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Antibiotics resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#1
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346839/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-fresh-produces-and-human-fecal-samples
#2
Min-Chan Kim, Min-Hyeok Cha, Jae-Gee Ryu, Gun-Jo Woo
Increased enterococcal infections in hospitals and multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from humans, animals, and food sources raised public health concern on the presence of VRE in multiple sources. We performed a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial resistance and genetics of VRE isolates derived from fresh produce and human fecal samples. Of 389 Enterococcus isolates, 8 fecal and 3 produce isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin; all harbored vanA gene...
March 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346803/carbapenemase-producing-aeromonas-veronii-disseminated-in-the-environment-of-an-equine-specialty-hospital
#3
Rachael J Adams, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Andrea Whittle, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
The emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is an urgent public health threat. Carbapenem drugs are a last resort treatment option for life-threatening infections. The frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat hospitalized patients provides significant selection pressure favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant organisms, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). CREs have been reported in animal populations, but only rarely in horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CRE in the environment of a referral equine specialty hospital...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346540/fragment-library-screening-identifies-hits-that-bind-to-the-non-catalytic-surface-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dsba1
#4
Biswaranjan Mohanty, Kieran Rimmer, Róisín M McMahon, Stephen J Headey, Mansha Vazirani, Stephen R Shouldice, Mathieu Coinçon, Stephanie Tay, Craig J Morton, Jamie S Simpson, Jennifer L Martin, Martin J Scanlon
At a time when the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline has stalled, antibiotic resistance is accelerating with catastrophic implications for our ability to treat bacterial infections. Globally we face the prospect of a future when common infections can once again kill. Anti-virulence approaches that target the capacity of the bacterium to cause disease rather than the growth or survival of the bacterium itself offer a tantalizing prospect of novel antimicrobials. They may also reduce the propensity to induce resistance by removing the strong selection pressure imparted by bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#5
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346095/identification-by-high-throughput-screening-of-pseudomonas-acyl-coenzyme-a-synthetase-inhibitors
#6
Lorenzo Turcano, Daniela Visaggio, Emanuela Frangipani, Antonino Missineo, Matteo Andreini, Sergio Altamura, Paolo Visca, Alberto Bresciani
Pseudomonas infections are common among hospitalized, immunocompromised, and chronic lung disease patients. These infections are recalcitrant to common antibacterial therapies due to inherent antibiotic resistance. To meet the need of new anti- Pseudomonas drugs, a sensitive, homogenous, and robust assay was developed with the aim of identifying inhibitors of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSs) from Pseudomonas. Given the importance of fatty acids for in vivo nutrition of Pseudomonas, such inhibitors might have the potential to reduce the bacterial fitness during infection...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345829/high-fluoroquinolone-resistant-strains-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-golden-triangle
#7
Ratha Korn Vilaichone, Thawee Ratanachu ek, Pornpen Gamnarai, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomahisa Uchida, Yoshio Yamaoka, Varocha Mahachai
Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia’s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden triangle. Methods: We recruited dyspeptic patients in Chiang khong and Chiang saen districts, Chiangrai province of Thailand...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345794/the-relationship-between-the-biovars-and-the-antimicrobial-resistance-of-ureaplasma-urealyticum-in-female-patients-with-urogenital-infections
#8
Yan Zhang, Chuan Hua, Su-Li Li
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum is considered as one of the main pathogens found in women with urogenital infection. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the biovars, serovars, and their antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics in female patients with urogenital infection. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six cervical secretion samples (125 female outpatients as the patient group, 121 healthy female subjects as the control group) were first collected and analyzed for U...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345188/treatment-of-gonorrhoea-in-auckland-new-zealand-marked-variation-in-prescriber-adherence-to-treatment-guidelines
#9
Rose Forster, Ms Diana Ng, Arlo Upton, Rick Franklin, Mark Thomas
BACKGROUND: The relentless emergence and spread of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are resistant to many antimicrobial agents has led to frequent changes in treatment guidelines, with a consequent risk that prescribers may not be aware of current guidelines. METHODS: We audited the treatment given to adult patients with laboratory proven gonorrhoea in Auckland, New Zealand, during the first six months of 2015. RESULTS: Treatment compliant with the current New Zealand Sexual Health Society (NZSHS) guidelines was administered in only 65% (458/706) episodes overall...
March 27, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344880/protective-function-of-interleukin-27-in-colitis-associated-cancer-via-suppression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#10
Bijun Cui, Shen Lu, Lihua Lai, Yiwei Xie, Jia He, Yue Xue, Peng Xiao, Ting Pan, Luoquan Chen, Yang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Qingqing Wang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation contributes to a variety of cancer formation, among them, colitis-associated cancer (CAC) represents a typical inflammation-related cancer. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation-related disease. The effect of IL-27 in intestinal inflammation is controversial and its role in CAC is not elucidated yet. In our present study, we found that IL-27 has protective function in murine model of CAC through suppression of inflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344486/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-a-study-of-health-and-economic-outcomes
#11
Asim Priyendu, K E Vandana, Nilima, Muralidhar Varma, Nishitha Prabhu, Alsha Abdul Rahim, Anantha Naik Nagappa
Objective: Organophosphorus poisoning (OPP) is a major concern for developing countries. There are no guidelines for the prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of OPP which in such critical cases might add to the economic burden of the patients as well as antibiotic resistance. We compared the health and economic outcomes in patients prescribed with prophylactic antibiotics with respect to the patients not prescribed with any antibiotics. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out for two years for patients admitted to ICU with OPP...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344408/potential-antibacterial-activity-of-some-saudi-arabia-honey
#12
Ahmed G Hegazi, Faiz M Al Guthami, Ahmed F M Al Gethami, Fyrouz M Abd Allah, Ashraf A Saleh, Ehab A Fouad
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344406/attribution-of-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-cassia-tora-extract-toward-its-growth-promoting-effect-in-broiler-birds
#13
Jyoti Sahu, K M Koley, B D Sahu
AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344395/characterization-of-salmonella-gallinarum-from-an-outbreak-in-raigarh-chhattisgarh
#14
Chandrahas Sannat, Anil Patyal, Nidhi Rawat, R C Ghosh, D K Jolhe, R K Shende, S D Hirpurkar, Sanjay Shakya
AIM: The present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize Salmonella Gallinarum from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in layer birds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinically ill and dead layer birds from an outbreak were investigated. History, clinical signs, and postmortem lesions were suggestive of fowl typhoid. Postmortem samples including heart blood, intestinal contents, pieces of ovary, and liver were collected and processed immediately for bacterial culture, serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344161/cross-resistance-to-human-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-and-to-polymyxins-mediated-by-the-plasmid-encoded-mcr-1
#15
Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether acquired resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) group molecules, being normal components of the human immune system, may select co-resistance to antibiotic peptides such as polymyxins, considering they share the same mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate strains producing the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1, which is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that modifies the lipopolysaccharide structure of Gram-negative bacteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343755/covalently-linked-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin-hybrid-antibiotics-as-a-tool-to-fight-bacterial-resistance
#16
Michal Shavit, Varvara Pokrovskaya, Valery Belakhov, Timor Baasov
To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides...
March 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343745/feasibility-of-sulfate-calcined-eggshells-for-removing-pathogenic-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-landfill-leachates
#17
Mao Ye, Mingming Sun, Xu Chen, Yanfang Feng, Jinzhong Wan, Kuan Liu, Da Tian, Manqiang Liu, Jun Wu, Arthur P Schwab, Xin Jiang
High abundance of human pathogen and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate has become an emerging threat against human health. Therefore, sulfate- and calcination-modified eggshells as green agricultural bioresource were applied to test the feasibility of removing pathogenic bacteria and ARGs from leachate. The highest removal of Escherichia coli (E. coil) and gentamycin resistant gene (gmrA) from artificial contaminated landfill leachate was achieved by the application of eggshell with combined treatment of sulfate and calcination...
March 23, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343241/in-vitro-activity-of-alpha-mangostin-in-killing-and-eradicating-staphylococcus-epidermidis-rp62a-biofilms
#18
Murugesan Sivaranjani, Manivannan Prakash, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Janarthanam Rathna, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial agent against planktonic cells of many Gram-positive bacteria. However, the antibiofilm potency of α-MG remains unexplored till date. In this study, the antibiofilm and mature biofilm eradication ability of α-MG against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) biofilms were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of α-MG against S. epidermidis RP62A were found to be 1...
March 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343010/structural-and-dynamics-studies-of-the-tetr-family-protein-cprb-from-streptomyces-coelicolor-in-complex-with-its-biological-operator-sequence
#19
Hussain Bhukya, Asis K Jana, Neelanjana Sengupta, Ruchi Anand
In Streptomycetes, tetracycline repressor family of transcription regulators (TetR-FTRs) controls various biological processes including antibiotic biosynthesis, cellular morphology and innate resistance. Here, we focus on understanding the structural basis of transcription regulation by CprB, a member of TetR-FTRs from S. coelicolor. CprB is implicated as a receptor of γ-butyrolactones, a class of quorum sensing molecules, responsible for initiating secondary metabolic pathways. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of DNA recognition, the X-ray structure of CprB in complex with its biological relevant operator sequence was solved to a resolution of 3...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342937/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-among-patients-and-their-parents-guardian-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#20
Babak Pourakbari, Mahmoud Khodabandeh, Shima Mahmoudi, Farah Sabouni, Alireza Aziz-Ahari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. It is important to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. aureus and MRSA clones in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA strains in both hospitalized children and general adult population (parents/guardian). In addition, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and molecular diversity of S...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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