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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641684/novel-indications-for-commonly-used-medications-as-radiation-protectants-in-spaceflight
#1
Mark F McLaughlin, Dorit B Donoviel, Jeffrey A Jones
In the space environment, the traditional radioprotective principles of time, distance, and shielding become difficult to implement. Additionally, the complex radiation environment inherent in space, the chronic exposure timeframe, and the presence of numerous confounding variables complicate the process of creating appropriate risk models for astronaut exposure. Pharmaceutical options hold tremendous promise to attenuate acute and late effects of radiation exposure in the astronaut population. Pharmaceuticals currently approved for other indications may also offer radiation protection, modulation, or mitigation properties along with a well-established safety profile...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641333/validation-of-brain-angiotensin-system-blockade-as-a-novel-drug-target-in-pharmacological-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#2
Dominik Wincewicz, Jan J Braszko
Retreat in psychiatric drug development results in innovative medication decline that might be at least partially overcome by adjunct therapy. New evidence from clinical studies has shown a possible role for brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in both affective and psychotic disorders. Simultaneously, rapidly accumulating data from basic studies indicate effectiveness of central RAS blockade in much broader range of neuropsychiatric disease. Recent findings implicate brain RAS, especially Angiotensin II (Ang II), in neural pathophysiology of mental disorders through neuroendocrine modulation and effects on neurotransmitter release, mostly noradrenaline, acetylcholine and dopamine...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625460/perioperative-use-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-antagonists
#3
REVIEW
Luis Mario Vaquero Roncero, David Sánchez Poveda, Joaquín José Valdunciel García, María Elisa Sánchez Barrado, José María Calvo Vecino
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Clinical repercussions of perioperative treatment with ACEIs/ARBs. DESIGN: Systematic review according to PRISMA statement. SETTING: Perioperative period. PATIENTS: 29 studies 11 cases/cases series, 12 observational studies and 6 randomized studies. MEASUREMENTS: Arterial blood pressure differences, refractory hypotension, other comorbidities. MAIN RESULTS: The studies show different results regarding the topics measured...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623899/renin-angiotensin-system-blockers-and-residual-kidney-function-loss-in-patients-initiating-peritoneal-dialysis-an-observational-cohort-study
#4
Jenny I Shen, Anjali B Saxena, Sitaram Vangala, Satvinder K Dhaliwal, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARB) have been shown to preserve residual kidney function in a select group of Asian patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in two small randomized clinical trials, the effectiveness of these drugs has yet to be demonstrated in a more diverse population of patients with multiple comorbid conditions. We investigated the association between ACEI/ARB use and development of recorded anuria in a cohort of patients initiating PD in the U...
June 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622402/prevalence-of-concurrent-prescribing-of-ace-is-and-arbs-among-beneficiaries-of-puerto-rico-s-government-sponsored-health-care-plan-during-2012-and-2013
#5
Denise Figueroa-Ríos, José J Hernández-Muñoz, Aileen García-Albarrán, Emily A García-Rodríguez, Glendaliz Méndez-Hernández, Suzette M Vélez-Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular conditions are the second cause of death in Puerto Rico. The individual use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is considered the first-line therapy for the treatment of several cardiovascular-related medical conditions. However, the concurrent use of these 2 therapeutic classes of drugs is not supported by treatment guidelines. Studies have shown that their concurrent use represents a potential health risk...
June 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619367/the-vasoprotective-axes-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-physiological-relevance-and-therapeutic-implications-in-cardiovascular-hypertensive-and-kidney-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Xiao C Li, Jianfeng Zhang, Jia L Zhuo
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is undisputedly one of the most prominent endocrine (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell) and intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) vasoactive systems in the physiological regulation of neural, cardiovascular, blood pressure, and kidney function. The importance of the RAS in the development and pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hypertensive and kidney diseases has now been firmly established in clinical trials and practice using renin inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, type 1 (AT1) angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blockers (ARBs), or aldosterone receptor antagonists as major therapeutic drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618426/renoprotective-effect-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-diabetic-patients-with-proteinuria
#7
Feng-Yi Hsu, Fang-Ju Lin, Huang-Tz Ou, Shih-Hui Huang, Chi-Chuan Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limited evidence exists on the choice of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in diabetic patients with nephropathy. We aim to assess the renal effectiveness and safety of these drugs among diabetic nephropathy patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted with diabetic nephropathy patients who initiated ACEI or ARB monotherapy. The primary outcome was a composite of end stage of renal disease and renal transplantation, and the secondary outcome was all-cause mortality...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616249/quality-of-care-for-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-primary-care-setting-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-ontario-canada
#8
Danielle M Nash, Scott Brimble, Maureen Markle-Reid, Eric McArthur, Karen Tu, Gihad E Nesrallah, Allan Grill, Amit X Garg
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease may not be receiving recommended primary renal care. OBJECTIVE: To use recently established primary care quality indicators for chronic kidney disease to determine the proportion of patients receiving recommended renal care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using administrative data with linked laboratory information. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2012...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614094/plasma-renin-activity-to-plasma-aldosterone-concentration-ratio-correlates-with-night-time-and-pulse-pressures-in-essential-hypertensive-patients-treated-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-at1-blockers
#9
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Paolo Balietti, Elisabetta Borioni, Francesca E Lombardi, Maddalena Ricci, Guido Cocci, Laura Landi, Riccardo Sarzani
OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and AT1 blockers (ARB) are commonly used antihypertensive drugs, but several factors may affect their effectiveness. We evaluated the associations between ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) parameters and plasma renin activity (PRA)-to-plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) ratio (RAR) to test renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in essential hypertensive patients treated with ACE-I or ARB for at least 12 months...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614052/safety-of-the-neprilysin-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitor-lcz696
#10
REVIEW
Bo Li, Yunhe Zhao, Bo Yin, Mengfei Helian, Xinmei Wang, Feng Chen, Hongxia Zhang, Hui Sun, Bin Meng, Fengshuang An
OBJECTIVES: The combined neprilysin/rennin-angiotensin system inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) has shown its superiority over ACEI/ARB therapy. In view of the existing concern of its adverse effects, we aimed to provide evidence of the safety of the new drug. RESULTS: A total of 6 randomized trials with 11,821 subjects were included in this analysis. No significant differences were found in any adverse effects between LCZ696 and ACEI/ARB or placebo groups...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611863/effect-of-azilsartan-on-day-to-day-variability-in-home-blood-pressure-a-prospective-multicenter-clinical-trial
#11
Toru Miyoshi, Ryoji Suetsuna, Naoto Tokunaga, Masayasu Kusaka, Ryuichiro Tsuzaki, Kazuya Koten, Kohno Kunihisa, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: The blood pressure variability (BPV) such as visit-to-visit, day-by-day, and ambulatory BPV has been also shown to be a risk of future cardiovascular events. However, the effects of antihypertensive therapy on BPV remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of azilsartan after switching from another angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on day-to-day BPV in home BP monitoring. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, single-arm study included 28 patients undergoing treatment with an ARB, which was switched to azilsartan after enrollment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607554/lower-extremity-peripheral-arterial-disease-is-an-independent-predictor-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-risks-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-china
#12
Xiao-Hong Pang, Jue Han, Wan-Lan Ye, Xue Sun, Yue Ding, Wen-Juan Huang, Yi-Ming Zhao, Han-Yu Lou, Li-Zhen Shan, Ying-Xiu Kang, Xiao-Xiao Song, Song-Zhao Zhang, Wei Gu, Peng-Fei Shan
We aimed to determine the relationship between lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke risks in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using the UKPDS risk engine. We enrolled 1178 hospitalized T2DM patients. The patients were divided into a lower extremity PAD group (ankle-brachial index ≤ 0.9 or >1.4; 88 patients, 7.5%) and a non-PAD group (ankle-brachial index > 0.9 and ≤1.4; 1090 patients, 92.5%). Age; duration of diabetes; systolic blood pressure; the hypertension rate; the use of hypertension drugs, ACEI /ARB, statins; CHD risk; fatal CHD risk; stroke risk; and fatal stroke risk were significantly higher in the PAD group than in the non-PAD group (P < 0...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602366/treatment-of-heart-failure-with-abnormal-left-ventricular-systolic-function-in-older-adults
#13
REVIEW
Wilbert S Aronow
Heart failure (HF) with abnormal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction should be identified and treated. Treat hypertension with diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and β-blockers. Treat myocardial ischemia with nitrates and β-blockers. Treat volume overload and HF with diuretics. Treat HF with ACE inhibitors and β-blockers. Sacubitril/valsartan may be used instead of an ACE inhibitor or ARB in chronic symptomatic HF and abnormal LV ejection fraction. Add isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine in African Americans with class II to IV HF treated with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and β-blockers...
July 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587450/dynamic-kinetic-resolution-in-rhodium-catalyzed-asymmetric-arylation-of-phospholene-oxides
#14
Kelvin Meng-Hui Lim, Tamio Hayashi
The reaction of 2,5-dihydro-1H-phosphole 1-oxide 1 with ArB(pin) 3 in the presence of a chiral (R)-segphos-rhodium catalyst under highly basic conditions (10 equiv of KOH) gave high yields of (1S,3S)-3-arylphospholane 1-oxide 4 with high diastereoselectivity as well as high enantioselectivity. Equilibration of 1 with its 2,3-dihydro isomer 2, which is chiral and racemic, by base-catalyzed olefin isomerization followed by kinetic resolution of 2 with the chiral rhodium catalyst realized the present dynamic kinetic resolution...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584494/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-antihypertensive-drugs-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-patients
#15
Maria Aslam, Mobasher Ahmad, Fizza Mobasher
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different classes of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients (NDPs) with essential hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Mayo Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, and National Defence Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, on 200 hypertensive patients with diabetes and 230 hypertensive patients without (Three hospitals) diabetes. Both male and female patients of age between 30 and 80 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) above 80 mmHg were enrolled in the study...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580625/mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-pattern-of-use-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-findings-from-biostat-chf
#16
João Pedro Ferreira, Patrick Rossignol, Jean-Loup Machu, Abhinav Sharma, Nicolas Girerd, Stefan D Anker, John G Cleland, Kenneth Dickstein, Gerasimos Filippatos, Hans L Hillege, Chim C Lang, Jozine Ter Maaten, Marco Metra, Leong Ng, Piotr Ponikowski, Nilesh J Samani, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Adriaan Voors, Faiez Zannad
AIMS: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are recommended (unless contraindicated) to all patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, MRAs are still largely underused in routine clinical practice. This study aims to describe the determinants and pattern of use of MRAs in HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: BIOSTAT-CHF is a European multicentre, prospective study which enrolled patients suboptimally treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs) and/or beta-blockers, with the aim of optimizing guideline-based use of these agents...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580180/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-pyochelin
#17
Kuan Shion Ong, Yuen Lin Cheow, Sui Mae Lee
The increase in prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is currently a serious threat, thus there is a need for new antimicrobial compounds to combat infections caused by these ARB. An antimicrobial-producing bacterium, Burkholderia paludis was recently isolated and was able to produce a type of siderophore with antimicrobial properties, later identified as pyochelin. The chelating ability of pyochelin has been well-characterized but not for its antimicrobial characteristics. It was found that pyochelin had MIC values (MBC values) of 3...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577742/dual-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-for-nephroprotection
#18
Piero Ruggenenti
In experimental diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) combination therapy reduce proteinuria and prevent structural lesions more effectively than either drug alone. Consistently, in humans, a multidrug individually tailored antiproteinuric treatment based on combination therapy with maximum tolerated doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers ("Remission Clinic") reduced proteinuria and prevented end-stage renal disease more effectively than angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers monotherapy, in particular in subjects with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576855/sodium-balance-circadian-bp-rhythm-heart-rate-variability-and-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-acute-phase-of-arb-therapy
#19
Yukako Isobe-Sasaki, Michio Fukuda, Yoshiaki Ogiyama, Ryo Sato, Toshiyuki Miura, Daisuke Fuwa, Masashi Mizuno, Tetsuhei Matsuoka, Hiroko Shibata, Hiroyuki Ito, Minamo Ono, Sumiko Abe-Dohmae, Ken Kiyono, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kobori, Makoto Michikawa, Junichiro Hayano, Nobuyuki Ohte
We have revealed that even in humans, activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) enhances tubular sodium reabsorption to facilitate salt sensitivity and nondipper rhythm of blood pressure (BP), and that angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) could increase daytime urinary sodium excretion rate (UNaV) to produce lower sodium balance and restore nondipper rhythm. However, the sympathetic nervous system and intrarenal dopaminergic system can also contribute to renal sodium handling. A total of 20 patients with chronic kidney disease (61 ± 15 years) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring before and during two-day treatment with ARB, azilsartan...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570976/assessing-climate-change-impacts-on-fresh-water-resources-of-the-athabasca-river-basin-canada
#20
Narayan Kumar Shrestha, Xinzhong Du, Junye Wang
Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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