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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334610/phase-ii-study-of-dovitinib-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-kcsg-gu11-05
#1
Yoon Ji Choi, Hye Sook Kim, Se Hoon Park, Bong-Seog Kim, Kyoung Ha Kim, Hyo Jin Lee, Hong Suk Song, Dong-Yeop Shin, Ha Young Lee, Hoon-Gu Kim, Kyung Hee Lee, Jae Lyun Lee, Kyong Hwa Park
Purpose: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Dovitinib is an oral, pan-class inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of dovitinib in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Materials and Methods: This study was a single-arm, phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of dovitinib 500mg/day (5-days-on/2-days-off schedule)...
January 2, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334492/anti-il-10-mediated-enhancement-of-antitumor-efficacy-of-a-dendritic-cell-targeting-mip3%C3%AE-gp100-vaccine-in-the-b16f10-mouse-melanoma-model-is-dependent-on-type-i-interferons
#2
James T Gordy, Kun Luo, Brian Francica, Charles Drake, Richard B Markham
The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. Vaccines fusing MIP3α to gp100 have been shown to be effective in therapeutically reducing melanoma tumor burden and prolonging survival in a mouse model. Other studies have provided evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies (αIL-10) enhance immunologic melanoma therapies by modulating the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we have utilized the B16F10 syngeneic mouse melanoma model to demonstrate for the first time that a therapy neutralizing IL-10 enhances the antitumor efficacy of a MIP3α-gp100 DNA vaccine, leading to significantly smaller tumors, slower growing tumors, and overall increases in mouse survival...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334373/prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-rhesus-macaques-by-a-cytomegalovirus-based-vaccine
#3
Scott G Hansen, Daniel E Zak, Guangwu Xu, Julia C Ford, Emily E Marshall, Daniel Malouli, Roxanne M Gilbride, Colette M Hughes, Abigail B Ventura, Emily Ainslie, Kurt T Randall, Andrea N Selseth, Parker Rundstrom, Lauren Herlache, Matthew S Lewis, Haesun Park, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Miranda Fischer, Christina Armstrong, Robert C Zweig, Joseph Valvo, Jackie M Braun, Smitha Shankar, Lenette Lu, Andrew W Sylwester, Alfred W Legasse, Martin Messerle, Michael A Jarvis, Lynn M Amon, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Dominick J Laddy, Michele Stone, Aurelio Bonavia, Thomas G Evans, Michael K Axthelm, Klaus Früh, Paul T Edlefsen, Louis J Picker
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334370/scaffolds-that-mimic-antigen-presenting-cells-enable-ex-vivo-expansion-of-primary-t-cells
#4
Alexander S Cheung, David K Y Zhang, Sandeep T Koshy, David J Mooney
Therapeutic ex vivo T-cell expansion is limited by low rates and T-cell products of limited functionality. Here we describe a system that mimics natural antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and consists of a fluid lipid bilayer supported by mesoporous silica micro-rods. The lipid bilayer presents membrane-bound cues for T-cell receptor stimulation and costimulation, while the micro-rods enable sustained release of soluble paracrine cues. Using anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and interleukin-2, we show that the APC-mimetic scaffolds (APC-ms) promote two- to tenfold greater polyclonal expansion of primary mouse and human T cells compared with commercial expansion beads (Dynabeads)...
January 15, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333958/focal-mri-guided-salvage-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-in-patients-with-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer
#5
Metha Maenhout, Max Peters, Marco van Vulpen, Marinus A Moerland, Richard P Meijer, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, Paul L Nguyen, Steven J Frank, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp
INTRODUCTION: Whole-gland salvage treatment of radiorecurrent prostate cancer has a high rate of severe toxicity. The standard of care in case of a biochemical recurrence is androgen deprivation treatment, which is associated with morbidity and negative effects on quality of life. A salvage treatment with acceptable toxicity might postpone the start of androgen deprivation treatment, might have a positive influence on the patients' quality of life, and might even be curative. Here, toxicity and biochemical outcome are described after magnetic resonance imaging-guided focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with radiorecurrent prostate cancer...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333938/structure-based-engineering-to-restore-high-affinity-binding-of-an-isoform-selective-anti-tgf%C3%AE-1-antibody
#6
Dana M Lord, Julie J Bird, Denise M Honey, Annie Best, Anna Park, Ronnie R Wei, Huawei Qiu
Metelimumab (CAT192) is a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody developed as a TGFβ1-specific antagonist. It was tested in clinical trials for the treatment of scleroderma but later terminated due to lack of efficacy. Subsequent characterization of CAT192 indicated that its TGFβ1 binding affinity was reduced by ∼50-fold upon conversion from the parental single-chain variable fragment (scFv) to IgG4. We hypothesized this result was due to decreased conformational flexibility of the IgG that could be altered via engineering...
January 15, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333661/nanocage-therapeutics-prevailing-phagocytosis-and-immunogenic-cell-death-awakens-immunity-against-cancer
#7
Eun Jung Lee, Gi-Hoon Nam, Na Kyeong Lee, Minwoo Kih, Eunee Koh, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Yeonsun Hong, Soyoun Kim, Seung-Yoon Park, Cherlhyun Jeong, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
A growing appreciation of the relationship between the immune system and the tumorigenesis has led to the development of strategies aimed at "re-editing" the immune system to kill tumors. Here, a novel tactic is reported for overcoming the activation-energy threshold of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and mediating the delivery and presentation of tumor neoantigens to the host's immune system. This nature-derived nanocage not only efficiently presents ligands that enhance cancer cell phagocytosis, but also delivers drugs that induce immunogenic cancer cell death...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333469/utility-of-f-18-fdg-pet-ct-for-detection-of-bone-marrow-metastases-in-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-radium-223
#8
Kaoru Maruyama, Keita Utsunomia, Takahiro Nakamoto, Shigenari Kawakita, Takashi Murota, Noboru Tanigawa
A 76-year-old man with symptomatic bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer underwent Radium-223-dichloride (Ra-223) therapy. Before Ra-223 therapy, he had normal peripheral blood cell counts. Ra-223 therapy relieved his shoulder and low back pain. The elevation of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), doubling every month during Ra-223 therapy, suggested a PSA flare or relapse. Some lesions showed decrease and some lesions showed increase on Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy at two weeks after the third injection of Ra-223 therapy...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333115/clinical-significance-of-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-follow-up-of-colorectal-cancer-searching-off-approaches-increasing-specificity-for-detection-of-recurrence
#9
Semra Ince, Kursat Okuyucu, Oguz Hancerliogulları, Engin Alagoz, Huseyin San, Nuri Arslan
Background: Nearly 40% of colorectal cancer (CRC) recurs within 2 years after resection of primary tumor. Imaging with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (l8F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the most recent modality and often applied for the evaluation of metastatic spread during the follow-up period. Our goal was to study the diagnostic importance of 18F-FDG-PET/CT data of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the difference of SUVmax on dual-time imaging in CRC...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333081/innate-immunity-recovers-earlier-than-acquired-immunity-during-severe-postoperative-immunosuppression
#10
Gunnar Lachmann, Clarissa von Haefen, Johannes Kurth, Fatima Yuerek, Claudia Spies
Background: Postoperative immune suppression, particularly a loss of cell-mediated immunity, is commonly seen after surgery and is associated with worse outcome, i.e. delayed wound healing, infections, sepsis, multiple-organ failure and cancer recurrence. However, the recovery of immune cells focusing on differences between innate and acquired immunity during severe postoperative immunosuppression is not investigated. Methods: In this retrospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) subgroup analysis, 10 postoperatively immune suppressed patients after esophageal or pancreatic resection were analyzed...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333035/the-activity-of-immunoglobulin-y-anti-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-proliferation-and-cytokine-expression-of-rat-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#11
Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Koerniasari Eraiko, Giftania Wardani Sudjarwo, Koerniasari
Objective: It has long been known that chickens, like mammals, are capable of producing antigen-specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which functions similar to IgG. The present study was performed to investigate the activity of IgY anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis on proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Materials and Methods: The activity of IgY anti-M. tuberculosis in different doses (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) on rat PBMCs proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333023/nivolumab-pearls-of-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Pratishtha B Chaudhari
Purpose: Nivolumab is one of the most extensively studied immune checkpoint inhibitors across various tumor types. In this narrative review, the current clinical efficacy and safety data of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) nivolumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are elucidated. Methods: Systematic search was done on Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central through September 2016 for controlled prospective interventional studies of nivolumab across two indications - NSCLC and RCC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333003/histopathological-study-of-gallbladder-carcinoma-and-its-mimics-with-role-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-immunomarker-in-resolving-diagnostic-difficulties
#13
Santosh Kumar Mondal, Debashish Bhattacharjee, Palash Kumar Mandal, Saumitra Biswas
Background: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) sometimes presents with nonspecific signs, without forming a mass, mimicking benign gallbladder (GB) diseases. On the contrary, benign GB diseases may mimic GBC. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 cases over a period of 3 years (May 2012-April 2015), which included 41 review cases and 66 departmental cases. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) immunomarker expression was done. Results: In 27 of the 41 review cases, the diagnoses were benign diseases of GB associated with mild-to-moderate dysplasia of mucosal glands; however, after review in our department, it was found that of these 27 cases, nine cases were actually well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of GB with diffuse CEA expression and were mis diagnosed as benign diseases of GB with dysplasia...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332803/particle-based-immobilized-enzymatic-reactors-in-microfluidic-chips
#14
REVIEW
Adam Kecskemeti, Attila Gaspar
The research and applications of immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) have become more and more widespread due to the numerous advantages like reusability, easy handling, prolonged lifetime, easy separation from products and substrate specificity. The miniaturized form of these reactors (microchip IMERs) received outstanding attention due to their special features and advantages over the traditional, larger analytical systems. Large specific surface is essential for the efficient operation of the microreactors, thus these devices include one of the several types of porous solid supports, but in this work only the particle based microchip IMERs are reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332492/safety-and-efficacy-of-photoselective-vaporization-of-the-prostate-using-the-180-w-greenlight-xps-laser-system-in-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants
#15
Alper Eken, Bülent Soyupak
Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the 180-W GreenLight XPS laser system for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients taking oral anticoagulants. Methods All consecutive patients admitted for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from November 2012 to October 2016 and who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate with the 180-W GreenLight XPS laser were included in the study. The perioperative outcomes examined were the operating time, laser time, energy usage, and duration of postoperative catheterization...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332354/inhibition-of-telomerase-potentiates-enzalutamide-efficiency-of-androgen-sensitive-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Karaca Kaan Gecgel, Mustafa Muduroglu, Suat Erdogan
PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the main strategies to treat prostate cancer (PCa) at various stages of its development. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists such as enzalutamide are mainstay treatments for castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Though, a majority of patients initially respond to ADT, most will eventually progress to castrate-resistant, due to the development of different mutations on the AR. PCa cells express high telomerase activity, and there is a correlation between the total activity of telomerase and the Gleason score...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332210/pathogen-specific-leptospiral-proteins-in-urine-of-patients-with-febrile-illness-aids-in-differential-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-from-dengue
#17
R Chaurasia, K C Thresiamma, C K Eapen, B J Zachariah, R Paul, M Sritharan
Leptospirosis and dengue are two commonly seen infectious diseases of the tropics. Differential diagnosis of leptospirosis from dengue fever is often difficult due to overlapping clinical symptoms and lack of economically viable and easy-to-perform laboratory tests. The gold standard for diagnosis is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In this study, the diagnostic potential of screening for pathogen-specific leptospiral antigens in urine samples is presented as a non-invasive method of disease diagnosis...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331940/screening-and-functional-exploration-of-prothrombin-arg596-related-mutations-in-chinese-venous-thromboembolism-patients
#18
Xi Wu, Lei Li, Qiulan Ding, Xuefeng Wang, Fang Wu, Wenman Wu
AIMS: Dysfunctional prothrombin residue Arg596 associated mutation has been found to precipitate venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the current study we investigated the prevalence of Arg596 associated mutations in Chinese patients with VTE and explored the functional impact of Arg596Gln mutation on coagulation function in affected patients. METHODS: Prothrombin clotting activity was measured in 267 unrelated patients with unprovoked VTE. Patients with moderately decreased activities underwent further analysis of the F2 gene...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331622/value-of-serial-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsies-in-men-with-low-risk-prostate-cancer-on-active-surveillance-after-1-yr-follow-up
#19
Esther Hendrika Johanna Hamoen, Caroline M A Hoeks, Diederik M Somford, Inge M van Oort, Henk Vergunst, Jorg R Oddens, Geert A Smits, Leonard P Bokhorst, J Alfred Witjes, Maroeska M Rovers, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Jelle O Barentsz
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) aims to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Incorporating multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and MR-guided biopsy (MRGB) in an AS protocol might contribute to more accurate identification of AS candidates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of 3T mp-MRI and MRGB in PC patients on AS at inclusion and after 12-mo follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with cT1c-cT2 PC, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤10ng/ml, PSA density <0...
January 10, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331524/strategies-and-technical-challenges-for-imaging-oligometastatic-disease-recommendations-from-the-european-organisation-for-research-and-treatment-of-cancer-imaging-group
#20
REVIEW
Nandita M deSouza, Yan Liu, Arturo Chiti, Daniela Oprea-Lager, Géraldine Gebhart, Bernard E Van Beers, Ken Herrmann, Frederic E Lecouvet
Patients with oligometastatic disease (OMD) often have controllable symptoms, and cures are possible. Technical improvements in surgery and radiotherapy have introduced the option of metastasis-directed ablative therapies as an adjunct or alternative to standard-of-care systemic therapies. Several clinical trials and registries are investigating the benefit of these therapeutic approaches across several cancer sites. This requires that patients are correctly included and followed with appropriate imaging. This article discusses the evidence and offers recommendations for the implementation of standard-of-care (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours measurements on computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and bone scintigraphy) and advanced imaging modalities (functional, metabolic and radionuclide targeted) for identifying and following up patients with OMD...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
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