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Antibiotics resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929178/the-occurrence-transmission-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-fish-processing-plant
#1
Krzysztof Skowron, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Świeca, Zbigniew Paluszak, Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska, Ewa Wałecka-Zacharska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929063/prevalence-bioserotyping-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-detected-in-pigs-at-slaughter-in-sardinia
#2
Federica Fois, Francesca Piras, Mia Torpdahl, Roberta Mazza, Daniela Ladu, Simonetta G Consolati, Carlo Spanu, Christian Scarano, Enrico P L De Santis
The aims of the present study were to determine Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in finishing pigs and piglets at slaughter and to characterize the isolates in terms of bioserotype, virulence profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic diversity. During the years 2013-2014, nine pig slaughterhouses placed in Sardinia (Italy) were visited twice, in order to collect animal samples and scalding water. Overall, 609 samples respectively of tonsils (126), colon content (161), mesenteric lymph nodes (161) and carcass surfaces (161) were collected from 126 finishing pigs and 35 piglets...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928825/drug-resistance-and-gene-transfer-mechanisms-in-respiratory-oral-bacteria
#3
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928772/development-of-escherichia-coli-based-gene-expression-profiling-of-sewage-sludge-leachates
#4
Manish Goswami, Faisal Ahmad Khan, Admir Ibrisevic, Per-Erik Olsson, Jana Jass
AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928670/the-role-of-ion-transporters-in-the-pathophysiology-of-infectious-diarrhea
#5
REVIEW
Soumita Das, Rashini Jayaratne, Kim E Barrett
Every year, enteric infections and associated diarrhea kill millions of people. The situation is compounded by increases in the number of enteric pathogens that are acquiring resistance to antibiotics, as well as (hitherto) a relative paucity of information on host molecular targets that may contribute to diarrhea. Many forms of diarrheal disease depend on the dysregulation of intestinal ion transporters, and an associated imbalance between secretory and absorptive functions of the intestinal epithelium. A number of major transporters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and thus an understanding of their expression, localization, and regulation after infection with various bacteria, viruses, and protozoa likely will prove critical in designing new therapies...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928271/mechanism-of-anti-bacterial-activity-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-against-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#6
Vishvanath Tiwari, Neha Mishra, Keval Gadani, P S Solanki, N A Shah, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen, which causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Carbapenems (beta-lactam) are most effective antibiotics till now against A. baumannii , but the development of resistance against it may lead to high mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop an alternative drug against A. baumannii . In the present study, we have synthesized ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928269/molecular-characteristics-of-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-between-2012-and-2017-in-shanghai-china
#7
Xing Wang, Qian Liu, He Zhang, Xia Li, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is known as an invasive human pathogen, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, information on community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in children in China remains scarce. This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of 78 CA-SA isolates recovered from pediatric patients with BSI between 2012 and 2017 in Shanghai. All isolates including 51 (65.4%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 27 (34.6%) methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928268/a-small-molecule-screening-pipeline-to-evaluate-the-therapeutic-potential-of-2-aminoimidazole-molecules-against-clostridium-difficile
#8
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928266/synergism-of-plant-compound-with-traditional-antimicrobials-against-streptococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis
#9
Natasha L Maia, Mariana de Barros, Leandro L de Oliveira, Silvia A Cardoso, Marcelo H Dos Santos, Fabio A Pieri, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Maria A S Moreira
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that causes major losses in the dairy industry. Streptococcus spp. are among the main agents of this disease. Increased resistance to antibiotics is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. Plants, due to their broad chemodiversity, are an interesting source of new molecules with antibacterial activity. Using these compounds along with traditional antibiotics is a possible method for reversing resistance. The objective of this work was to determine the interactions between the activities of guttiferone-A and 7-epiclusianone, two active substances isolated from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis , and traditional antibiotics against Streptococcus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928049/synergy-between-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-biofilm-peptides-in-a-murine-sub-cutaneous-abscess-model-caused-by-recalcitrant-eskape-pathogens
#10
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927958/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-intra-abdominal-and-urinary-tract-infections-in-mexico-from-2009-to-2015-results-from-the-study-for-monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-trends-smart
#11
Alfredo Ponce-de-Leon, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Dora P Cornejo-Juárez, Juan C Tinoco, Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Carmen J Gaona-Tapia, M Lourdes Guerrero-Almeida, Alexandra Martin-Onraët, José Luis Vallejo Cervantes, José Sifuentes-Osornio
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide concern, which poses unique challenges for the effective prevention and treatment of several infections, especially the ones triggered by organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Here, we present the surveillance results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAI, n = 1,235) and urinary-tract infections (UTI, n = 2,682), collected in Mexico from 2009 to 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927925/community-interactions-and-spatial-structure-shape-selection-on-antibiotic-resistant-lineages
#12
Sylvie Estrela, Sam P Brown
Polymicrobial interactions play an important role in shaping the outcome of antibiotic treatment, yet how multispecies communities respond to antibiotic assault is still little understood. Here we use an individual-based simulation model of microbial biofilms to investigate how competitive and mutualistic interactions between an antibiotic-resistant and a susceptible strain (or species) influence the two-lineage community response to antibiotic exposure. Our model predicts that while increasing competition and antibiotics leads to increasing competitive release of the antibiotic-resistant strain, hitting a mutualistic community of cross-feeding species with antibiotics leads to a mutualistic suppression effect where both susceptible and resistant species are harmed...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927918/keeping-track-of-antimicrobial-resistance-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-auckland-new-zealand-past-present-and-future-considerations
#13
Gary McAuliffe, Marian Smith, Mike Brokenshire, Rose Forster, Murray Reid, Sally Roberts
AIMS: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) has developed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials. Population level data is essential to determine empiric treatment regimes. We sought to identify antimicrobial resistance patterns for NG in the Auckland region from 2008-2016, and review the utility of current methods of antimicrobial resistance testing. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and demographic data from NG isolates derived from patients attending the Auckland Regional Sexual Health Service and Auckland City Hospital were analysed to determine resistance rates and trends over time...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927916/antimicrobial-resistance-among-shigella-in-new-zealand
#14
Helen Heffernan, Rosemary Woodhouse, Chris Hewison, Jillian Sherwood
AIM: We undertook a national survey to provide current information on antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolated in New Zealand. METHODS: Diagnostic laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolates to the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) for epidemiological typing as part of the national surveillance of shigellosis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 263 non-duplicate Shigella isolates referred to ESR in 2015 and 2016 was tested...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927719/first-report-of-shv-148-type-esbl-and-cmy-42-type-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-tunisia
#15
Olfa Dziri, Raoudha Dziri, Abderrahmen Maraoub, Chedly Chouchani
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae present a real problem worldwide. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics among Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from a Hospital in the southeast of Tunisia. Eighteen cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae were recovered between April 2015 and August 2016. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance encoding genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Results revealed several types of Ambler class A β-lactamase encoding genes among our isolates: [blaCTXM-15 (15), blaSHV-28 (6), blaSHV-1 (2), blaSHV-148 (1), blaSHV-61 (1), blaSHV-76 (1), blaSHV-186 (1), blaTEM-1 (8)]...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927626/antibiotic-resistance-in-salmonella-enteritidis-isolates-recovered-from-chicken-chicken-breast-and-humans-through-national-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-between-1996-and-2014
#16
Narayan Paudyal, Hang Pan, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes for human salmonellosis all over the world. We analyzed the surveillance data of 18 years on antimicrobial resistance profiling of S. Enteritidis collected and isolated by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) from humans, chicken, and chicken breasts. Statistical tool based on the unique individual antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) profiling was used to compare antimicrobial resistance in the isolates...
June 21, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927616/simulation-model-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antibiotics-using-individual-based-modeling
#17
Joonyeon Park, Myeongji Cho, Hyeon S Son
We designed and implemented simulation models of bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance to determine the appropriate antibiotics to use against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Simulation models were designed using individual-based modeling, and a simulation tool, ARSim, was developed to conduct experiments using the models. Simulations of bacterial growth were conducted by virtually growing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria in a virtual environment with predefined parameters. Other experiments included predicting the effects of antibiotics when added to two different groups, one group of nonresistant bacteria and another group of both resistant and nonresistant bacteria...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927373/epidemic-spread-of-oxa-48-beta-lactamase-in-croatia
#18
Branka Bedenić, Mia Slade, Lidija Žele Starčević, Sanda Sardelić, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Ana Benčić, Vlasta Zujić Atalić, Maja Bogdan, Marina Bubonja-Šonje, Maja Tomić-Paradžik, Tatjana Tot, Amarela Lukić-Grlić, Domagoj Drenjančević, Dijana Varda-Brkić, Daniela Bandić-Pavlović, Slobodan Mihaljević, Gernot Zarfel, Marija Gužvinec, Rick Conzemius, Ivan Barišić, Arjana Tambić-Andraševic
PURPOSE: A dramatic increase in OXA-48 β-lactamase was observed recently not only in large hospital centres, but also in smaller suburban hospital centres in geographic areas bordering Croatia. The aim of the study was to analyse the epidemiology, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the routes of spread of OXA-48 carbapenemase in Croatia. METHODS: Carbapenemase and other β-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected by PCR and sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927244/insights-into-the-kinetics-of-the-resistance-formation-of-bacteria-against-ciprofloxacin-poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline-conjugates
#19
Martin Schmidt, Alina Romanovska, Youssef Wolf, Thanh-Duong Nguyen, Anna Krupp, Hannah Lea Tumbrink, Jonas Lategahn, Jan Volmer, Daniel Rauh, Stephen Luetz, Christian Krumm, Joerg C Tiller
The influence on the resistance formation of polymers attached to antibiotics is rarely investigated. In this study, ciprofloxacin (CIP) was conjugated to poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)s with an ethylene diamine end group (Me-PMOx28-EDA) via two different spacers (CIP modified with α,α´-dichloro-p-xylene - xCIP, CIP modified with chloroacetyl chloride - eCIP). The antibacterial activity of the conjugates against a number of bacterial strains shows a great dependence on the nature of the spacer. The Me-PMOx39-EDA-eCIP, containing a potentially cleavable linker, does not exhibit a molecular weight dependence on antibacterial activity in contrast to Me-PMOx27-EDA-xCIP...
June 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927109/shigella-pathogenesis-modeling-with-tissue-culture-assays
#20
Benjamin J Koestler, Cara M Ward, Shelley M Payne
Shigella is an enteroinvasive human pathogen that infects the colonic epithelium and causes Shigellosis, an infectious diarrheal disease. There is no vaccine for the prevention or treatment of Shigellosis and antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella are increasing, emphasizing the need for a deeper understanding of Shigella pathogenesis in order to design effective antimicrobial therapies. Small animal models do not recapitulate Shigellosis, therefore tissue-cultured cells have served as model systems to study Shigella pathogenesis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
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