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Antigen specific

Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J Perteguer, Ana Hernández-González, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Fernanda Romarís, Esperanza Paniagua, Teresa Gárate, Florencio M Ubeira
Infections caused by Fasciola hepatica are of great importance in the veterinary field, as they cause important economic losses to livestock producers. Serodiagnostic methods, typically ELISA (with either native or recombinant antigens), are often used for early diagnosis. The use of native antigens, as in the MM3-SERO ELISA (commercialized as BIO K 211, BIO-X Diagnostics), continues to be beneficial in terms of sensitivity and specificity; however, there is interest in developing ELISA tests based on recombinant antigens to avoid the need to culture parasites...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yoko Motokawa, Michifumi Kokubo, Nobuo Kuwabara, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Hideki Sezutsu, Hideyuki Takahashi, Koichi Sakakura, Kazuaki Chikamatsu, Shigeki Takeda
Recent clinical trials with the aim of developing tumor antigen (TA)-specific cancer vaccines against a number of malignancies have focused on the identification of TAs presented by tumor cells and recognized by T cells. In the present study, the TA melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGE-A4) protein was produced using a transgenic (TG) silkworm system. Using in vitro stimulation, it was subsequently determined whether MAGE-A4 protein induced MAGE-A4-specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Vaccination is the process of administering immunogenic formulations in order to induce or harness antigen (Ag)-specific antibody and T cell responses in order to protect against infections. Important successes have been obtained in protecting individuals against many deleterious pathological situations after parenteral vaccination. However, one of the major limitations of the current vaccination strategies is the administration route that may not be optimal for the induction of immunity at the site of pathogen entry, i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xiulan Li, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang, Rongzhi Wang
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a signal proinflammatory cytokine secreted by immune cell, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. It has been regarded as an important marker for determination of disease-specific immune responses. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accurate method to detect IFN-γ in clinic real blood samples. Until now, the immunoassay based on singe chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody for human IFN-γ is still not reported. In the present study, an scFv antibody named scFv-A8 with high specificity was obtained by phage display and biopanning, with the affinity 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi-Fan Tong, Ning Meng, Miao-Qin Chen, Han-Ning Ying, Ming Xu, Billy Lu, Jun-Jie Hong, Yi-Fan Wang, Xiu-Jun Cai
AIM: To establish a rat model for evaluating the maturity of liver regeneration derived from associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS). METHODS: In the present study, ALPPS, partial hepatecotmy (PHx), and sham rat models were established initially, which were validated by significant increase of proliferative markers including Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1. In the setting of accelerated proliferation in volume at the second and fifth day after ALPPS, the characteristics of newborn hepatocytes, as well as specific markers of progenitor hepatic cell, were identified...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nishat Hussain Ahmed, Anjana Sharma, Gita Satpathy, Jeewan Singh Titiyal, Radhika Tandon, Tushar Agarwal, M Vanathi, Namrata Sharma
Laboratory confirmation of chlamydial antigen in clinically suspected cases of chlamydial eye infections is important, as similar clinical picture can be presented by different infective or noninfective causes. We retrospectively analyzed the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in 690 clinically suspected patients over the last 8 years (2009-2016). The chlamydial antigen was detected using direct immunofluorescence assay. Overall, Chlamydia -specific antigen positivity was 45.5%. The highest positivity was seen in 2014 (68...
January 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Laura Tiberio, Annalisa Del Prete, Tiziana Schioppa, Francesca Sozio, Daniela Bosisio, Silvano Sozzani
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells responsible for the activation of specific T-cell responses and for the development of immune tolerance. Immature DCs reside in peripheral tissues and specialize in antigen capture, whereas mature DCs reside mostly in the secondary lymphoid organs where they act as antigen-presenting cells. The correct localization of DCs is strictly regulated by a large variety of chemotactic and nonchemotactic signals that include bacterial products, DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns), complement proteins, lipids, and chemokines...
March 21, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Chun Gwon Park, Christina A Hartl, Daniela Schmid, Ellese M Carmona, Hye-Jung Kim, Michael S Goldberg
Cancer immunotherapy can confer durable benefit, but the percentage of patients who respond to this approach remains modest. The ability to concentrate immunostimulatory compounds at the site of disease can overcome local immune tolerance and reduce systemic toxicity. Surgical resection of tumors may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by removing the concentrated immunosuppressive microenvironment; however, it also removes tumor-specific leukocytes as well as tumor antigens that may be important to establishing antitumor immunity...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Abdullah Aljurayyan, Suttida Puksuriwong, Muhammad Ahmed, Ravi Sharma, Madhan Krishnan, Salil Sood, Katherine Davies, Devika Rajashekar, Sam Leong, Paul S McNamara, Stephen Gordon, Qibo Zhang
There is increasing interest recently in developing intranasal vaccines against respiratory tract infections. Antibody response is critical in vaccine-induced protection and TFH is considered important in mediating antibody response. Most data supporting the role for TFH in antibody response are from animal studies, and direct evidence from humans is limited, apart from TFH -like cells in blood. We studied activation and induction of TFH and its role on anti-influenza antibody response by live-attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue(NALT)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Niwa Ali, Bahar Zirak, Hong-An Truong, Megan M Maurano, Iris K Gratz, Abul K Abbas, Michael D Rosenblum
Migratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets deliver tissue Ags to draining lymph nodes (DLNs) to either initiate or inhibit T cell-mediated immune responses. The signals mediating DC migration in response to tissue self-antigen are largely unknown. Using a mouse model of inducible skin-specific self-antigen expression, we demonstrate that CD103+ dermal DCs (DDCs) rapidly migrate from skin to skin DLN (SDLNs) within the first 48 h after Ag expression. This window of time was characterized by the preferential activation of tissue-resident Ag-specific effector T cells (Teffs), with no concurrent activation of Ag-specific Teffs in SDLNs...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Steffen Dettling, Slava Stamova, Rolf Warta, Martina Schnölzer, Carmen Rapp, Anchana Rathinasamy, David Reuss, Kolja Pocha, Saskia Roesch, Christine Jungk, Uwe Warnken, Volker Eckstein, Niels Grabe, Christoph Schramm, Markus A Weigand, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Unterberg, Philipp Beckhove, Christel Herold-Mende
PURPOSE: Successful immunotherapies for IDH mut gliomas require better knowledge of T-cell target antigens. Here, we elucidated their antigen repertoire recognized by spontaneous T-cell responses using an unbiased proteomic approach. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Protein fractionations of tissue lysates from IDH mut gliomas (n=4) were performed. Fractions were tested by IFN-ᵯE; ELISpot assay for recognition through patient's T-cells. Proteins of immunogenic fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and validated by in silico-predicted synthetic long-peptides in patients of origin, additional IDH mut glioma patients (n=16), and healthy donors (n=13)...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Agne Taraseviciute, Victor Tkachev, Rafael Ponce, Cameron J Turtle, Jessica M Snyder, H Denny Liggitt, David Myerson, Luis Gonzalez-Cuyar, Audrey Baldessari, Chris English, Alison Yu, Hengqi Zheng, Scott N Furlan, Daniel J Hunt, Virginia Hoglund, Olivia Finney, Hannah Brakke, Bruce R Blazar, Carolina Berger, Stanley Riddell, Rebecca Gardner, Leslie S Kean, Michael C Jensen
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of refractory leukemias and lymphomas, but is associated with significant toxicities, namely cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. A major barrier to developing therapeutics to prevent CAR T cell-mediated neurotoxicity is the lack of clinically relevant models. Accordingly, we developed a rhesus macaque (RM) model of neurotoxicity via adoptive transfer of autologous CD20-specific CAR T cells. Following cyclophosphamide lymphodepletion, CD20 CAR T cells expand to 272-4450 cells/µl after 7-8 days and elicit CRS and neurotoxicity...
March 21, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Julian Clauß, Matthias Obenaus, Csaba Miskey, Zoltán Ivics, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Wolfgang Uckert, Mario Bunse
Transposon-based vectors have entered clinical trials as an alternative to viral vectors for genetic engineering of T cells. However, transposon vectors require DNA transfection into T cells which we found to cause adverse effects. T cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner and DNA-transfected T cells showed a delayed response upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with regard to blast formation, proliferation and surface expression of CD25 and CD28. Gene expression analysis demonstrated a DNA-dependent induction of a type I interferon response and IFN-β upregulation...
March 21, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Ana Rita Lima, Ana Margarida Araújo, Joana Pinto, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Prostate cancer (PCa) is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR) expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression), and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2)...
March 19, 2018: Metabolites
Marlena M Westcott, Jason Smedberg, Matthew J Jorgensen, Shelby Puckett, Douglas S Lyles
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a promising platform for vaccine development. M51R VSV, an attenuated, M protein mutant strain, is an effective inducer of Type I interferon and dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which are desirable properties to exploit for vaccine design. We have previously evaluated M51R VSV (M51R) and M51R VSV that produces flagellin (M51R-F) as vaccine vectors using murine models, and found that flagellin enhanced DC activation and VSV-specific antibody production after low-dose vaccination...
March 19, 2018: Vaccines
Maryam Khorasani, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Mojgan Asgari, Maryam Abolhasani, Hossein Shahrokh, Ali Afkar, Elham Kalantari, Amir Peymani, Reza Mahdian
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam are the main screening tests used for PCa diagnosis. However, due to the low specificity of these tests, new alternative biomarkers such as deregulated RNAs and microRNAs have been implemented. OBJECTIVES: Aberrant expression of small heterodimer partner gene (SHP, NR0B2) and mir-141 are reported in various cancers...
February 28, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
G H Chen, H W Huang, Y Wang, H W Liu, L J Xu, X Ma, S L Xue, X F He, Y Wang, B Gu, C X Li, H Y Qiu, X W Tang, Z M Jin, M Miao, A N Sun, D P Wu
Objective: To study the specific killing effect of CD4 membrane protein targeted chimeric antigen receptor modified T (CAR-T) cell. Methods: The second generation CD4 targeted chimeric antigen receptor containing 4-1BB costimulation domain was insert into lentiviral vector through recombinant DNA technology. Lentivirus was prepared and packaged by 293T cells with four plasmids. Beads activated T cells were transduced with lentivirus and the transduction efficiency was checked with Protein L and flow cytometry...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xin Li, Adeline Gadzinsky, Liying Gong, Haijun Tong, Virginie Calderon, Yue Li, Daisuke Kitamura, Ulf Klein, Wallace Y Langdon, Fajian Hou, Yong-Rui Zou, Hua Gu
Selective expansion of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a key event in antibody affinity maturation. GC B cells with improved affinity can either continue affinity-driven selection or exit the GC to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs) or memory B cells. Here we found that deleting E3 ubiquitin ligases Cbl and Cbl-b (Cbls) in GC B cells resulted in the early exit of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells from the GC reaction and thus impaired clonal expansion. Cbls were highly expressed in GC light zone (LZ) B cells, where they promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of Irf4, a transcription factor facilitating PC fate choice...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Raul Vizcardo, Nicholas D Klemen, S M Rafiqul Islam, Devikala Gurusamy, Naritaka Tamaoki, Daisuke Yamada, Haruhiko Koseki, Benjamin L Kidder, Zhiya Yu, Li Jia, Amanda N Henning, Meghan L Good, Marta Bosch-Marce, Takuya Maeda, Chengyu Liu, Zied Abdullaev, Svetlana Pack, Douglas C Palmer, David F Stroncek, Fumito Ito, Francis A Flomerfelt, Michael J Kruhlak, Nicholas P Restifo
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T cells may provide future therapies for cancer patients, but those generated by current methods, such as the OP9/DLL1 system, have shown abnormalities that pose major barriers for clinical translation. Our data indicate that these iPSC-derived CD8 single-positive T cells are more like CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells than mature naive T cells because they display phenotypic markers of developmental arrest and an innate-like phenotype after stimulation. We developed a 3D thymic culture system to avoid these aberrant developmental fates, generating a homogeneous subset of CD8αβ+ antigen-specific T cells, designated iPSC-derived thymic emigrants (iTEs)...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
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