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Shogo Okumura, Shu-Wei Tang, Teruhiko Saito, Kazuhiko Semba, Shigeyoshi Sakaki, Yoshiaki Nakao
We report a method that ensures the selective alkylation of benzamides and aromatic ketones at the para-position via cooperative nickel/aluminum catalysis. Using a bulky catalyst/co-catalyst system allows reactions between benzamides with alkenes to afford the corresponding para-alkylated products. The origin of the high para-selectivity has also been investigated by density functional theory calculations.
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jenny L Wiley, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas
Originally developed as research tools for use in structure-activity relationship studies, synthetic cannabinoids contributed to significant scientific advances in the cannabinoid field. Unfortunately, a subset of these compounds was diverted for recreational use beginning in the early 2000s. As these compounds were banned, they were replaced with additional synthetic cannabinoids with increasingly diverse chemical structures. This chapter focuses on integration of recent results with those covered in previous reviews...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marta Girvent Vilarmau, Felipe Ojeda Pérez, Maria José Canto Rivera, Marian Lorente Gascón
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study is to facilitate the suture on the sacral promontory for laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. We hypothesised that a new method of sacral anchorage using a biosynthetic material, the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) harpoon, might be adequate because of its tensile strength, might reduce complications owing to its well-known biocompatibility, and might shorten the duration of surgery. METHODS: We verified the feasibility of insertion and quantified the stress resistance of the harpoons placed in the promontory in nine fresh cadavers, using four stress tests in each case...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Satavisha Kayal, Santanu Mukherjee
Cascade Michael/cyclization reactions between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and exocyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones are shown to proceed efficiently in the presence of a quinine-derived tertiary amino-squaramide catalyst and furnish 3,2'-pyrrolidinyl bispirooxindoles containing two spiro-quaternary and three contiguous stereocenters as a single diastereomer with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99 : 1 er).
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Monique Mostert, Anthony Bonavia
BACKGROUND Besides providing anesthesia for surgery, the anesthesiologist's role is to optimize the patient for surgery and for post-surgical recovery. This involves timely identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values that could complicate the patient's perioperative course. There are several potential causes of anion and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis in surgical patients, most of which could profoundly affect a patient's surgical outcome. Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Amin Hossein Bagi, Yousef Khaledi, Hossein Ghari, Sebastian Arndt, A Stephen K Hashmi, Brian F Yates, Alireza Ariafard
The gold-catalyzed direct functionalization of aromatic C-H bonds has attracted interest for constructing organic compounds which have application in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other important fields. In the literature, two major mechanisms have been proposed for these catalytic reactions: inner-sphere syn-addition and outer-sphere anti-addition (Friedel-Crafts-type mechanism). In the current article, the AuCl3-catalyzed hydrofurylation of allenyl ketone, vinyl ketone, ketone and alcohol substrates is investigated with the aid of density functional theory calculations and it is found that the corresponding functionalizations are best rationalized in terms of a novel mechanism called "concerted electrophilic ipso-substitution" (CEIS) in which the gold(III)-furyl σ-bond produced by furan auration acts as a nucleophile and attacks the protonated substrate via an outer-sphere mechanism...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Guangming Gong, Wenya Liu, Shudong Wang
This study aimed to reduce the cytotoxicity and improve the targeting of aclacinomycin (ACM) by covalently coupling it with amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA) to generate an active intermediate, AOA-ACM. AOA-ACM was conjugated with self-assembled human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles constructed using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as disulfide bond breaking molecules in an 'opening stage-intermediate-closing stage' route, in which the hydrophobic interaction, interchange of sulfhydryl and hydrogen bond may be the key factors in the assembling process...
October 17, 2016: Nanotechnology
Neloy Kumar Chakroborty, Randolf Menzel, Marco Schubert
Ca(2+) imaging techniques were applied to investigate the neuronal behavior of projection neurons in the honeybee antennal lobe to examine the effects of long lasting adaptation on odorant coding. Responses to 8 test odorants were measured before, during and after an odor adaptation phase. Bees were exposed to the adapting odor for 30 minutes. Test odorant responses were only recorded from a sub-population of accessible glomeruli on the antennal lobe surface. Projection neurons, the output neurons of the antennal lobes, are projecting through the lateral, mediolateral and medial antennal lobe tract to higher centers of the olfactory pathway...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Sebastian Fillippas-Ntekouan, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2) inhibitors) represent a new class of antidiabetic drugs that act through the inhibition of glucose and sodium reabsorption at proximal tubules. It has been shown that tThese substances may exhibit renonephroprotective properties, since they expressed clinically as a prevention of the deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate and a reductionreduce in the degree of albuminuria in patients with established diabetes-associated kidney disease. In this review we present in detail the pathophysiologic mechanisms that have been recently implicated in the rennephroprotective properties of SGLT-2 inhibitors...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Xun Lu, Uwe Schneider
Catalysis using a bis(dialkylamino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) has been developed, which relies on a formal umpolung activation of Michael acceptor pro-nucleophiles. Various aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reactions between aromatic, heteroaromatic, or aliphatic imines and acyclic or cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones and carboxylic acid derivatives have been catalyzed by a BAC under mild conditions. Functionalities such as unprotected amino and hydroxy groups have been tolerated. The catalyst loading was decreased to 1 mol% without loss of activity...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Barry M Trost, James T Masters, Benjamin R Taft, Jean-Philip Lumb
We present a full account detailing the development of a sequential catalysis strategy for the synthesis of chiral β-alkynyl carbonyl and sulfonyl derivatives. A palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of terminal alkyne donors with acetylenic ester, ketone, and sulfone acceptors generates stereodefined enynes in high yield. These compounds are engaged in an unprecedented, regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate reduction. The process exhibits a high functional group tolerance, and this enables the synthesis of a broad range of chiral products from simple, readily available alkyne precursors...
September 16, 2016: Chemical Science
Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Orsolya Balogh, Marie Roch, Stefanie Keller, Erika Michel, Iris M Reichler
In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test)...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Petra Martini, Alessandra Boschi, Gianfranco Cicoria, Licia Uccelli, Micòl Pasquali, Adriano Duatti, Gaia Pupillo, Mario Marengo, Massimo Loriggiola, Juan Esposito
The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of (99m)TcO4(-), in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure...
October 5, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Y H Li, W J Wang
Oxidized flavor stability of milk is highly associated with consumer acceptance. This study characterized oxidized flavor stability as affected by milk concentration. The selected volatiles in raw milk (RM), heated milk (HM), concentrated milk, and distillate were investigated using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrated milk and distillate showed higher levels of heptanal (14.52-17.24 μg/kg), nonanal (5.08-8.64 μg/kg), 2-heptanone (25.22-73.25 μg/kg), and 2-nonanone (10...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Mouna Necibi, Laurent Lanceleur, Nadia Mzoughi, Mathilde Monperrus
A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic musks compounds (SMs) including five polycyclic musks (PCMs) and three nitro musks (NMs) was validated for sediment samples based on a simple QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sample preparation procedure followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Good analytical performances were obtained for all the target compounds. For the validation of the method, internal calibration (IC) and internal calibration with QuEChERS (ICQ) were compared...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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