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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932289/peroxiredoxin-6-in-the-repair-of-peroxidized-cell-membranes-and-cell-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Aron B Fisher
Peroxiredoxin 6 represents a widely distributed group of peroxiredoxins that contain a single conserved cysteine in the protein monomer (1-cys Prdx). The cys when oxidized to the sulfenic form is reduced with glutathione (GSH) catalyzed by the π isoform of GSH-S-transferase. Three enzymatic activities of the protein have been described:1) peroxidase with H2O2, short chain hydroperoxides and phospholipid hydroperoxides as substrates; 2) phospholipase A2 (PLA2); and 3) lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase (LPCAT)...
December 5, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930804/increased-mitochondrial-ros-generation-mediates-the-loss-of-pvat-anticontractile-effect-in-hfd-treated-obese-mice
#2
Rafael Menezes da Costa, Rafael S Fais, Carlos R P Dechandt, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Luciane C Alberici, Núbia S Lobato, Rita C Tostes
Obesity is associated with structural and functional changes in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), favoring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vasoconstrictor and proinflammatory factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induces vascular dysfunction and is produced by the PVAT. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated PVAT dysfunction is mediated by augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation due to increased TNF-α production in this tissue. Aortae from high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice displayed increased contractions to phenylephrine (PE) and loss of PVAT anticontractile effect...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928140/reaction-and-scavenging-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-zeaxanthin-with-reactive-oxygen-species
#3
Azusa Nishino, Hiroyuki Yasui, Takashi Maoka
In order to investigate chemical scavenging mechanism of singlet oxygen, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical by carotenoids, reaction products obtained by reacting β-carotene or zeaxanthin with singlet oxygen, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical were analyzed by LC/PDA ESI-MS, and ESR spectrometry. β-Carotene endoperoxides were identified as the major reaction products of β-carotene and singlet oxygen, while β-carotene epoxides were the major reaction products of β-carotene and superoxide anion or hydroxyl radical...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925493/the-effect-of-freeze-drying-on-the-nutrient-polyphenol-and-oxidant-levels-of-breast-milk
#4
Mariela Valentina Cortez, Elio Andrés Soria
OBJECTIVES: Human milk banks need to extend the suitability of milk for breastfeeding, and for this technological advances are required. Our aim was to establish the capacity of freeze-drying to conserve milk properties without further oxidative deterioration. METHODS: One hundred sixteen healthy women participated from the city of Cordoba (Argentina). Proteins, glucose, triglycerides, polyphenols, and markers (nitrites, superoxide anion, hydroperoxides, lipoperoxides, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured in their fresh milk...
December 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912877/riceberry-bran-extract-prevents-renal-dysfunction-and-impaired-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-oat3-function-by-modulating-the-pkc-nrf2-pathway-in-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Phatchawan Arjinajarn, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, Krit Jaikumkao, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Orranuch Norkaew, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the protective effects of Riceberry bran extract (RBBE) on renal function, and the function and expression of renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and explored the mechanisms for its protective effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 42) were divided into six groups to receive normal saline, gentamicin (100mg/kg), co-treatment of gentamicin and RBBE (at dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), and RBBE (at dose of 1000mg/kg) only, for consecutive fifteen days...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912872/anti-allergic-potential-of-typhonium-blumei-inhibition-of-degranulation-via-suppression-of-pi3k-plc%C3%AE-2-phosphorylation-and-calcium-influx
#7
Michal Korinek, Kuan-Ming Chen, Yu-Han Jiang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Joel Stocker, Chon-Kit Chou, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang
BACKGROUND: Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (Araceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb possessing detumescent, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Typhonium blumei is usually not distinguished from Typhonium roxburghii Schott and they are commonly used interchangeably. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of T...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912212/knockdown-of-inhibitory-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-gi%C3%AE-2-by-antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides-attenuates-the-development-of-hypertension-and-tachycardia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Yousra Ali El-Basyuni, Yuan Li, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the levels of both Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins were augmented in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) before the onset of hypertension. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin, which inactivates both Giα proteins, prevented the development of hypertension in SHRs. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific contributions of Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins to the development of hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of Giα-2 and Giα-3 encapsulated in PEG/DOTAP/DOPE cationic liposomes were administrated intravenously into 3-week-old prehypertensive SHRs and Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas the control Wistar Kyoto rats and SHRs received PBS, empty liposomes, or sense...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911102/anti-cd14-antibody-treated-neutrophils-respond-to-lps-possible-involvement-of-cd14-upregulated-by-anti-cd14-antibody-binding
#9
Terukazu Sanui, Masaaki Takeshita, Takao Fukuda, Akira Haraguchi, Yoshitomi Aida, Fusanori Nishimura
CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4/MD2 (TLR4/MD2) mediate the action of LPS on neutrophils. The anti-CD14 antibody and the TLR4/MD2-antagonist, synthetic lipid IVa (LA-14-PP), are known to inhibit the response of neutrophils to LPS. We studied the role of CD14 in LPS-induced priming of neutrophils for enhanced release of the superoxide anion. The anti-CD14 antibody at much higher concentrations than required to saturate CD14 was required to inhibit priming by LPS. The inhibitory effect of the anti-CD14 antibody was overcome by LPS...
December 2, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910755/comparison-of-the-composition-and-antioxidant-activities-of-phenolics-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-cultivated-asian-culinary-medicinal-mushrooms
#10
Shaoling Lin, Lai Tsz Ching, Xinxin Ke, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P < 0.05), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and consisted of the largest number (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) and total amounts of phenolic acids identified by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908718/inhibitory-effect-of-sophora-subprosrate-polysaccharide-on-mitochondria-oxidative-stress-induced-by-pcv-2-infection-in-raw264-7-cells
#11
Zi-Jie Su, Jian Yang, Wen-Juan Luo, Ying-Yi Wei, Xue-Hong Shuai, Ting-Jun Hu
In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Sophora subprosrate polysaccharide (SSP) on PCV-2-induced mitochondrial respiratory burst in RAW264.7 cells was first investigated. The findings suggested that SOD activity and the anti-superoxide anion radical activity of the RAW264.7 cells were significantly decreased after PCV-2 infection, and MnSOD mRNA levels were significantly decreased, while NOX2 mRNA levels and protein expression were increased. Meanwhile, the O2(•-) levels and mitochondrial membrane potentials were significantly increased...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905025/flavonoids-from-heliotropium-subulatum-exudate-and-their-evaluation-for-antioxidant-antineoplastic-and-cytotoxic-activities-ii
#12
Bharat Singh, Pooran M Sahu, Ram A Sharma
The flavonoids are the largest group of phenolic compounds isolated from a wide range of higher plants. These compounds work as antimicrobials, anti-insect agents and protect plants from other types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Various researchers have suggested that flavonoids possessed antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities. The main objective of this study was to test dichloromethane fraction of resinous exudate of Heliotropium subulatum for their antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities, as well as to search new antioxidant and antineoplastic agents for pharmaceutical formulations...
November 30, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898026/new-anti-inflammatory-9-11-secosterols-with-a-rare-tricyclo-5-2-1-1-decane-ring-from-a-formosan-gorgonian-pinnigorgia-sp
#13
Yu-Chia Chang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Yang-Chang Wu, Ping-Jyun Sung
Pinnigorgiols D (1) and E (2), two new 9,11-secosterols with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from a Taiwan gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp. The structures of these two compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and were proven to possess a tricyclo[5,2,1,1]decane ring. The new secosterols 1 and 2 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.
November 26, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897258/lack-of-fibronectin-extra-domain-a-alternative-splicing-exacerbates-endothelial-dysfunction-in-diabetes
#14
Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni, Luigi Cattin, Andrés F Muro, Michela Zanetti
Glucose-induced changes of artery anatomy and function account for diabetic vascular complications, which heavily impact disease morbidity and mortality. Since fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA + FN) is increased in diabetic vessels and participates to vascular remodeling, we wanted to elucidate whether and how EDA + FN is implicated in diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction using isometric-tension recording in a murine model of diabetes. In thoracic aortas of EDA(-/-), EDA(+/+) (constitutively lacking and expressing EDA + FN respectively), and of wild-type mice (EDA(wt/wt)), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes impaired endothelial vasodilation to acetylcholine, irrespective of genotype...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897222/nadph-oxidase-gp91-phox-contributes-to-rankl-induced-osteoclast-differentiation-by-upregulating-nfatc1
#15
In Soon Kang, Chaekyun Kim
Bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) differentiate into osteoclasts by M-CSF along subsequent RANKL stimulation possibly in collaboration with many other unknown cytokines released by pre- or mature osteoblasts. The differentiation process requires receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2(•-)). Gp91(phox), a plasma membrane subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox), is constitutively expressed in BMMs and plays a major role in superoxide anion production...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895385/involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-derived-from-mitochondria-in-neuronal-injury-elicited-by-methylmercury
#16
Yasuhiro Ishihara, Mayumi Tsuji, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Takeshi Yamazaki
Methylmercury induces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury. However, the mechanism by which methylmercury elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains under debate. In this study, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in methylmercury-induced neuronal cell injury using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y-derived ρ(0) cells, which have a deletion of mitochondrial DNA and thus decreased respiratory activity. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured for 60 days in the presence of ethidium bromide to produce ρ(0) cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887776/critical-role-of-superoxide-anions-and-hydroxyl-radicals-in-hema-induced-apoptosis
#17
H Schweikl, M Godula, C Petzel, C Bolay, K A Hiller, W Buchalla
OBJECTIVE: Resin monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) induce apoptosis because of the excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The portion of ROS including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals in monomer-induced apoptosis is unknown. Here, the effectiveness of superoxide anions or hydroxyl radicals was analyzed using tempol or sodium formate as radical scavengers. METHODS: RAW264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to HEMA (0-6-8mM) in the presence of tempol (0-0...
November 22, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886148/extraction-of-opuntia-dillenii-haw-polysaccharides-and-their-antioxidant-activities
#18
Heng Li, Qingxia Yuan, Xianjiao Zhou, Fuhua Zeng, Xiangyang Lu
Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb)...
November 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885260/nitric-oxide-triggers-a-transient-metabolic-reprogramming-in-arabidopsis
#19
José León, Álvaro Costa, Mari-Cruz Castillo
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates plant growth and development as well as responses to stress that enhanced its endogenous production. Arabidopsis plants exposed to a pulse of exogenous NO gas were used for untargeted global metabolomic analyses thus allowing the identification of metabolic processes affected by NO. At early time points after treatment, NO scavenged superoxide anion and induced the nitration and the S-nitrosylation of proteins. These events preceded an extensive though transient metabolic reprogramming at 6 h after NO treatment, which included enhanced levels of polyamines, lipid catabolism and accumulation of phospholipids, chlorophyll breakdown, protein and nucleic acid turnover and increased content of sugars...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875592/curcumin-generates-oxidative-stress-and-induces-apoptosis-in-adult-schistosoma-mansoni-worms
#20
Daniela de Paula Aguiar, Mayara Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Enyara Rezende Morais, Renato Graciano de Paula, Pedro Manuel Ferreira, Ana Afonso, Silvana Belo, Amanda Tomie Ouchida, Carlos Curti, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Vanderlei Rodrigues, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães
Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed...
2016: PloS One
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