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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087976/the-role-of-diode-array-ultraviolet-detection-for-the-identification-of-synthetic-cathinones
#1
Walter F Rowe, Ioan Marginean, Stephanie Carnes, Ira S Lurie
The utility of diode array UV detection for aiding in the identification of synthetic cathinones, including different sub classes and positional isomers is presented. For 35 synthetic cathinones' unique UV spectra are obtained for seven sub classes including mostly beta ketones, where position and type of substitution on benzene rings give rise to differences in UV maxima and relative intensity of the spectral bands. This aspect is key to distinguishing positional isomers which contain differences in R substitution (mono and di) around the benzene ring, which provides complementary information to electron ionization mass spectrometry, where the latter technique cannot distinguish between these types of positional isomers...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081481/fatigue-limits-of-different-peek-materials-for-dental-implants
#3
Andreas Dominik Schwitalla, Tycho Zimmermann, Tobias Spintig, Ilona Kallage, Wolf-Dieter Müller
The increasing use of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) as a substitute for metal implant components has led to the suggestion that it could also be used as an alternative to titanium in the field of dental implants. A major requirement for dental implant materials is their resistance to cyclic loading due to mastication. A special fatigue test was designed to evaluate the elastic behavior and long-term form stability of cylindrically shaped PEEK specimens of 4, 5 and 6mm in diameter, using 11 different PEEK materials of various grades: unfilled, filled with titanium dioxide or barium sulfate powder, reinforced with short carbon fibers or short glass fibers, and reinforced with continuous carbon fibers...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080911/evaluation-of-in-house-urine-dipstick-reference-laboratory-urinalysis-and-urine-protein-creatinine-ratio-from-a-colony-of-callimicos-callimico-goeldii
#4
Sarah A Cannizzo, Jennifer N Langan, Mark Warneke, Matthew Allender
This study evaluated results from an in-house (IH) laboratory dipstick, a reference laboratory (RL) urinalysis, and urine protein : creatinine (UPC) ratios from callimicos ( Callimico goeldii ). Urine was collected from 25 individuals comprising a single colony under professional care in North America and compared based on laboratory, sex, age class, and presence or absence of a normal urinalysis. Urine specific gravity and pH between laboratories were statistically different. Overall, 56% to 100% of animals had at least a trace amount of protein in their urine...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079957/palladium-catalyzed-remote-aryldifluoroalkylation-of-alkenyl-aldehydes
#5
Xingliang Nie, Cungui Cheng, Gangguo Zhu
A palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction between fluoroalkyl bromides, arylboronic acids, and alkenyl aldehydes has been developed and provides facile access to 5-, 6-, or 7-difluoroalkylated ketones under very mild reaction conditions. The resultant products can be smoothly converted into CF2 -containing tetrahydronaphthalenes by a novel silver-catalyzed intramolecular decarboxylative cyclization of 5-aryl-2,2-difluoropentanoic acids.
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079250/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-safety-and-tolerability
#6
Lindsey Thompson, Erin Fecske, Mohammad Salim, Ara Hall
Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078550/iodine-mediated-formula-see-text-c-h-functionalization-of-methyl-ketones-a-one-pot-synthesis-of-functionalized-indolizines-via-the-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-reaction-between-pyridinium-ylides-and-ynones
#7
Issa Yavari, Jamil Sheykhahmadi, Maryam Naeimabadi, Mohammad Reza Halvagar
An efficient transition-metal-free approach toward C-H bond activation by using molecular [Formula: see text]-mediated [Formula: see text] C-H bond functionalization for the synthesis of indolizine derivatives via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrogen ylides with ynones is described.
January 11, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078166/selective-cobalt-catalyzed-reduction-of-terminal-alkenes-and-alkynes-using-eto-2si-me-h-as-a-stoichiometric-reductant
#8
Balaram Raya, Souvagya Biswas, T V RajanBabu
While attempting to effect Co-catalyzed hydrosilylation of β-vinyl trimethylsilyl enol ethers we discovered that depending on the silane, solvent and the method of generation of the reduced cobalt catalyst, a highly efficient and selective reduction or hydrosilylation of an alkene can be achieved. This paper deals with this reduction reaction, which has not been reported before in spite of the huge research activity in this area. The reaction, which uses an air-stable [2,6-di(aryliminoyl)pyridine)]CoCl2 activated by 2 equivalents of NaEt3BH as a catalyst (0...
September 2, 2016: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074924/metabotyping-patients-journeys-reveals-early-predisposition-to-lung-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#9
Raluca Georgiana Maltesen, Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Shona Pedersen, Munsoor Ali Hanifa, Sergey Kucheryavskiy, Søren Risom Kristensen, Reinhard Wimmer
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity that can be related to the disease progression, which is commonly observed two-three days postoperatively. More than 700 blood samples were collected from 50 patients at nine time points pre-, intra-, and postoperatively...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074390/anti-allergic-triterpenes-isolated-from-olive-milled-waste
#10
Asuka Kishikawa, Yhiya Amen, Kuniyoshi Shimizu
The degranulation of basophils stimulated by antigen is one of the allergic mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In a previous study, the β-hexosaminidase release of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated by IgE cross-linking was specifically inhibited by ethanol extract of olive milled waste (OMW). OMW is a potential source of triterpenes, which show several biological activities. However, little is known about the effect of triterpenes in OMW on β-hexosaminidase release. Here we investigated anti-allergic triterpenes from the ethanol extract of OMW, and we discuss the structure-activity relationship...
January 10, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#11
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074225/recent-advances-in-biotechnological-applications-of-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#12
REVIEW
Yu-Guo Zheng, Huan-Huan Yin, Dao-Fu Yu, Xiang Chen, Xiao-Ling Tang, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Ya-Ping Xue, Ya-Jun Wang, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), which belong to the oxidoreductase superfamily, catalyze the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with high stereoselectivity under mild conditions. ADHs are widely employed as biocatalysts for the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic substrates and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure chemicals. This review provides an overview of biotechnological applications for ADHs in the production of chiral pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.
January 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073960/ligand-characterization-of-cyp4b1-isoforms-modified-for-high-level-expression-in-escherichia-coli-and-hepg2-cells
#13
Katharina Roellecke, Vera D Jäger, Veselin H Gyurov, John P Kowalski, Stephanie Mielke, Allan E Rettie, Helmut Hanenberg, Constanze Wiek, Marco Girhard
Human CYP4B1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase predominantly expressed in the lung, inefficiently metabolizes classical CYP4B1 substrates, such as the naturally occurring furan pro-toxin 4-ipomeanol (4-IPO). Highly active animal forms of the enzyme convert 4-IPO to reactive alkylating metabolite(s) that bind(s) to cellular macromolecules. By substitution of 13 amino acids, we restored the enzymatic activity of human CYP4B1 toward 4-IPO and this modified cDNA is potentially valuable as a suicide gene for adoptive T-cell therapies...
January 10, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069619/occupational-exposure-to-solvents-and-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-women-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-france
#14
Matthieu Carton, Christine Barul, Gwenn Menvielle, Diane Cyr, Marie Sanchez, Corinne Pilorget, Brigitte Trétarre, Isabelle Stücker, Danièle Luce
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer and occupational exposure to chlorinated, oxygenated and petroleum solvents in women. METHODS: Investigation of occupational and environmental CAuses of REspiratory cancers (ICARE), a French population-based case-control study, included 296 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) in women and 775 female controls. Lifelong occupational history was collected. Job-exposure matrices allowed to assess exposure to 5 chlorinated solvents (carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichloroethylene), 5 petroleum solvents (benzene; special petroleum product; gasoline; white spirits and other light aromatic mixtures; diesel, fuels and kerosene) and 5 oxygenated solvents (alcohols; ketones and esters; ethylene glycol; diethyl ether; tetrahydrofuran)...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068108/transferability-and-adhesion-of-sol-gel-derived-crystalline-tio2-thin-films-to-different-types-of-plastic-substrates
#15
Natsumi Amano, Mitsuru Takahashi, Hiroaki Uchiyama, Hiromitsu Kozuka
Anatase thin films were prepared on various plastic substrates by our recently developed sol-gel transfer technique. The plastic substrates employed were polycarbonate (PC), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). An Si(100) substrate was first coated with a polyimide (PI)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) mixture layer, and an alkoxide-derived titania gel film was deposited on it by spin-coating...
January 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067392/oxidative-coupling-of-1-2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl-ethanone-with-ethanol-and-unexpected-deacetylative-synthesis-of-3-hydroxy-quinoline
#16
Parul Chauhan, Makthala Ravi, Ruchir Kant, Prem P Yadav
An efficient one pot method for the synthesis of anti-α,β-epoxy ketones from 1-(2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl)ethanone and ethanol has been developed by a modified Darzen reaction. The reaction occurs under oxidative conditions via a cascade sequence of bromination, aldol condensation followed by substitution. The reaction in the presence of NBS and a base however, in the absence of an oxidant, led to the formation of the corresponding 3-hydroxylated product via an unusual rearrangement.
January 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066950/pd-peppsi-ipentcl-a-useful-catalyst-for-the-coupling-of-2-aminopyridine-derivatives
#17
Michael G Organ, Abir Khadra, Stanislas Mayer
Pd-PEPPSI-IPentCl precatalyst has been demonstrated to be highly effective at the coupling of hetero(aryl)chlorides to free 2-aminopyridine substrates to produce N-(hetero)aryl-2-aminopyridine derivatives. The catalyst has proven competent in a number of other difficult cross-coupling reactions owing to the combination of the 3-penyl-substituted N-aryl groups and the chlorines on the backbone of the NHC core. This same reactivity here allows couplings to take place under very mild conditions (e.g., NaBHT or carbonate base) such that sensitive functional groups including esters, ketones, and nitriles are tolerated...
January 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066031/a-total-synthesis-of-hortonone-c
#18
Doleshwar Niroula, Liam P Hallada, Snezna Rogelj, Rodolfo Tello-Aburto
A total synthesis of the cytotoxic terpenoid hortonone C was accomplished and its absolute stereochemistry confirmed. Intermediate (+)-4 was synthesized using either an asymmetric conjugate addition strategy, or by elaboration of the Hajos-Parrish ketone. Reduction of (+)-4 under dissolving-metal conditions and trapping the enolate intermediate served to control the cis-stereochemistry at the ring fusion and provide a silyl enol ether necessary for ring expansion. Comparison of optical rotation data confirmed that the absolute configuration of natural hortonone C is (6S,7S,10S)...
January 26, 2017: Tetrahedron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#19
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063640/in-situ-hydrothermal-growth-of-polyaniline-coating-for-in-tube-solid-phase-microextraction-towards-ultraviolet-filters-in-environmental-water-samples
#20
Yanan Bu, Juanjuan Feng, Xiuqin Wang, Yu Tian, Min Sun, Chuannan Luo
A facile, low cost, sensitive and environmentally friendly polyaniline (PANI) coating was prepared onto the basalt fibers (BFs) by in situ hydrothermal growth method. PANI functionalized BFs were placed into a poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube as a fibers-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device. The extraction and analysis processes were carried out by connecting it to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three ultraviolet filters including 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, phenyl salicylate and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone were employed as model analytes...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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