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Superoxide anion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642812/the-antioxidant-machinery-of-young-and-senescent-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-and-their-microvesicles
#1
Guillermo Bodega, Matilde Alique, Lourdes Bohórquez, Sergio Ciordia, María C Mena, Manuel R Ramírez
We examine the antioxidant role of young and senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their microvesicles (MVs). Proteomic and Western blot studies have shown young HUVECs to have a complete and well-developed antioxidant system. Their MVs also contain antioxidant molecules, though of a smaller and more specific range, specialized in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion via the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Senescence was shown to be associated with a large increase in the size of the antioxidant machinery in both HUVECs and their MVs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640317/octyl-gallate-a-food-additive-with-potential-beneficial-properties-to-treat-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#2
Vanessa Gonçalves Wolf, Cibele Bonacorsi, Maria Stella Gonçalves Raddi, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, Valdecir Farias Ximenes
Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by intense production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of neutrophils that are constantly attracted to the infected gastric mucosa. Here, gallic acid and its alkyl esters were evaluated as compounds able to act as antimicrobial agents and inhibitors of ROS released by H. pylori-activated neutrophils simultaneously. We found that the higher hydrophobicity caused by esterification of gallic acid led to a significant increase in its ability as a cytotoxic agent against H...
June 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638768/spin-forbidden-branching-in-the-mechanism-of-the-intrinsic-haber-weiss-reaction
#3
Ezequiel F V Leitão, Elizete Ventura, Miguel A F de Souza, José M Riveros, Silmar A do Monte
The mechanism of the O2(⋅-) and H2O2 reaction (Haber-Weiss) under solvent-free conditions has been characterized at the DFT and CCSD(T) level of theory to account for the ease of this reaction in the gas phase and the formation of two different set of products (Blanksby et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 4948). The reaction is shown to proceed through an electron-transfer process from the superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide, along two pathways. While the O3(⋅-) + H2O products are formed from a spin-allowed reaction (on the doublet surface), the preferred products, O(⋅-)(H2O)+(3)O2, are formed through a spin-forbidden reaction as a result of a favorable crossing point between the doublet and quartet surface...
June 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637941/a-novel-danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine-conjugate-dt-010-provides-cardioprotection-through-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#4
Xiaojing Zhang, Huihui Hu, Jingxiong Luo, Huixing Deng, Pei Yu, Zaijun Zhang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Luchen Shan, Yuqiang Wang
In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of action of DT-010, a novel danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine conjugate. DT-010 significantly preserved cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis in H9c2 cells injured by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and hypoxia-reoxygenation. In addition, DT-010 pre-treatment reduced the intracellular level of free radicals including superoxide anion (•O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) after t-BHP exposure...
June 22, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636310/sensing-mechanisms-in-the-redox-regulated-2fe-2s-cluster-containing-bacterial-transcriptional-factor-soxr
#5
Kazuo Kobayashi
Bacteria possess molecular biosensors that enable responses to a variety of stressful conditions, including oxidative stress, toxic compounds, and interactions with other organisms, through elaborately coordinated regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the transcription factor SoxR functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). SoxR protein contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster essential for its transcription-enhancing activity, which is regulated by redox changes in the [2Fe-2S] cluster...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633086/beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-in-overcoming-drought-stress-in-wheat-seedlings
#6
Guibin Cui, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Shudong Liu, Fengli Sun, Chao Zhang, Yajun Xi
Melatonin plays an important role in abiotic stress in plant, but its role in wheat drought tolerance is less known. To verify its role, wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yan 995') at 60% and 40% of field capacity were treated with 500 μM melatonin in this study. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the drought tolerance of wheat seedlings, as demonstrated by decreased membrane damage, more intact grana lamella of chloroplast, higher photosynthetic rate, and maximum efficiency of photosystem II, as well as higher cell turgor and water holding capacity in melatonin-treated seedlings...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630497/chronic-treatment-with-a-smart-antioxidative-nanoparticle-for-inhibition-of-amyloid-plaque-propagation-in-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Long Binh Vong, Sho Sakaue, Yasushi Tomidokoro, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka, Yukio Nagasaki
The present study aimed to assess whether our newly developed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) that has antioxidant potential decreases Aβ levels or prevents Aβ aggregation associated with oxidative stress. The transgenic Tg2576 Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice were used to investigate the effect of chronic ad libitum drinking of RNP(N) solution for 6 months, including memory and learning functions, antioxidant activity, and amyloid plaque aggregation. The results showed that RNP(N)-treated mice had significantly attenuated cognitive deficits of both spatial and non-spatial memories, reduced oxidative stress of lipid peroxide, and DNA oxidation...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630004/co-releasing-molecules-2-attenuates-ox-ldl-induced-injury-in-huvecs-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-function-and-inhibiting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#8
Hai-Jian Sun, Dong-Yan Xu, Yi-Xin Sun, Tong Xue, Chen-Xing Zhang, Zhi-Xuan Zhang, Wei Lin, Ke-Xue Li
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is well known to disrupt normal functionality of endothelium, which plays a prominent role in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases. CO-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is a promising candidate for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, it has not been defined whether CORM-2 might improve endothelial injury induced by ox-LDL. The present study was undertaken to determine the regulatory role of CORM-2 in cell injury of ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624745/silver-chloride-enwrapped-silver-grafted-on-nitrogen-doped-reduced-graphene-oxide-as-a-highly-efficient-visible-light-driven-photocatalyst
#9
Liang Wang, Yilun Shi, Tianfu Wang, Lili Zhang
The visible-light-driven plasmonic photocatalyst silver chloride enwrapped silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (AgCl@Ag/N-rGO) was prepared by a facile hydrothermal-in situ oxidation method and characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The characterization results reveal that Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were first grafted on N-rGO via N-groups as anchor sites and then enwrapped by AgCl by in situ oxidation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624704/maintenance-of-redox-homeostasis-by-hypoxia-inducible-factors
#10
REVIEW
Debangshu Samanta, Gregg L Semenza
Oxidative phosphorylation enables cells to generate the large amounts of ATP required for development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. However, under conditions of reduced O2 availability, electron transport becomes less efficient, leading to increased generation of superoxide anions. Hypoxia-inducible factors switch cells from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism, to reduce mitochondrial superoxide generation, and increase the synthesis of NADPH and glutathione, in order to maintain redox homeostasis under hypoxic conditions...
May 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621733/discovery-of-indeno-1-2-c-quinoline-derivatives-as-potent-dual-antituberculosis-and-anti-inflammatory-agents
#11
Chih-Hua Tseng, Chun-Wei Tung, Chen-Hsin Wu, Cherng-Chyi Tzeng, Yen-Hsu Chen, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yeh-Long Chen
A series of indeno[1,2-c]quinoline derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and anti-inflammatory activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the newly synthesized compound was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV. Among the tested compounds, (E)-N'-[6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-11H-indeno[1,2-c]quinolin-11-ylidene]isonicotino-hydrazide (12), exhibited significant activities against the growth of M. tuberculosis (MIC values of 0.96 μg/mL) with a potency approximately equal to that of isoniazid (INH), an anti-TB drug...
June 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620818/effects-of-atorvastatin-and-simvastatin-on-oxidative-stress-in-diet-induced-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-wistar-albino-rats-a-comparative-study
#12
T Nikolic, V Zivkovic, I Srejovic, I Stojic, N Jeremic, J Jeremic, K Radonjic, S Stankovic, R Obrenovic, D Djuric, V Jakovljevic
Considering the well-known antioxidant properties of statins, it seems important to assess their impact on major markers of oxidative stress (superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide, and index of lipid peroxidation) to compare the antioxidative potentials of atorvastatin and simvastatin during the different degrees of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in rats. This study was conducted on adult male Wistar albino rats (n = 90; 4 weeks old; 100 ± 15 g body mass) in which HHcy was achieved by dietary manipulation...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608983/folic-acid-reduces-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-modulating-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#13
Yanti Octavia, Georgios Kararigas, Martine de Boer, Ihsan Chrifi, Rinrada Kietadisorn, Melissa Swinnen, Hans Duimel, Fons K Verheyen, Maarten M Brandt, Daniela Fliegner, Caroline Cheng, Stefan Janssens, Dirk J Duncker, An L Moens
The use of doxorubicin (DOXO) as a chemotherapeutic drug has been hampered by cardiotoxicity leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Folic acid (FA) is a modulator of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), which in turn is an important player in diseases associated with NO insufficiency or NOS dysregulation, such as pressure overload and myocardial infarction. However, the role of FA in DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that FA prevents DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy by modulating eNOS and mitochondrial structure and function...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606413/leishmania-donovani-infection-activates-tlr-2-4-expressions-and-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-apoptosis-in-renal-tissues
#14
Vinod Kumar, Neeraj Tiwari, Mallikarjun Rao Gedda, Rizwanul Haque, Rakesh K Singh
The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. The levels of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (MDA), inflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression were found significantly elevated at 60th day in these animals and declined at 90th day post infection. However, TGF-β and caspase 3 activities were higher at 90th day in comparison to 60th day post infection...
June 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605977/linalool-induced-oxidative-stress-processes-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#15
Gábor Máté, Dominika Kovács, Zoltán Gazdag, Miklós Pesti, Árpád Szántó
The present study investigated the linalool (Lol)-induced effects in acute toxicity tests in the human pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans). Lol treatments induced reduced germ tube formation of the pathogen, which plays a crucial role in the virulence. In comparison with the untreated control, the exposure of 107 cells ml(-1) to 0.7 mM or 1.4 mM Lol for one hour induced 20% and 30% decrements, respectively, in the colony-forming ability. At the same time, these treatments caused dose-dependent decrease in the levels of superoxide anion radical and total reactive oxygen species, while there was 1...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603086/expression-and-characterization-of-recombinant-bifunctional-enzymes-with-glutathione-peroxidase-and-superoxide-dismutase-activities
#16
Tuchen Guan, Jian Song, Yanan Wang, Liying Guo, Lin Yuan, Yingding Zhao, Yuan Gao, Liangru Lin, Yali Wang, Jingyan Wei
To balance the production and decomposition of reactive oxygen species, living organisms have generated antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are two important antioxidant enzymes. Apart from their catalytic functions, they protect each other, resulting in more efficient removal of reactive oxygen species, protection of cells against injury, and maintenance of the normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion (O2(•-)) to oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
June 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602733/efficacy-of-viable-bacillus-pumilus-isolated-from-farmed-fish-on-immune-responses-and-increased-disease-resistance-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-laboratory-and-on-farm-trials
#17
Prapansak Srisapoome, Nonthawit Areechon
Applications of viable Bacillus pumilus AQAHBS01 isolated from Nile tilapia farms as probiotics were studied in both laboratory and farm conditions. In the laboratory, feeding fish (approximately 50 g) with feed containing viable B. pumilus at concentrations of 1 × 10(7)-10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/kg elevated fish immune responses, as indicated by their phagocytic activity and superoxide anion levels, and led to more effective disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae. However, when these concentrations were applied to Nile tilapia cultures growing in cage culture systems, only B...
June 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598384/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-constituents-from-the-peels-of-citrus-grandis
#18
Ping-Chung Kuo, Yu-Ren Liao, Hsin-Yi Hung, Chia-Wei Chuang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Shiow-Chyn Huang, Young-Ji Shiao, Daih-Huang Kuo, Tian-Shung Wu
A series of chromatographic separations performed on the ethanol extracts of the peels of Citrus grandis has led to the characterization of forty compounds, including seventeen coumarins, eight flavonoids, two triterpenoids, four benzenoids, two steroids, one lignan, one amide, and five other compounds, respectively. The chemical structures of the purified constituents were identified on the basis of spectroscopic elucidation, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectrometric analysis. Most of the isolated compounds were examined for their inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595002/diacetyl-l-xylulose-reductase-mediates-chemical-redox-cycling-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#19
Shaojun Yang, Yi-Hua Jan, Vladimir Mishin, Diane E Heck, Debra L Laskin, Jeffrey D Laskin
Reactive carbonyls such as diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) and 2,3-pentanedione in tobacco and many food and consumer products are known to cause severe respiratory diseases. Many of these chemicals are detoxified by carbonyl reductases in the lung, in particular, dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase (DCXR), a multifunctional enzyme important in glucose metabolism. DCXR is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Using recombinant human enzyme, we discovered that DCXR mediates redox cycling of a variety of quinones generating superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and, in the presence of transition metals, hydroxyl radicals...
June 8, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594275/roles-of-superoxide-anion-and-hydrogen-peroxide-during-replication-of-two-unrelated-plant-rna-viruses-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#20
Kiwamu Hyodo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Kazuyuki Mise, Tetsuro Okuno
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical, act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into stress adaptations in plants. A respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) is responsible for O2(-) production to inhibit pathogen infection during plant innate immunity. RBOH-derived O2(-) can be immediately converted into H2O2 by the action of superoxide dismutase. Interestingly, we recently showed that red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, hijacks the host's ROS-generating machinery during infection...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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