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Superoxide anion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723923/on-the-mechanism-of-candida-tropicalis-biofilm-reduction-by-the-combined-action-of-naturally-occurring-anthraquinones-and-blue-light
#1
Juliana Marioni, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Laura R Comini, José L Cabrera, María G Paraje, Santi Nonell, Susana C Núñez Montoya
The photoprocesses involved in the photo-induced Candida tropicalis biofilm reduction by two natural anthraquinones (AQs), rubiadin (1) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), were examined. Production of singlet oxygen (1O2) and of superoxide radical anion (O2•-) was studied. Although it was not possible to detect the triplet state absorption of any AQs in biofilms, observation of 1O2 phosphorescence incubated with deuterated Phosphate Buffer Solution, indicated that this species is actually formed in biofilms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715643/new-insights-into-the-non-hemostatic-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-endothelial-protection
#2
Silvia Agostini, Vincenzo Lionetti
During exposure to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) insult, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) upregulation in endothelial cells progressively impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability while increasing levels of superoxide anion (O2-) and leading to the onset of endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, the overexpression of ET-1 increases the endothelial and circulating levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein with a crucial role in arterial thrombus formation. Nowadays, the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF is emerging; although we not yet know if its increased expression is cause or consequence of endothelial dysfunction...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708911/peri-implant-and-paracrestal-inflammatory-biomarkers-at-failing-versus-surviving-implant-sites-in-a-beagle-dog-study
#3
Javier Montero, Fernando Aragón, Leticia A Blanco, Yasmina Guadilla, Begona García-Cenador, Antonio López-Valverde
PURPOSE: This study sought to quantify three biochemical mediators of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], superoxide anion [SOA], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) by analyzing crestal (peri-implants) and paracrestal gingival biopsy samples obtained from an experimental study on beagle dogs treated with implants inserted immediately into fresh sockets with circumferential defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 10 beagle dogs, 4 roughened titanium implants (3...
July 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706450/reactive-oxygen-species-increase-neuronal-excitability-via-activation-of-nonspecific-cation-channel-in-rat-medullary-dorsal-horn-neurons
#4
Hae In Lee, Byung Rim Park, Sang Woo Chun
The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion (O2(·-)), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704942/specialized-metabolites-of-the-lichen-vulpicida-pinastri-act-as-photoprotective-agents
#5
Béatrice Legouin, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Solenn Ferron, Isabelle Rouaud, Pierre Le Pogam, Laurence Cornevin, Michel Bertrand, Joël Boustie
The extreme resiliency of lichens to UV radiations makes them an interesting model to find new photoprotective agents acting as UV-blockers and antioxidant. In this research, using a new in vitro method designed to overcome the shortage of material associated to many studies dealing with natural products, we show that the three major compounds isolated from the lichen Vulpicida pinastri, vulpinic acid, pinastric acid and usnic acid, were UV blocker agents. Antioxidant assays evidenced superoxide anion scavenging activity...
July 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704617/resveratrol-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertrophy-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-the-transactivation-of-growth-factor-receptors
#6
Ekhtear Hossain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
We previously showed that the augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate Ang II-evoked VSMC hypertrophy, however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study is therefore undertaken to examine if RV could prevent Ang II-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703274/pterostilbene-reduces-oxidative-stress-prevents-hypertrophy-and-preserves-systolic-function-of-right-ventricle-in-cor-pulmonale-model
#7
Denise Dos Santos Lacerda, Patrick Türck, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Rafael Colombo, Vanessa Duarte Ortiz, Jéssica Hellen Poletto Bonetto, Cristina Campos-Carraro, Sara Elis Bianchi, Adriane Belló-Klein, Valquiria LinckBassani, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In cor pulmonale, the increased afterload imposed on the right ventricle (RV) generates a maladaptive response, impairing the contractile cardiac function. Oxidative mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. The administration of pterostilbene (PTS), a phyto-phenol with antioxidant potential, may represent a therapeutic alternative. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PTS complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on hypertrophy, contractile function and oxidative parameters in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline administration...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701018/bioactive-triterpenoids-from-the-leaves-and-twigs-of-lithocarpus-litseifolius-and-l-%C3%A2-corneus
#8
Yuan-Bin Cheng, Fan-Jin Liu, Chih-Hsin Wang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yung-Fong Tsai, Chia-Hung Yen, Hui-Chun Wang, Yen-Hsueh Tseng, Ching-Te Chien, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Fang-Rong Chang, Yang-Chang Wu
Phytochemical investigation of the leaves and twigs of Lithocarpus litseifolius and Lithocarpus corneus resulted in the isolation of four new triterpenoids (1-4), three triterpenoids (5-7) isolated from a natural source for the first time, and six known compounds (8-13). In addition, four known triterpenoids (14-17) were isolated from L. corneus. Compound 1 is a 3,4-seco-lupane-type triterpenoid, and compounds 2-4 are lupane-type triterpenoids in different oxidation states. The structures of all isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods, especially NMR and mass spectrometry data...
July 12, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700905/chronic-iron-overload-induces-functional-and-structural-vascular-changes-in-small-resistance-arteries-via-nadph-oxidase-dependent-o2-production
#9
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Dieli Oliveira Nunes, Ivanita Stefanon, Leonardo Dos Santos
Iron overload leads to excessive free radical formation and induces cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, our aim was to investigate the structural and endothelial modulation of vascular tone induced by chronic iron overload in mesenteric arteries. Rats were divided into two groups: the control (vehicle) group and the group treated with iron dextran for 28days (100mg/kg, 5days a week). Chronic iron overload altered the following morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries: decreased lumen and external diameters; increased wall/lumen ratio and wall thickness; decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; and increased pulse wave velocity...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698124/the-role-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-oh-kinase-pi3-kinase-and-respiratory-burst-enzymes-in-the-omim-bf4-mediated-toxic-mode-of-action-in-mussel-hemocytes
#10
Alexia Belavgeni, Stefanos Dailianis
The present study investigates the role of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI3-kinase) and respiratory burst enzymes, NADPH oxidase and NO synthase, in the 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([omim][BF4])-mediated toxic mode of action in mussel hemocytes. Specifically, cell viability (using the neutral red uptake assay) was primarily tested in hemocytes treated with different concentrations of [omim][BF4] (0.1-10 mg L(-1)) and thereafter [omim][BF4]-mediated oxidative (in terms of superoxide anions/O2(-) and nitric oxide/NO generation, as well as the enhancement of lipid peroxidation by-products, in terms of malondialdehyde/MDA) and genotoxic (in terms of DNA damage) effects were determined in hemocytes treated with 1 mg L(-1) [omim][BF4]...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692698/nitric-oxide-attenuates-overexpression-of-gi%C3%AE-proteins-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-shr-role-of-ros-and-ros-mediated-signaling
#11
Oli Sarkar, Yuan Li, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO) that may be responsible for the overexpression of Giα proteins that has been shown as a contributing factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR. The present study was undertaken to investigate if increasing the intracellular levels of NO by NO donor S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) could attenuate the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in VSMC from SHR and explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for this response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688989/involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-calcium-signaling-in-airborne-particulate-matter-induced-damages-in-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells
#12
J Deweirdt, J F Quignard, B Crobeddu, A Baeza-Squiban, J Sciare, A Courtois, S Lacomme, E Gontier, B Muller, J P Savineau, R Marthan, C Guibert, I Baudrimont
Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter (PM) exert deleterious effects on vascular function. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), which are involved in the vasomotricity regulation, can be a direct target of inhaled particles. Modifications in calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress are critical events involved in the physiopathology of vascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of PM2.5 on oxidative stress and calcium signaling in HPAEC. Different endpoints were studied, (i) intrinsic and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H2DCF-DA probe, (ii) intrinsic, intracellular and mitochondrial production of superoxide anion (O2(-)) by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and MitoSOX probe, (iii) reactive nitrosative species (RNS) production by Griess reaction, and (vi) calcium signaling by the Fluo-4 probe...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688342/estrogen-mediated-protection-of-the-organotin-degrading-strain-metarhizium-robertsii-against-oxidative-stress-promoted-by-monobutyltin
#13
Paulina Siewiera, Sylwia Różalska, Przemysław Bernat
Dibutyltin (DBT) is a global pollutant characterized by pro-oxidative properties. The fungal strain Metarhizium robertsii can eliminate high levels of DBT efficiently. In this study, induction of oxidative stress as well as its alleviation through the application of natural estrogens during the elimination of DBT by M. robertsii were evaluated. During the first 24 h of incubation, the initial concentration of DBT (20 mg l(-1)) was reduced to 3.1 mg l(-1), with simultaneous formation of a major byproduct - monobutyltin (MBT)...
June 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686251/oxygen-dependent-activation-of-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-1
#14
REVIEW
Morgan M Fetherolf, Stefanie D Boyd, Duane D Winkler, Dennis R Winge
Copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is a critical enzyme in limiting reactive oxygen species in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Sod1 dismutes superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. The catalytic reaction is dependent on an active site copper ion and a disulfide bonded conformation. The activation of Sod1 is mediated by its chaperone Ccs1. The mechanism of Ccs1-mediated Sod1 activation involves both insertion of the catalytic copper ion and mediating disulfide bond formation...
July 7, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686196/protective-role-for-antioxidants-in-acute-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Joanne M Dennis, Paul K Witting
Acute kidney injury causes significant morbidity and mortality in the community and clinic. Various pathologies, including renal and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI), induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical anions, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals, that can oxidatively damage biomolecules and membranes, and affect organelle function and induce renal tubule cell injury, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685360/deciphering-the-physiological-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-copper-tolerance-in-autotetraploid-arabidopsis
#16
Mingjuan Li, Guoyun Xu, Xinjie Xia, Manling Wang, Xuming Yin, Bin Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yanchun Cui
Autotetraploid Arabidopsis line esd and 4COL exhibit enhanced tolerance to Cu stress by enhancing activation of antioxidative defenses, altering expression of genes related to Cu transport, chelation, and ABA-responsive. Autopolyploidy is ubiquitous among angiosperms and often results in better adaptation to stress conditions. Although copper (Cu) is an essential trace element, excess amounts can inhibit plant growth and even result in death. Here, we report that autotetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana esd and 4COL exhibit higher tolerance to Cu stress...
July 6, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683831/phytochemical-investigations-and-antioxidant-potential-of-roots-of-leea-macrophylla-roxb
#17
Zobaer Al Mahmud, Sitesh C Bachar, Choudhury Mahmood Hasan, Talha Bin Emran, Nazmul Qais, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
BACKGROUND: Oleanolic acid (NZ-15), 7 α, 28-olean diol (NZ-38) and Stigmasterol (NZ-14) were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the roots of Leea macrophylla (Family: Leeaceae) by using chromatographic analysis. This is the first report of isolation of these compounds from this plant. Their structures were constructed by spectroscopic analysis and by comparing the data with the published one. Subsequently the ethanolic extract was fractionated with two organic solvents and all the fractions were studied to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant property...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680151/synergistic-cellular-effects-including-mitochondrial-destabilization-autophagy-and-apoptosis-following-low-level-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-lipophilic-persistent-organic-pollutants
#18
Nathan E Rainey, Ana Saric, Alexandre Leberre, Etienne Dewailly, Christian Slomianny, Guillaume Vial, Harold I Zeliger, Patrice X Petit
Humans are exposed to multiple exogenous environmental pollutants. Many of these compounds are parts of mixtures that can exacerbate harmful effects of the individual mixture components. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), is primarily produced via industrial processes including incineration and the manufacture of herbicides. Both endosulfan and TCDD are persistent organic pollutants which elicit cytotoxic effects by inducing reactive oxygen species generation. Sublethal concentrations of mixtures of TCDD and endosulfan increase oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial homeostasis disruption, which is preceded by a calcium rise and, in fine, induce cell death...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677628/sterols-from-the-octocoral-nephthea-columnaris
#19
Ta-Yuan Whuang, Hong-Chieh Tsai, Yin-Di Su, Tsong-Long Hwang, Ping-Jyun Sung
Two new sterols, columnaristerols B (1) and C (2), along with two known analogues, 5,6-epoxylitosterol (3) and litosterol (4), were obtained from the octocoral Nephthea columnaris. The structures of new sterols 1 and 2 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods and comparing the spectroscopic data with those of known related metabolites. Sterol 3 was found to suppress superoxide anion production and elastase secretion by human neutrophils.
July 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676723/analysis-of-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-generated-in-three-liquid-media-by-low-temperature-helium-plasma-jet
#20
Julie Chauvin, Florian Judée, Mohammed Yousfi, Patricia Vicendo, Nofel Merbahi
In order to identify aqueous species formed in Plasma activated media (PAM), quantitative investigations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) were performed and compared to Milli-Q water and culture media without and with Fetal Calf Serum. Electron paramagnetic resonance, fluorometric and colorimetric analysis were used to identify and quantify free radicals generated by helium plasma jet in these liquids. Results clearly show the formation of ROS such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen in order of the micromolar range of concentrations...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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