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Superoxide anion

Vânia Brazão, Rafaela Pravato Colato, Fabricia Helena Santello, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Natália de Almeida Gonzaga, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, José Clóvis do Prado
Although the exact etiology of Chagas' disease is not completely elucidated, thymic atrophy and oxidative stress are believed to be important contributors to the pathogenesis during acute Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. We hypothethized that exogenous melatonin, administered by gavage (5 mg/kg, p.o., gavage) to young (5 weeks old) and middle-aged (18 months old) male Wistar rats would modulate thymic oxidative damage and reverse the age-related thymus regression during T. cruzi acute infection. Increased levels of superoxide anion (O2 - ) were detected in the thymus of infected animals and treatment with melatonin reverted this response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Imran Ali, Omar M L Alharbi, Zeid A Alothman, Ahmad Yacine Badjah
Titanium oxide nanoparticles were doped with copper and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM and SEM. The surface morphology was spherical with 15-26 nm as particle size. The doped titanium oxide (Co/TiO2 ) nanomaterial was used for photodegradation of amido black dye in water. The maximum photodegradation of amido black obtained was 90%. The values of free energy, and enthalpy were negative, indicating spontaneous photodegradation of amido black dye. The photodegradation of amido black dye obeyed first order kinetic model...
May 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Shouzhu Xu, Jing Zhao, Juntian Liu, Wei Gou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the artery walls. Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) is a biomarker of the activation of coagulation system, and a high concentration of FPA in blood occurs in patients with ischemic heart disease etc. However, there exist few studies on the pathological effects of FPA in cardiovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of FPA on CRP expression in VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms. METHODS: mRNA and protein expression was identified by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sahra A Belambri, Loïc Rolas, Houssam Raad, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Pham My-Chan Dang, Jamel El-Benna
Neutrophils are key cells of innate immunity and during inflammation. Upon activation, they produce large amounts of superoxide anion (O2 -. ) and ensuing reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill phagocytized microbes. The enzyme responsible for O2 -. production is called the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This is a multicomponent enzyme system that becomes active after assembly of four cytosolic proteins (p47phox , p67phox , p40phox and Rac2) with the transmembrane proteins (p22phox and gp91phox , which form the cytochrome b558 )...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wen-Hao Zhao, Chang-Feng Chi, Yu-Qin Zhao, Bin Wang
Collagen is one of the most useful biomaterials and widely applied in functional food and cosmetics. However, some consumers have paid close attention to the safety of mammalian collagens because of the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and other prion diseases. Therefore, there is a strong demand for developing alternative sources of collagen, with one promising source being from the process by-products of commercial fisheries. In this report, acid-soluble collagen (ASC-SB) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC-SB) from swim bladders of miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy ) were isolated with yields of 1...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wan-Yu Huang, Shankung Lin, Hsuan-Ying Chen, Ya-Ping Chen, Ting-Yu Chen, Kuei-Sen Hsu, Hung-Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation associated with sepsis can induce neuronal hyperexcitability, leading to enhanced seizure predisposition and occurrence. Brain microglia are rapidly activated in response to systemic inflammation and, in this activated state, release multiple cytokines and signaling factors that amplify the inflammatory response and increase neuronal excitability. NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes promote microglial activation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Natália A Gonzaga, Rodrigo Yokota, Amanda A Ribeiro, Dulce E Casarini, Bruno S de Martinis, Carlos R Tirapelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Vascular oxidative stress is described as an important mechanism whereby ethanol predisposes to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol 20% (vol./vol.) or nebivolol (10 mg/kg/day, p. o., gavage), a selective β1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pablo Llévenes, Gloria Balfagón, Javier Blanco-Rivero
We aimed to determine the influence of nitrergic innervation function on the decreased mesenteric arterial tone induced by high levels of triiodothyronine (T3), as a model of acute thyroiditis, as well as the mechanism/s implicated. We analysed in mesenteric segments from male Wistar rats the effect of 10 nmol/L T3 (2 h) on the vasomotor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the presence/absence of specific neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor L-NPA, or superoxide anion scavenger tempol. Nitric oxide (NO) release was measured in the presence/absence of tempol or PI3K inhibitor LY294002...
May 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
A F Ahmeda, M G Rae, L M Anweigi, M F Al Otaibi, A A Al-Masri, E J Johns
A significant factor in the development of hypertension may be excessive vasoconstriction within the renal medulla. This study therefore investigated the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the regulation of renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and normotensive Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured before and after intra-renal infusion of the SOD inhibitor, diethyldithio-carbamic acid (DETC). Under basal conditions, mean arterial pressure was significantly greater in SHRSP than Wistar rats, but both MBP and heart rate (HR) were significantly lower in SHRSP relative to Wistar rats (P < 0...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Younshick Choi, Ji-Eun Chang, Sanghoon Jheon, Sei-Jun Han, Jong-Ki Kim
Concurrent low‑dose carboplatin/Photofrin® photodynamic therapy (ccPDT) has been shown to promote relapse‑free complete tumor regression in cervical or endometrial cancer patients as a fertility‑preservation therapy. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of ccPDT by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and necrotic or apoptotic cell damage in HeLa cells loaded with fluorescent oxidant agents and Photofrin or/and carboplatin under light irradiation...
May 3, 2018: Oncology Reports
Mohamed El Ayed, Safwen Kadri, Maha Mabrouk, Ezzedine Aouani, Salem Elkahoui
BACKGROUND: Obesity is currently one of the major epidemics of this millennium and affects poeples throughout the world. It causes multiple systemic complications as it significantly interferes with respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: We aimed in the present work to study the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung oxidative stress and energy metabolism alterations, as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). METHODS: We started by characterizing the GSSE and its composition using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
May 10, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
James A Connelly, Rebecca Marsh, Suhag Parikh, Julie-An Talano
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a congenital disorder characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and development of severe inflammation secondary to a congenital defect in 1 of the 5 phagocyte oxidase (phox) subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a curative treatment for patients with CGD that provides donor neutrophils with functional NADPH and superoxide anion production. Many characteristics of CGD, including preexisting infection and inflammation and the potential for cure with mixed-donor chimerism, influence the transplant approach and patient outcome...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Bisheng Li, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Lei Qin, Huan Yi, Danlian Huang, Chengyun Zhou, Xigui Liu, Min Cheng, Piao Xu, Chen Zhang, Fanglong Huang, Shiyu Liu
An efficient binary Bi2Fe4O9/Bi2WO6 Z-scheme heterojunction was fabricated through facile hydrothermal route. The obtained Bi2Fe4O9/Bi2WO6 displays high catalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation, and 100% of RhB was photodegraded by Bi2Fe4O9 (7%)/Bi2WO6 within 90 min, which is much better than pure Bi2Fe4O9 and Bi2WO6. The effective photoinduced carriers separation, the broadened photoabsorption range, high oxidation capacity of hole and the high reduction power of electron are charge of the elevated catalytic activity because of the formed Z-scheme system...
May 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meng-Ke Zhang, Jun Tang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Kang-Di Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Zhuo Han, Xiao-Yan Chen, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, Hua Zhang
Aspergillus niger, a common saprophytic fungus, causes rot in many fruits. We studied the role of a putative catalase-peroxidase encoding gene cpeB in oxidative stress and virulence in fruit. The cpeB gene was deleted in A. niger by homologous recombination, and the ΔcpeB mutant showed decreased CAT activity compared with that of the wild type. The cpeB gene deletion caused increased sensitivity to H2O2 stress, and the spore germination was significantly reduced; in addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolites superoxide anion (∙O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the ΔcpeB mutant during H2O2 stress...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aimal Khan, Shuhua Zou, Ting Wang, Jerosha Ifthikar, Ali Jawad, Zhuwei Liao, Ajmal Shahzad, Audrey Ngambia, Zhuqi Chen
Yolk shell Mn2O3@Mn5O8 was prepared through a facile synthetic procedure and was demonstrated to be a highly efficient and stable catalyst in peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation for the catalytic degradation of organic contaminants. Mn2O3@Mn5O8 exhibits much improved activity compared with other classic manganese catalysts such as ε-MnO2, Mn2O3 and Mn3O4, and this performance was due to its yolk shell structure, mesoporous shell, well-defined interior voids, particular particle size and mixed valence states...
May 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Isabelle Grandvuillemin, Christophe Buffat, Farid Boubred, Edouard Lamy, Julien Fromonot, Philippe Charpiot, Stephanie Simoncini, Florence Sabatier, Françoise Dignat-George, Anne-Christine Peyter, Umberto Simeoni, Catherine Yzydorczyk
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, notably hypertension (HTN). Alterations in the vascular system, particularly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, may play an important role in long-term effects of IUGR. Whether such vascular dysfunction precedes HTN has not been fully established in individuals born after IUGR. Moreover, the intimate mechanisms of altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain incompletely elucidated...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
R M Martinez, V Fattori, P Saito, C B P Melo, S M Borghi, I C Pinto, A J C Bussmann, M M Baracat, S R Georgetti, W A Verri, R Casagrande
BACKGROUND: Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid. Despite potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution activities, it remains to be determined if LXA4 has effect on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of systemic administration with LXA4 on UV radiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of mice. METHODS: Varied parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress in the skin of mice were evaluated after UV radiation (4...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Liang He, Kang-Nan Wang, Yue Zheng, Jian-Jun Cao, Ming-Fang Zhang, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
The development of iridium complexes as potent anticancer agents has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, four cyclometalated Ir(iii) complexes with good photophysical properties and potent anticancer activity have been synthesized and characterized. They are taken up by human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells very quickly and specifically target mitochondria. Mechanism studies reveal that one of them, namely IrM2, induces paraptosis accompanied by excessive mitochondria-derived cytoplasmic vacuoles...
May 3, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hongyun Nie, Maiqian Nie, Lei Wang, Zhenjun Diwu, Ting Xiao, Qi Qiao, Yan Wang, Xin Jiang
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of secreted extracellular phenazine compounds (PHCs) on the degradation efficiency of alkanes by P. aeruginosa NY3. Under aerobic conditions, the PHCs secreted by P. aeruginosa NY3 initiate the oxidation of alkanes outside cells, in coupling with some reducing agents, such as β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced disodium salt (NADH) or reduced glutathione (GSH). This reaction might be via free radical reactions similar to Fenton Oxidation Reaction (FOR)...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Soumya Chatterjee, Sourav K Mukhopadhyay, Samiran S Gauri, Satyahari Dey
An exopolysaccharide, from a new Arctic permafrost isolate, Sphingobacterium sp. IITKGP-BTPF3 was purified and characterized. Upon optimization of various parameters (pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen source), the yield of EPS obtained was 1.42 g/L. Structural investigation through FT-IR, GC-MS/MS, HPLC and NMR (1D and 2D) revealed the molecule to be a mannan with α-(1 → 2) and α-(1 → 6) linkages. Anti-oxidant and macrophage immunomodulatory assays were employed for the assessment of bioactivity...
April 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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