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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238588/rest-stress-limb-perfusion-imaging-in-humans-with-contrast-ultrasound-using-intermediate-power-imaging-and-microbubbles-resistant-to-inertial-cavitation
#1
Brian P Davidson, James Hodovan, J Todd Belcik, Federico Moccetti, Aris Xie, Azzdine Y Ammi, Jonathan R Lindner
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) limb perfusion imaging is a promising approach for evaluating peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, low signal enhancement in skeletal muscle has necessitated high-power intermittent imaging algorithms, which are not clinically feasible. We hypothesized that CEU using a combination of intermediate power and a contrast agent resistant to inertial cavitation would allow real-time limb stress perfusion imaging. METHODS: In normal volunteers, CEU of the calf skeletal muscle was performed on separate days with Sonazoid, Optison, or Definity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216569/micromachined-fluid-inertial-sensors
#2
REVIEW
Shiqiang Liu, Rong Zhu
Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive...
February 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112657/an-approximate-model-on-three-dimensional-groundwater-infiltration-in-sewer-systems
#3
Shuai Guo, Yulong Yang, Yiping Zhang
Groundwater infiltration through cracked sewer pipes has caused significant economic losses. This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical expression for calculating the steady-state groundwater infiltration rate into sewer systems. As an extension of the previously developed two-dimensional model by the author, this new model can be used to simulate the infiltration through an orifice defect. The derived analytical expression has been validated with experimental results. The new model incorporates all the related resistances during the infiltration process, including the soil head loss and the orifice loss...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001165/pinch-off-dynamics-and-dripping-onto-substrate-dos-rheometry-of-complex-fluids
#4
Jelena Dinic, Leidy Nallely Jimenez, Vivek Sharma
Liquid transfer and drop formation/deposition processes involve complex free-surface flows including the formation of columnar necks that undergo spontaneous capillary-driven instability, thinning and pinch-off. For simple (Newtonian and inelastic) fluids, a complex interplay of capillary, inertial and viscous stresses determines the nonlinear dynamics underlying finite-time singularity as well as self-similar capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics. In rheologically complex fluids, extra elastic stresses as well as non-Newtonian shear and extensional viscosities dramatically alter the nonlinear dynamics...
December 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995899/passive-mechanism-of-pitch-recoil-in-flapping-insect-wings
#5
D Ishihara, T Horie
The high torsional flexibility of insect wings allows for elastic recoil after the rotation of the wing during stroke reversal. However, the underlying mechanism of this recoil remains unclear because of the dynamic process of transitioning from the wing rotation during stroke reversal to the maintenance of a high angle of attack during the middle of each half-stroke, when the inertial, elastic, and aerodynamic effects all have a significant impact. Therefore, the interaction between the flapping wing and the surrounding air was directly simulated by simultaneously solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the equation of motion for an elastic body, and the fluid-structure interface conditions using the three-dimensional finite element method...
December 20, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929139/a-piezoelectric-micro-generator-worked-at-low-frequency-and-high-acceleration-based-on-pzt-and-phosphor-bronze-bonding
#6
Gang Tang, Bin Yang, Cheng Hou, Guimiao Li, Jingquan Liu, Xiang Chen, Chunsheng Yang
Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm(-3) at the resonant frequency of 100...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762669/the-validation-and-application-of-inertial-measurement-units-to-springboard-diving
#7
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669183/effects-of-inertial-setting-on-power-force-work-and-eccentric-overload-during-flywheel-resistance-exercise-in-women-and-men
#8
Luis Manuel Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610858/spreading-of-bubbles-after-contacting-the-lower-side-of-an-aerophilic-slide-immersed-in-water
#9
Hélène de Maleprade, Christophe Clanet, David Quéré
While the dynamics of complete wetting has been widely studied for liquids, the way a gas spreads on a solid is by far less known. We report here the events following the rise of a millimeter-size air bubble towards a textured material immersed in water and covered by a thin plastron of air. Bubbles contact the material either directly at the end of the rise, or after a few rebounds, which affects the initial shape of the bubble and the resulting dynamics of contact. Then, air spreads on the material, owing to surface tension and later buoyance, which tends to flatten further the bubble...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589931/upper-limb-joint-forces-and-moments-during-underwater-cyclical-movements
#10
Jessy Lauer, Annie Hélène Rouard, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552824/mathematical-modeling-and-simulation-of-an-occlusion-device-in-a-blood-vessel
#11
Vaibhavi A Sonetha, Jayesh R Bellare
An occlusion device is placed in an abnormal opening of the heart or its surrounding vessels to regain normal blood flow. There are various occlusion devices available for treatment of various congenital heart defects like PDA, ASD, etc. However, they have limitations like residual shunting, erosion of tissue, displacement and breakage of device, thrombus formation and sudden death. To improve efficiency and to reduce failure of occlusion devices, it is important to simulate blood flow through defect before and after placement of device...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529871/primary-porcine-brain-endothelial-cells-as-in-vitro-model-to-study-effects-of-ultrasound-and-microbubbles-on-blood-brain-barrier-function
#12
S Lelu, M Afadzi, S Berg, A K O Aslund, S H Torp, W Sattler, C de L Davies
Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles transiently and reversibly opens the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rodents and humans, thereby providing a time window for increased drug delivery into brain tissue. To get insight into the underlying mechanisms that govern ultrasound (US)-mediated opening of the BBB, in vitro models are a useful alternative. In this paper, we have utilized an in vitro BBB model that consists of primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). PBEC monolayers are grown on permeable membranes, which allow assessment of key features of BBB function as well as US treatment...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473506/acoustic-input-impedance-of-the-avian-inner-ear-measured-in-ostrich-struthio-camelus
#13
Pieter G G Muyshondt, Peter Aerts, Joris J J Dirckx
In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0...
September 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207018/effect-of-thrombus-composition-and-viscosity-on%C3%A2-sonoreperfusion-efficacy-in-a-model-of-micro-vascular-obstruction
#14
John J Black, Francois T H Yu, Rick G Schnatz, Xucai Chen, Flordeliza S Villanueva, John J Pacella
Distal embolization of micro-thrombi during stenting for myocardial infarction causes micro-vascular obstruction (MVO). We have previously shown that sonoreperfusion (SRP), a microbubble (MB)-mediated ultrasound (US) therapy, resolves MVO from venous micro-thrombi in vitro in saline. However, blood is more viscous than saline, and arterial thrombi that embolize during stenting are mechanically distinct from venous clot. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MVO created with arterial micro-thrombi are more resistant to SRP therapy compared with venous micro-thrombi, and higher viscosity further increases the US requirement for effective SRP in an in vitro model of MVO...
September 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038542/the-development-and-validation-of-using-inertial-sensors-to-monitor-postural-change-in-resistance-exercise
#15
Sam Gleadhill, James Bruce Lee, Daniel James
This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840314/system-error-compensation-methodology-based-on-a-neural-network-for-a-micromachined-inertial-measurement-unit
#16
Shi Qiang Liu, Rong Zhu
Errors compensation of micromachined-inertial-measurement-units (MIMU) is essential in practical applications. This paper presents a new compensation method using a neural-network-based identification for MIMU, which capably solves the universal problems of cross-coupling, misalignment, eccentricity, and other deterministic errors existing in a three-dimensional integrated system. Using a neural network to model a complex multivariate and nonlinear coupling system, the errors could be readily compensated through a comprehensive calibration...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796099/characterization-of-tungsten-oxide-thin-films-produced-by-spark-ablation-for-no2-gas-sensing
#17
Nishchay A Isaac, Marco Valenti, Andreas Schmidt-Ott, George Biskos
Tungsten oxides (WOx) thin films are currently used in electro-chromic devices, solar-cells and gas sensors as a result of their versatile and unique characteristics. In this study, we produce nanoparticulate WOx films by spark ablation and focused inertial deposition, and demonstrate their application for NO2 sensing. The primary particles in the as-deposited film samples are amorphous with sizes ranging from 10 to 15 nm. To crystallize the samples, the as-deposited films are annealed at 500 °C in air. This also caused the primary particles to grow to 30-50 nm by sintering...
February 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26670989/effects-of-in-season-inertial-resistance-training-with-eccentric-overload-in-a-sports-population-at-risk-for-patellar-tendinopathy
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gabriel Gual, Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Daniel Romero-Rodríguez, Per A Tesch
Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557200/effects-of-traditional-versus-horizontal-inertial-flywheel-power-training-on-common-sport-related-tasks
#19
Moisés de Hoyo, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, Jesús Mateo-Cortes, María Monserrat Cadenas-Sánchez, Sophia Nimphius
This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT) group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT) group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel...
September 29, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436249/survival-model-for-foot-and-leg-high-rate-axial-impact-injury-data
#20
REVIEW
Ann M Bailey, Timothy L McMurry, Gerald S Poplin, Robert S Salzar, Jeff R Crandall
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how lower extremity injuries from automotive intrusion and underbody blast (UBB) differ is of key importance when determining whether automotive injury criteria can be applied to blast rate scenarios. This article provides a review of existing injury risk analyses and outlines an approach to improve injury prediction for an expanded range of loading rates. This analysis will address issues with existing injury risk functions including inaccuracies due to inertial and potential viscous resistance at higher loading rates...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
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