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Antibiotics resistence

Yasmine Emara, Annekatrin Lehmann, Marc-William Siegert, Matthias Finkbeiner
Over the last few decades, worldwide detection of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic environments and the associated toxicological effects on wildlife and human health have become a matter of public and scientific debate. While life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) models are increasingly used to assess the potential eco- and human-toxicological impacts of chemical emissions, few studies have looked into the issue of modelling pharmaceutical emissions specifically and their toxicity-related effects in an LCA-context...
September 22, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
H Staji, A Tonelli, T Zahraei Salehi, A Mahdavi, E Shahroozian, M R Salimi Bejestani, S Mehdizade Mood, M Keywanloo, M Ahmadi Hamedani, H Emadi Chashmi, I Ashrafi Tamai, E Atefi Tabar
Antibiotic resistance occurs in the endogenous flora of exposed population in addition to pathogenic bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes among 63 isolates of Escherichia coli of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in diarrheic calves and poultry. According to the results, B1 and B2 were the most prevalent phylogroups of E. coli in calves and poultry carcasses, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance was observed in 76% of the isolates, and 62% of the strains were multi-drug resistant...
June 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Olga Levin-Kravets, Tal Keren-Kaplan, Ilan Attali, Itai Sharon, Neta Tanner, Dar Shapira, Ritu Rathi, Avinash Persaud, Noa Shohat, Anna Shusterman, Gali Prag
Ubiquitylation is an eukaryotic signal that regulates most cellular pathways. However, four major hurdles pose challenges to study ubiquitylation: (1) high redundancy between ubiquitin (Ub) cascades, (2) ubiquitylation is tightly regulated in the cell, (3) the transient nature of the Ub signal, and (4) difficulties to purify functional ubiquitylation apparatus for in vitro assay. Here, we present systems that express functional Ub cascades in E. coli, which lacks deubiquitylases, Ub-dependent degradations, and control mechanisms for ubiquitylation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eduardo M Costa, Sara Silva, Mariana Veiga, Freni K Tavaria, Maria M Pintado
Nowadays, nosocomial skin infections are increasingly harder to manage and control. In the search for new, natural compounds capable of being alternatives to traditional antibiotics, chitosan and its nanoparticles, have garnered attention. This work sought to understand the potential of chitosan NPs in the management of infections caused by MDR skin pathogens in planktonic and sessile assays. Additionally, NPs' capacity to inhibit biofilm quorum sensing and prevent HaCat infections was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that chitosan NPs had an average size and charge of 226...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vikas Goyal, Keith Grimwood, Catherine A Byrnes, Peter S Morris, I Brent Masters, Robert S Ware, Gabrielle B McCallum, Michael J Binks, Julie M Marchant, Peter van Asperen, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Anita Champion, Helen M Buntain, Helen Petsky, Paul J Torzillo, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Although amoxicillin-clavulanate is the recommended first-line empirical oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis, azithromycin is also often prescribed for its convenient once-daily dosing. No randomised controlled trials involving acute exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis have been published to our knowledge. We hypothesised that azithromycin is non-inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanate for resolving exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis...
September 17, 2018: Lancet
Thomas W Carion, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, David Kracht, Aditya Agrawal, Eliisa Strand, Omar Kaddurah, Cody R McWhirter, Gabriel Sosne, Elizabeth A Berger
With increasing multidrug resistance and contraindication for corticosteroid use, the goal of this study was to develop thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) as an adjunctive therapy to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial keratitis that effectively promotes enhanced wound healing, host defense, and inflammation resolution. Disease outcome was assessed by clinical score, slit lamp photography, and histopathology. Cytokine profile, bacterial load, PMN infiltration, and Griess and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined...
September 20, 2018: Cells
Oumar Bassoum, Ndèye Marème Sougou, Mayassine Diongue, Mamadou Makhtar Mbacke Lèye, Mouhamad Mbodji, Djibril Fall, Ibrahima Seck, Adama Faye, Anta Tal-Dia
Background: Bacterial resistance is a major public health problem worldwide. One solution to this scourge is to sensitize the general public on rational use of antibiotics. Our goal was to assess people's knowledge and opinions about antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in an urban setting. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study. A convenience sampling was done. A questionnaire was administered to 400 persons during face-to-face interviews. Results: Most respondents thought that antibiotics are effective against colds/flu (69...
September 20, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Qianwen Sui, Xiaoshan Meng, Rui Wang, Junya Zhang, Dawei Yu, Meixue Chen, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
Livestock manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The endogenous inhibitors that emerge during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) greatly influence the bioprocess performance and the ARGs. The effect of endogenous inhibitors including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and free ammonia (FA) on the ARG occurrences during HSAD of swine manure was investigated in this study. The ARG properties during HSAD (8%-14% total solids (TS)) largely differed from the low TS control (4%). The endogenous inhibitors and microbial communities greatly contributed to the three-phase changes in ARGs...
September 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jason D Guss, Sophia N Ziemian, Marysol Luna, Taylor N Sandoval, Derek T Holyoak, Gabriel G Guisado, Sebastian Roubert, Rowan L Callahan, Ilana L Brito, Marjolein C H van der Meulen, Steven R Goldring, Christopher J Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced OA. DESIGN: Cartilage damage was induced through cyclic compressive loading in four groups of adult male mice: Toll-like receptor-5 deficient (TLR5KO) mice that develop metabolic syndrome due to alterations in the gut microbiome, TLR5KO mice submitted to chronic antibiotics to prevent metabolic syndrome (TLR5KOΔMicrobiota), C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet to cause obesity (HFD), and untreated C57BL/6J mice (WT)...
September 18, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
So Yeon Kim, Kwan Soo Ko
In this study, we investigated the evolutionary importance of cryptic prophage elements in a blaNDM-1 -bearing plasmid by exploring the effect of prophage regions on survival against antibiotic stress. While analyzing a plasmid harbouring an NDM-1-encoding gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae from South Korea, we found a prophage region within the plasmid. We constructed single-prophage knock-out mutants by gene replacement. The intact plasmid and plasmids with deleted prophages were conjugated into Escherichia coli DH5α...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Robin G Otto, Elke van Gorp, Wendy Kloezen, Joseph Meletiadis, Sanne van den Berg, Johan W Mouton
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing and few new antibiotics are in the development pipeline. Alternative strategies to treat infectious diseases such as combination therapy are urgently needed. Polymyxin B is a neglected and disused antibiotic with moderate antibacterial activity, and in this study we aimed to find synergistic interactions between polymyxin B and a wide range of non-antibiotics to improve its efficacy. Thirty non-antibiotic compounds from various drug classes were screened for synergistic potential with sub-MIC concentrations of polymyxin B in an agar diffusion assay against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3 isolates per species)...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
María Díez-Aguilar, Miquel Ekkelenkamp, María-Isabel Morosini, Irene Merino, Juan de Dios Caballero, Mark Jones, Mireille van Westreenen, Michael M Tunney, Rafael Cantón, Ad C Fluit
Non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria are increasingly being cultured in respiratory samples from people with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of clinical CF respiratory isolates from distinct geographical regions to a range of antimicrobials. A total of 286 isolates (106 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 100 Burkholderia spp., 59 Achromobacter spp., 12 Pandoraea spp. and 9 Ralstonia spp.) from The Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Spain, USA and Australia were tested. The MIC50 , MIC90 and susceptibility categorization were determined...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Naturally occurring plasmids have medical importance given that they frequently code for virulence or antibiotic resistance. In many cases, plasmids impose a fitness cost to their hosts, meaning that the growth rate of plasmid-bearing cells is lower than that of plasmid-free cells. However, this does not fit with the fact that plasmids are ubiquitous in nature nor that plasmids and their hosts adapt to each other very fast - as has been shown in laboratory evolutionary assays. Even when plasmids are costly, they seem to largely interact in such a way that the cost of two plasmids is lower than the cost of one of them alone...
September 18, 2018: Plasmid
Rafael Oliveira Dos Reis, Margarida Neves Souza, Maria Cristina Piccoli Cecconi, Loeci Timm, Nilo Ikuta, Daniel Simon, Jonas Michel Wolf, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
INTRODUCTION: Nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes are the main cause of human food-borne infection, including several hospitalization cases in the developing countries. AIM: To detect the main serotypes and to characterize the antibiotic resistance of human non-enteric and enteric nontyphoidal Salmonella from clinical isolates in Brazil. METHODS: Salmonella serotypes were identified by microbiological and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was performed by agar disk diffusion...
September 18, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Haorong Li, Jiangjiang Zhu
Secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) is an innovative metabolomics approach that primarily focuses on the gas-phase analyte detection. In this study, we developed a secondary electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SESI-MS/MS) method with a homemade SESI-MS front end, for sensitive, reproducible and selective detection of headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from bacterial culture. The optimized SESI-MS/MS was applied to examine the VOC metabolome of a pair of isogenic methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) strains...
September 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xi Wang, Juan Wu, Peili Li, Lina Wang, Jie Zhou, Gaoke Zhang, Xin Li, Bingcheng Hu, Xiaodong Xing
Biofilms contribute to persistent bacterial infections as well as formidable resistances to conventional antibiotics. However, it is still a major challenge to establish an advanced antibacterial nanoplatform that can efficiently eradicate biofilms while overcoming bacterial resistances. Taking advantage of the stimuli-responsive technique and the magnetic guidance strategy, here we present a highly efficient nanoplatform for planktonic inactivation and biofilm disruption. The multilayer films consisting of antibiotic Gentamicin (Gen), tannic acid (TA) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were fabricated and coated on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via electrostatic interactions...
September 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Li-Ying Liao, Tzong-Shiun Li, Hung Chi Chen
In the past decades, numerous surgical techniques and conservative treatments for pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) had been discussed and published. There is still no consensus yet of the best techniques because of high recurrence rates and prolonged wound healing. In the case of complicated discharging sinus or recurrent PSD resistant to treatment with antibiotics, we recommend radical excision followed by a regional flap, which can obliterate the dead space with well-vascularised tissue. In this article, we presented the technique of snug suture fixation between the dermis and periosteum using a superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap...
September 21, 2018: International Wound Journal
Peipei Wang, Zhongqi Liu, Yongchun Huang
A new actinobacteria Streptomyces cavourensis TJ430 was isolated from the mountain soil collected from the southwest of China. In previous study, TJ430 showed striking bactericidal activities and strong ability of antibiotic production. Here, we report complete genome of this bacterium, consisting of 7.6 Mb linear chromosome and 0.2 Mb plasmids. It was predicted 6450 genes in chromosome and 225 genes in plasmids, as well as 12 gene islands in chromosome. Abundant genes have predicted functions in antibiotic metabolism and stress resistance...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Hye Young Jeon, Yeong Bin Kim, Suk-Kyung Lim, Kwang Won Seo, Young Ju Lee
Cephalosporins are the key drugs for the treatment of salmonellosis. Resistance to cephalosporins in Salmonella spp. has become a serious public health concern worldwide. Although the sales of cephalosporins have increased by five times from 2008 to 2016 in Korea, limited information is available on cephalosporin resistance in Korea. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the trends in prevalence and characteristics of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella isolates from poultry in Korea in the period between 2010 and 2017...
September 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Jong Bo Shim, Kwang Won Seo, Yeong Bin Kim, Hye Young Jeon, Suk-Kyung Lim, Young Ju Lee
In the poultry industry, commercial layer farms play an important role in meeting the protein demand through the supply of eggs. However, the risk of contamination by β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in eggs laid by commercial chickens is significant. In this study, we investigated the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolated from layer hens and characterized their molecular background. Among the 92 cefotaxime-resistant E...
September 17, 2018: Poultry Science
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