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Superoxide anion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352929/structural-characterization-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-polysaccharides-from-sophorae-tonkinensis-radix
#1
Liangliang Cai, Shanshan Zou, Dengpan Liang, Libiao Luan
In current study we present two polysaccharides, STRP1 and STRP2, purified from Sophorae tonkinensis Radix via column chromatography. Structural analyses indicated that STRP1 and STRP2 were consisted of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose in a similar molar ratio with main backbones of (1 → 3)-linked-α-d-Gal and (1 → 4)-linked-α-d-Glc, while average molecular weights were 1.30 × 104 and 1.98 × 105 Da, respectively. We observed a strong chelating ability on ferrous ions; substantial radical scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals in vitro; and significant attenuation on acetaminophen-induced hepatic oxidative damage in mice for STRP1 and STRP2...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351884/crucial-role-of-chelatable-iron-in-silver-nanoparticles-induced-dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity
#2
Agnieszka Grzelak, Maria Wojewódzka, Sylwia Meczynska-Wielgosz, Mariusz Zuberek, Dominika Wojciechowska, Marcin Kruszewski
Damage to mitochondria and subsequent ROS leakage is a commonly accepted mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity. However, malfunction of mitochondria results in generation of superoxide anion radical (O2•-), which due to the relatively low chemical reactivity is rather unlikely to cause harmful effects triggered by nanoparticles. We show that treatment of HepG2 cells with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) resulted in generation of H2O2 instead of O2•-, as measured by ROS specific mitochondrial probes. Moreover, addition of a selective iron chelator diminished AgNPs toxicity...
January 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#3
Petr Jezek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jaburek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the above aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348077/effects-of-cordyceps-sinensis-on-macrophage-function-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-and-its-anti-proliferative-effects-on-imr-32-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
Leandro Freire Dos Santos, Rosalia Rubel, Sandro Jose Ribeiro Bonatto, Adriana Aya Yamaguchi, Maria Fernanda Torres, Vanete Thomaz Soccol, Andre Luís Lopes da Silva, Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Macrophages have been considered an elusive yet emerging therapeutic target in tumor development since they are an important component in tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of C. sinensis on macrophage function (a component of tumor microenvironment which can alter the virulence of cancer) in high-fat diet fed rats. IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell cytotoxicity was also investigated. The following parameters were observed to evaluate macrophage function: superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, lysosomal volume and phagocytic capacity...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346538/vitamin-k5-is-an-efficient-photosensitizer-for-ultraviolet-a-light-inactivation-of-bacteria
#5
Fei Xu, Ying Li, Justen Ahmad, Yonggang Wang, Dorothy Scott, Jaroslav G Vostal
Photodynamic treatment combining light and a photosensitizer molecule can be an effective method to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. This study identified vitamin K5 as an efficient photosensitizer for ultraviolet light A (UVA)-induced bacterial inactivation. Six bacterial species, Bacillus cereus (vegetative form), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa* and Staphylococcus aureus*, were suspended in aqueous solutions with or without vitamin K5 and exposed to UVA irradiation...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344915/mechanistic-investigation-of-visible-light-driven-photocatalytic-inactivation-of-e-coli-by-ag-agcl-znfe2o4
#6
Akhanda Raj Upreti, Nirina Khadgi, Yi Li
In this study, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli was investigated over magnetic nanocomposite Ag-AgCl/ZnFe2O4. The nanocomposite demonstrated efficient photocatalytic activity by complete inactivation of the bacteria within 60 min of visible light irradiation. The anions HPO42- and SO42- were found to play the most important role in the inhibition of photocatalytic inactivation of E. coli. A systematic investigation of mechanism of photocatalytic bacterial inactivation was carried out based on cell membrane injury test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bacterial morphology changes, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of E...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344877/a-bioluminescent-test-system-reveals-valuable-antioxidant-properties-of-lactobacillus-strains-from-human-microbiota
#7
Maria Marsova, Serikbay Abilev, Elena Poluektova, Valeriy Danilenko
Oxidative stress cause serious damages in human organism resulting in multiple diseases. Antioxidant therapy includes diet, the use of chemical agents or commensal bacteria such as lactobacilli. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant (AO) activity of cell-free culture supernatants of lactobacilli, isolated from different parts of the human body. A test system based on Escherichia coli MG1655 strains carrying plasmids encoding luminescent biosensors pSoxS-lux and pKatG-lux inducible by superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, was used to analyze cell-free culture supernatants of lactobacilli...
January 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337692/generation-of-superoxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-by-side-reactions-of-mitochondrial-2-oxoacid-dehydrogenase-complexes-in-isolation-and-in-cells
#8
Victoria I Bunik, Martin D Brand
Mitochondrial 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes oxidize 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, branched-chain 2-oxoacids and 2-oxoadipate to the corresponding acyl-CoAs and reduce NAD+ to NADH. The isolated enzyme complexes generate superoxide anion radical or hydrogen peroxide in defined reactions by leaking electrons to oxygen. Studies using isolated mitochondria in media mimicking cytosol suggest that the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes contribute little to the production of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide relative to other mitochondrial sites at physiological steady-states...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336466/magnolol-protects-against-ischemic-reperfusion-brain-damage-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Sheng-Yang Huang, Shih-Huang Tai, Che-Chao Chang, Yi-Fang Tu, Chih-Han Chang, E-Jian Lee
In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of magnolol against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury was examined via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Magnolol exhibited strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibited the production of interleukin‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑a and nitrite/nitrate (NOX) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 and RAW 264.7 cells when applied at concentrations of 10 and 50 µM, respectively. Magnolol (100 µM) also significantly attenuated oxygen‑glucose deprivation‑induced damage in neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, when administered up to 4 h following the insult...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328426/relaxant-and-vasoprotective-effects-of-ginger-extracts-on-porcine-coronary-arteries
#10
Hsing-Chen Wu, Chi-Ting Horng, Shih-Chang Tsai, You-Li Lee, Shou-Cheng Hsu, Yi-Jen Tsai, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Jo-Hua Chiang, Daih-Huang Kuo, Jai-Sing Yang
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a popular Chinese herbal medicine, which is considered to warm the stomach and dispel cold in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginger is widely used to treat stomach disorders, and it has been reported to exhibit antithrombotic activity via the inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production in vitro. Cardiovascular disease is associated with the aberrant functioning of the heart and circulatory system; the relatively narrow vessels of the circulation are commonly affected and blocked by atherosclerosis, which may result in angina or heart attack...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325866/2-2-nitrovinyl-furan-exacerbates-oxidative-stress-responses-of-escherichia-coli-to-bacteriostatic-and-bactericidal-antibiotics
#11
T O Ajiboye
The influence of 2-(2-nitrovinyl) furan on the antibiotic activities of selected bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics was investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined to evaluate the interaction between 2-(2-nitrovinyl) furan and the antibiotics. 2-(2-nitrovinyl) furan exhibited additive interactions with chloramphenicol, erythromycin, lincomycin and gemifloxacin. However, synergistic interaction was observed with amoxicillin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324765/brassinosteroids-regulate-root-growth-by-controlling-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-and-dual-effect-on-ethylene-synthesis-in-arabidopsis
#12
Bingsheng Lv, Huiyu Tian, Feng Zhang, Jiajia Liu, Songchong Lu, Mingyi Bai, Chuanyou Li, Zhaojun Ding
The brassinosteroids (BRs) represent a class of phytohormones, which regulate numerous aspects of growth and development. Here, a det2-9 mutant defective in BR synthesis was identified from an EMS mutant screening for defects in root length, and was used to investigate the role of BR in root development in Arabidopsis. The det2-9 mutant displays a short-root phenotype, which is result from the reduced cell number in root meristem and decreased cell size in root maturation zone. Ethylene synthesis is highly increased in the det2-9 mutant compared with the wild type, resulting in the hyper-accumulation of ethylene and the consequent inhibition of root growth...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310214/fabrication-of-novel-superoxide-anion-biosensor-based-on-3d-interface-of-mussel-inspired-fe3o4-mn3-po3-2-ni-foam
#13
Qi Wang, Qian Zhou, Qicheng Zhang, Rongjia Shi, Shangshang Ma, Wenbo Zhao, Min Zhou
Preparation of high performance electrochemical biosensing interface for the sensitive and rapid detection of human metabolites is of great interest for health care and biomedical science. In this paper, based on the adhesion technique of marine mussels, we designed and prepared a novel biosensor with a micro/nano-biointerface of Fe3O4-Mn3(PO3)2@Ni foam, which offered a three dimensional (3D) living environment for real cell. The constructed biosensor with a 3D micro/nano-biointerface of Fe3O4-Mn3(PO3)2@Ni foam was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305215/antioxidant-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-polysaccharides-sequentially-extracted-from-onion-allium-cepa-l
#14
Yi-Long Ma, Dan-Ye Zhu, Kiran Thakur, Cai-Hong Wang, Hao Wang, Ya-Fei Ren, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
We investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of sequentially extracted onion polysaccharide fractions namely HBSS, CHSS, DASS and CASS. The different antioxidant assays indicated that ACLPs exhibited potentially appreciable antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Among all the fractions, CHSS rendered the highest antioxidant action towards ABTS radical cations (97.52%), Fe2+ chelating (98.94%) and superoxide anion radical scavenging (76.27%). Whereas, HBSS possessed the highest potential for DPPH radicals (93...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299955/apocynin-combined-with-drugs-as-coadjuvant-could-be-employed-to-prevent-and-or-treat-the-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Jorge Osvaldo Montes-Rivera, Feliciano Tamay-Cach, Julio César Quintana-Pérez, Juan Alberto Guevara-Salazar, José Guadalupe Trujillo-Ferrara, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, Mónica Griselda Arellano-Mendoza
A worldwide public health problem is chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting alarming epidemiological data. It currently affects about 10% of the adult population worldwide and has a high mortality rate. It is now known that oxidative stress represents one of the most important mechanisms in its pathophysiology, from the early stages to the terminal phase. Oxidation increases inflammation and reduces the capacity of NO• to relax vascular smooth muscle, in part by decreasing bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), leading to endothelial dysfunction and high blood pressure, and due to the limited effectiveness of existing treatments, new drugs are needed to prevent and/or treat these mechanisms...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299582/facile-synthesis-of-carbon-quantum-dots-loaded-with-mesoporous-g-c3n4-for-synergistic-absorption-and-visible-light-photodegradation-of-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics
#16
Yingfei Wang, Fengliang Wang, Yiping Feng, Zhijie Xie, Qianxin Zhang, Xiaoyu Jin, Haijin Liu, Yang Liu, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu
The development of facile and efficient synthetic approaches of carbon quantum dots loaded with mesoporous g-C3N4 (mpg-C3N4/CQDs) is of critical urgency. Here, a facile strategy was developed to synthesize the mpg-C3N4/CQDs by using calcinations of the mixture of CQDs, cyanamide, and silica colloid. The obtained composite still retained a considerable total surface area, which could offer a larger population of adsorption sites; therefore enhance the capacity for the adsorption of fluoroquinolones antibiotics (FQs)...
January 4, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291576/lithium-promotes-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-via-gsk-3%C3%AE-tsc2-tor-signaling-in-the-gill-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Dongwu Liu, Lili Gao, Zhuangzhuang Zhang, Shiyi Tao, Qiuxiang Pang, Ao Li, Hongkuan Deng, Hairui Yu
In this study, the mechanism that lithium (Li) promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling was investigated in the gill of zebrafish (Danio rerio). After the zebrafish were treated by 25 and 50 mg/L Li+, the mRNA expression of GSK-3β and TSC2 was inhibited, but the expression of TOR was induced in the gill of zebrafish. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2·-), and hydroxy radical (·OH) as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased, while the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and peroxidase (POD) were decreased by 25 and 50 mg/L Li+ treatments...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280941/superoxide-anions-and-no-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-modulate-the-cardiac-sympathetic-afferent-reflex-in-obese-rats
#18
Qing-Bo Lu, Jing Sun, Ying Kang, Hai-Jian Sun, Hui-Shan Wang, Yuan Wang, Guo-Qing Zhu, Ye-Bo Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that the endogenous superoxide anions (O₂-) and nitric oxide (NO) system of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributing to sympathoexcitation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks. CSAR was evaluated by monitoring the changes of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin (CAP) in anaesthetized rats...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280620/a-novel-electrochemiluminescence-peptide-based-biosensor-with-hetero-nanostructures-as-co-reaction-accelerator-for-the-ultra-sensitive-determination-of-tryptase
#19
Fang-Fang Wu, Ying Zhou, Han Zhang, Ruo Yuan, Ya-Qin Chai
In this work, a luminol-centric biosensor was constructed for the ultrasensitive detection of tryptase (TPS) combining dissolved O2 as the endogenous coreactant and Au-Ag-Pt hetero-nanostructures (AAPHNs) as co-reaction accelerator. Dissolved O2 could rapidly generate superoxide anion radical (O2•-) with the catalysis of AAPHNs to in situ react with luminol anion radical (L•-) to generate excited-state species 3-aminophthalate (AP2-*) for emitting ECL signal, resulting in a remarkable "single on" state...
December 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277292/resveratrol-attenuates-hyperproliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-role-of-ros-and-ros-mediated-cell-signaling
#20
Sara Almajdoob, Ekhtear Hossain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound has been reported to attenuate angiotensin II -induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy; however, whether resveratrol could also inhibit hyperproliferation of VSMC from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is unexplored. The present study investigates the effect of resveratrol on hyperproliferation of VSMC from SHR and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for this response. For these studies, aortic VSMC from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used...
December 19, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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