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Antibiotics resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224055/peri-operative-antibiotic-treatment-of-bacteriuria-reduces-early-deep-surgical-site-infections-in-geriatric-patients-with-proximal-femur-fracture
#1
Ronny Langenhan, Stefanie Bushuven, Niklas Reimers, Axel Probst
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a re-evaluation of current strategies for peri-operative prophylaxis of infections in orthopaedic surgery of geriatric patients (≥65 years) with proximal femoral fractures (PFF). METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 08/2014 all post-operative infections after stabilization of PFF of 1,089 geriatric patients were recorded retrospectively. All patients pre-operatively received a single dose of 1.5 g cefuroxime (group 1). These were compared to prospectively determined post-operative rates of surgical site infection (SSI) of 441 geriatric patients, which were operated on between 09/2014 and 03/2017 due to PFF...
December 9, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223972/intravaginal-boric-acid-is-it-an-alternative-therapeutic-option-for-vaginal-trichomoniasis
#2
Nicola Thorley, Jonathan Ross
OBJECTIVES: Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Current guidance in the UK is to treat TV with a nitroimidazole antibiotic. The high prevalence of TV, high rate of antibiotic resistance and limited tolerability to nitroimidazoles suggest that alternative treatment regimens are needed. Intravaginal boric acid (BA) has been used safely for the treatment of candida vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, and in vitro studies suggest BA is active against TV...
December 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223465/biomedical-applications-of-genome-scale-metabolic-network-reconstructions-of-human-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Laura J Dunphy, Jason A Papin
The growing global threat of antibiotic resistant human pathogens has coincided with improved methods for developing and using genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of high-quality reconstructions of relevant human and zoonotic pathogens. Novel biomedical applications of pathogen reconstructions focus on three key aspects of pathogen behavior: the evolution of antibiotic resistance, virulence factor production, and host-pathogen interactions. New methods using these reconstructions aim to improve understanding of microbe pathogenicity and guide the development of new therapeutic strategies...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223450/pesticide-degrading-natural-multidrug-resistance-bacterial-flora
#4
REVIEW
Kirubakaran Rangasamy, Murugan Athiappan, Natarajan Devarajan, Gopinath Samykannu, Javid A Parray, K N Aruljothi, Nowsheen Shameem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat to humans across the world. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has developed through continuous antibiotic use, combinatorial antibiotic use, pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance, and horizontal gene transfer, as well as various other modes. Pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance and the subsequent expansion of drug-resistant bacteria are critically documented in this review, the primary focus of which is to assess the impact of indiscriminate pesticide use on the development of microbial communities with parallel pesticide and multidrug resistance...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222656/changes-to-tetracyclines-and-tetracycline-resistance-genes-in-arable-soils-after-single-and-multiple-applications-of-manure-containing-tetracyclines
#5
Huicong Yan, Kun Zhang, Jiali Shentu, Dongsheng Shen, Na Li, Meizhen Wang
The influence of manure containing tetracyclines (TCs) on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in soils remains poorly understood. Here, three different TCs (oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC)) were mixed respectively with unpolluted manure to fertilize arable soil. The soil received either a single application of 0 μg kg-1, 300 μg kg-1 (TC and CTC), or 700 μg kg-1 (OTC) or multiple applications every 14 days for 140 days. Four tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs), including tet(A), tet(L), tet(M), and tet(Q), were monitored...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#6
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222409/immune-stealth-driven-o2-serotype-prevalence-and-potential-for-therapeutic-antibodies-against-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#7
Meghan E Pennini, Anna De Marco, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Romana Cvitkovic, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Siro Bianchi, Fabrizia Zatta, Wei Zhao, Xiaodong Xiao, Maria M Camara, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Elena Semenova, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Paul Warrener, JoAnn Suzich, Qun Wang, Davide Corti, C Kendall Stover
Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria are a challenge for modern medicine, but how these pathogens are so successful is not fully understood. Robust antibacterial vaccines have prevented and reduced resistance suggesting a pivotal role for immunity in deterring antibiotic resistance. Here, we show the increased prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O2 serotype strains in all major drug resistance groups correlating with a paucity of anti-O2 antibodies in human B cell repertoires. We identify human monoclonal antibodies to O-antigens that are highly protective in mouse models of infection, even against heavily encapsulated strains...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#8
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222103/a-novel-non-antibiotic-lgt-based-selection-system-for-stable-maintenance-of-expression-vectors-in-escherichia-coli-and-vibrio-cholerae
#9
Manuela Terrinoni, Stefan L Nordqvist, Susanne Källgård, Jan Holmgren, Michael Lebens
Antibiotic selection for maintenance of expression plasmids is discouraged in production of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical or other human uses due to the risks of antibiotic residue contamination of the final products and release of DNA encoding antibiotic resistance into the environment. We describe the construction of expression plasmids that are instead maintained by complementation of the lgt gene encoding a (pro)lipoprotein glyceryl transferase essential for biosynthesis of bacterial lipoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222019/a-novel-use-of-cellulose-based-filter-paper-containing-silver-nanoparticles-for-its-potential-application-as-wound-dressing-agent
#10
Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Inn-Kyu Kang, Anuj Kumar, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Tahseen Kamal, Sung Soo Han
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220791/design-synthesis-and-biological-activity-evaluation-of-novel-4-subtituted-2-naphthamide-derivatives-as-acrb-inhibitors
#11
Yinhu Wang, Rumana Mowla, Shengli Ji, Liwei Guo, Miguel A De Barros Lopes, Chaobin Jin, Di Song, Shutao Ma, Henrietta Venter
A novel series of 4-substituted 2-naphthamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity. In particular, the ability of the compounds to potentiate the action of antibiotics, to inhibit Nile Red efflux and to target AcrB specifically was investigated. The results indicated that most of the 4-substituted 2-naphthamide derivatives were able to synergize with the antibiotics tested, and inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB in the resistant phenotype. Subsequent exclusion of compounds with off target effects such as outer- or inner membrane permeabilization identified compounds 7c, 7g, 12c, 12i and 13g as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs)...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220785/metagenomic-exploration-reveals-a-marked-change-in-the-river-resistome-and-mobilome-after-treated-wastewater-discharges
#12
Itziar Lekunberri, José Luis Balcázar, Carles M Borrego
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are key agents in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) across environments. Here we used metagenomics to compare the river resistome (collection of all ARGs) and mobilome (e.g., integrases, transposases, integron integrases and insertion sequence common region "ISCR" elements) between samples collected upstream (n = 6) and downstream (n = 6) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP). In comparison to upstream metagenomes, downstream metagenomes showed a drastic increase in the abundance of ARGs, as well as markers of MGEs, particularly integron integrases and ISCR elements...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220754/association-of-high-mortality-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-positive-cultures-in-community-acquired-infections
#13
Sumit Ray, Dimple Anand, Sankalp Purwar, Arijit Samanta, Kaustubh V Upadhye, Prasoon Gupta, Debashis Dhar
PURPOSE: Infections due to multidrug resistant organisms have become a serious health concern worldwide. The present study was conducted to investigate the spectrum of microbial resistance pattern in the community and their effects on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective review and analysis of prospectively collected data was done of all patients admitted with diagnosis of sepsis in two tertiary care ICU's for a period of two years. Demographics, culture positivity, microbial spectrum, resistance pattern and outcome data were collected...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220507/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-in-silico-plasmid-predictions-based-on-whole-genome-sequenced-clinical-isolates
#14
Cedric C Laczny, Valentina Galata, Achim Plum, Andreas E Posch, Andreas Keller
High-throughput next-generation shotgun sequencing of pathogenic bacteria is growing in clinical relevance, especially for chromosomal DNA-based taxonomic identification and for antibiotic resistance prediction. Genetic exchange is facilitated for extrachromosomal DNA, e.g. plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, accurate identification of plasmids from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data remains one of the major challenges for sequencing-based precision medicine in infectious diseases. Here, we assess the heterogeneity of four state-of-the-art tools (cBar, PlasmidFinder, plasmidSPAdes and Recycler) for the in silico prediction of plasmid-derived sequences from WGS data...
December 5, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220387/psra-controls-the-synthesis-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolone-signal-via-repression-of-the-fade-homolog-pa0506
#15
Greg Wells, Samantha Palethorpe, Everett C Pesci
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in various sites within the human body. This bacterium is a major source of nosocomial infections that are often difficult to treat due to high intrinsic antibiotic resistance and coordinated virulence factor production. P. aeruginosa utilizes three cell-to-cell signaling systems to regulate numerous genes in response to cell density. One of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]) as a signal that acts as a co-inducer for the transcriptional regulator PqsR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220155/superchiral-plasmonic-phase-sensitivity-for-fingerprinting-of-protein-interface-structure
#16
Ryan Tullius, Geoffrey W Platt, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Adrian J Lapthorn, Vincent M Rotello, Graeme Cooke, Laurence D Barron, Alexander O Govorov, Affar Shahid Karimullah, Malcolm Kadodwala
The structure adopted by biomaterials, such as proteins, at interfaces is a crucial parameter in a range of important biological problems. It is a critical property in defining the functionality of cell / bacterial membranes, biofilms (i.e. in antibiotic resistant infections) and the exploitation of immobilised enzymes in biocatalysis. The intrinsically small quantities of materials at interfaces precludes the application of conventional spectroscopic phenomena routinely used for (bio)structural analysis due to a lack of sensitivity...
December 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219814/cellulitis-current-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#17
D R Cranendonk, A P M Lavrijsen, J M Prins, W J Wiersinga
Cellulitis is a bacterial skin and soft tissue infection which occurs when the physical skin barrier, the immune system and/or the circulatory system are impaired. Diabetes, obesity and old age are associated with defects in all of these areas and as a result are major predisposing factors for cellulitis. In this review, we summarise current insights into the pathophysiology of cellulitis and place the Dutch guidelines on the clinical management of cellulitis of the lower extremities in perspective. Recent evidence on diagnostic strategies is discussed, the importance of which is underscored by findings that venous insufficiency, eczema, deep vein thrombosis and gout are frequently mistaken for cellulitis...
November 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219803/accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-the-etest-to-detect-drug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-contemporary-treatment
#18
John R Papp, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Norman P O'Connor, Jason Wholehan, Jafar H Razeq, Anita Glennen, Dapne Ware, Peter C Iwen, Lillian V Lee, Celia Hagan
PURPOSE: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen that continues to evolve to become resistant to known antibiotics. In preparing for potential emergence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that clinical laboratories maintain or develop protocols to assess antibiotic susceptibly for this organism. This study examines the intra-laboratory variability of using the Etest method to provide consistent MIC values for N. gonorrhoeae and also compared the results of the Etest to known agar dilution MIC values...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219107/molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
Muna F Anjum, Ea Zankari, Henrik Hasman
The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public health is routinely performed using standardized phenotypic methods. Molecular methods are often used in addition to phenotypic methods but are set to replace them in many laboratories due to the greater speed and accuracy they provide in detecting the underlying genetic mechanism(s) for AMR...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219055/the-role-of-nanoparticles-in-the-inhibition-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-biofilms
#20
Manaf AlMatar, Essam A Makky, Isil Var, Fatih Koksal
BACKGROUND: Until recently, one of the main reasons for mortality has been infectious diseases, and bacteria that are drug-resistant have emerged as a result of the wide application, as well as the misuse, of antibacterial medications. Having multidrug-resistance, bacteria present a great problem for the efficient management of bacterial infections and this challenge has resulted in the creation of other means of dealing with bacterial diseases. Of late, metallic nanoparticles (NPs), employed as antibacterial agents, have the potential for use against resistance to bacterial drugs...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
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