRD) or therapeutically in patients with active recurrent/metastatic disease (ARMD)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344884/the-differentiation-and-plasticity-of-tc17-cells-are-regulated-by-ctla-4-mediated-effects-on-stats
#19
Aditya Arra, Holger Lingel, Benno Kuropka, Jonas Pick, Tina Schnoeder, Thomas Fischer, Christian Freund, Mandy Pierau, Monika C Brunner-Weinzierl
As the blockade of inhibitory surface-molecules such as CTLA-4 on T cells has led to recent advances in antitumor immune therapy, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms of action of CD8(+) T cells to evoke effective cytotoxic antitumor responses. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the molecular pathways underlying the CTLA-4-mediated differentiation of IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17 cells) that strongly impairs cytotoxicity. Our studies demonstrate that Tc17 cells lacking CTLA-4 signaling have limited production of STAT3-target gene products such as IL-17, IL-21, IL-23R and RORγt...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344876/2b4-sap-signaling-is-required-for-the-priming-of-naive-cd8-t-cells-by-antigen-expressing-b-cells-and-b-lymphoma-cells
#20
Yu-Hsuan Huang, Kevin Tsai, Sara Y Tan, Sohyeong Kang, Mandy L Ford, Kenneth W Harder, John J Priatel
Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8(+) T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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