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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434012/clinical-importance-of-somatostatin-receptor-2-sstr2-and-somatostatin-receptor-5-sstr5-expression-in-thyrotropin-producing-pituitary-adenoma-tshoma
#1
Benxia Yu, Zhongsheng Zhang, Hao Song, Yuchun Chi, Chunling Shi, Miao Xu
BACKGROUND Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Somatostatin analogs have proved to be effective for inhibiting pituitary hormones secretion, working via interactions with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Moreover, antiproliferative activity of somatostatin analog is now demonstrated in several studies. In the present study, we determined the relative predominance of SSTR2 and SSTR5 subtypes among the different types of adenomas, especially TSHoma, and investigated the relationship between efficacy of short-term octreotide (OCT) treatment and SSTR expression...
April 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433597/prediction-of-toxicity-of-zinc-and-nickel-mixtures-to-artemia-sp-at-various-salinities-from-additivity-to-antagonism
#2
Évila Pinheiro Damasceno, Lívia Pitombeira de Figuerêdo, Marcionília Fernandes Pimentel, Susana Loureiro, Letícia Veras Costa-Lotufo
Few studies have examined the toxicity of metal mixtures to marine organisms exposed to different salinities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute toxicity of zinc and nickel exposures singly and in combination to Artemia sp. under salinities of 10, 17, and 35 psu. The mixture concentrations were determined according to individual toxic units (TUs) to follow a fixed ratio design. Zinc was more toxic than nickel, and both their individual toxicities were higher at lower salinities. These changes in toxicity can be attributed to the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) rather than to metal speciation...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432904/optimising-multi-frame-adf-stem-for-high-precision-atomic-resolution-strain-mapping
#3
Lewys Jones, Sigurd Wenner, Magnus Nord, Per Harald Ninive, Ole Martin Løvvik, Randi Holmestad, Peter D Nellist
Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool to study crystal defects at the atomic scale but historically single slow-scanned frames have been plagued by low-frequency scanning-distortions prohibiting accurate strain mapping at atomic resolution. Recently, multi-frame acquisition approaches combined with post-processing have demonstrated significant improvements in strain precision, but the optimum number of frames to record has not been explored. Here we use a non-rigid image registration procedure before applying established strain mapping methods...
April 15, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#4
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427541/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-glycopyrrolate-formoterol-metered-dose-inhaler-using-novel-co-suspension%C3%A2-delivery-technology-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Nicola A Hanania, Donald P Tashkin, Edward M Kerwin, James F Donohue, Michael Denenberg, Denis E O'Donnell, Dean Quinn, Shahid Siddiqui, Chad Orevillo, Andrea Maes, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of a novel Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology glycopyrrolate (GP)/formoterol fumarate (FF) 18/9.6 μg fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler (GFF MDI) were investigated in a 28-week safety extension study (PINNACLE-3, NCT01970878) of two randomized controlled Phase III trials (PINNACLE-1 and -2; NCT01854645 and NCT01854658) in subjects with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Subjects completing 24 weeks' treatment with GFF MDI, GP MDI, FF MDI (all twice-daily) or open-label tiotropium 18 μg (once-daily) in PINNACLE-1 or -2 were randomly selected to continue treatment for 28 weeks...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427508/review-of-current-evidence-available-for-guiding-optimal-enoxaparin-prophylactic-dosing-strategies-in-obese-patients-actual-weight-based-vs-fixed
#6
REVIEW
Zikai He, Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball
BACKGROUND: The current debate over the optimal Enoxaparin prophylactic dosing strategies in obese patients centre around whether it should be based on the actual weight of the patient (i.e. weight-based), or at an artificially fixed amount, as it is the case in Australia (40mg daily). The vast majority of the evidence available today is laboratory-based, measuring serum Antifactor-Xa activities as a marker for physiological response. AIM: The aim of the parent study is to compare the clinical outcomes for obese patients who received fixed doses of enoxaparin compared to those who received weight-based doses within the licensed dosage recommendations...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427362/efficacy-of-budesonide-formoterol-maintenance-and-reliever-therapy-compared-with-higher-dose-budesonide-as-step-up-from-low-dose-inhaled-corticosteroid-treatment
#7
Christine R Jenkins, Göran Eriksson, Eric D Bateman, Helen K Reddel, Malcolm R Sears, Magnus Lindberg, Paul M O'Byrne
BACKGROUND: Asthma management may involve a step up in treatment when symptoms are not well controlled. We examined whether budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (MRT) is as effective as higher, fixed-dose budesonide plus as-needed terbutaline in patients requiring step-up from Step 2 treatment (low-dose inhaled corticosteroids), stratified by baseline reliever use. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis utilized data from three clinical trials of 6-12 months' duration...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424962/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-milciclib-in-combination-with-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-refractory-solid-tumors
#8
Sandrine Aspeslagh, Kunwar Shailubhai, Rastilav Bahleda, Anas Gazzah, Andréa Varga, Antoine Hollebecque, Christophe Massard, Anna Spreafico, Michele Reni, Jean-Charles Soria
BACKGROUND: This phase I trial evaluated the safety and tolerability of milciclib, an inhibitor of multiple cyclin-dependent kinases and tropomycin receptor kinase A, in combination with gemcitabine in patients with refractory solid tumors. DESIGN: Sixteen patients were enrolled and treated with milciclib at three dose levels (45 mg/m(2)/day, n = 3; 60 mg/m(2)/day, n = 3; and 80 mg/m(2)/day, n = 10) with a fixed dose of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2)/day). Milciclib was administered orally once daily for 7 days on/7 days off in a 4-week cycle, and gemcitabine was administered intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15 in a 4-week cycle...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422397/a-novel-radiation-protection-device-based-on-tungsten-functional-paper-for-application-in-interventional-radiology
#9
Hajime Monzen, Mikoto Tamura, Kohei Shimomura, Yuichi Onishi, Shinichi Nakayama, Takahiro Fujimoto, Kenji Matsumoto, Kohei Hanaoka, Takeshi Kamomae
Tungsten functional paper (TFP), which contains 80% tungsten by weight, has radiation-shielding properties. We investigated the use of TFP for the protection of operators during interventional or therapeutic angiography. The air kerma rate of scattered radiation from a simulated patient was measured, with and without TFP, using a water-equivalent phantom and fixed C-arm fluoroscopy. Measurements were taken at the level of the operator's eye, chest, waist, and knee, with a variable number of TFP sheets used for shielding...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420550/effect-of-a-moderate-caffeine-dose-on-endurance-cycle-performance-and-thermoregulation-during-prolonged-exercise-in-the-heat
#10
Ross E Beaumont, Lewis J James
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperature. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Eight healthy, recreationally active males (mean±SD; age: 22±1 years; body mass: 71.1±8.5kg; VO2peak: 55.9±5.8mLkg(-1)min(-1); Wmax: 318±37W) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419533/a-new-approach-for-radiosynoviorthesis-a-dose-optimized-planning-method-based-on-monte-carlo-simulation-and-synovial-measurement-using-3d-slicer-and-mri
#11
Mirta Bárbara Torres Berdeguez, Sylvia Thomas, Patricia Rafful, Tiago Arruda Sanchez, Susie Medeiros Oliveira Ramos, Marta Souza Albernaz, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Felix Mas Milian, Ademir Xavier da Silva
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been a growing interest in a methodology for dose planning in radiosynoviorthesis to substitute fixed activity. Clinical practice based on fixed activity frequently does not embrace radiopharmaceutical dose optimization in patients. The aim of this paper is to propose and discuss a dose planning methodology considering the radiological findings of interest obtained by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging combined with Monte Carlo simulation in radiosynoviorthesis treatment applied to hemophilic arthropathy...
April 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418881/aspirin-as-a-potential-modality-for-the-chemoprevention-of-breast-cancer-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies-from-857-831-participants
#12
Liming Lu, Leiyu Shi, Jingchun Zeng, Zehuai Wen
BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk have drawn inconsistent results. In addition, the threshold effect of different doses, frequencies and durations of aspirin use in preventing breast cancer have yet to be established. RESULTS: The search yielded 13 prospective cohort studies (N=857,831 participants) that reported an average of 7.6 cases/1,000 person-years of breast cancer during a follow-up period of from 4...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417535/rates-of-hypoglycaemia-are-lower-in-patients-treated-with-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-than-with-ideg-or-insulin-glargine-regardless-of-the-hypoglycaemia-definition-used
#13
P Norwood, R Chen, E Jaeckel, I Lingvay, H Jarlov, L Lehmann, S Heller
AIMS: The rates of hypoglycaemia reported in clinical trials are affected by the definitions of hypoglycaemia used. This post-hoc analysis took data from two trials comparing the once-daily, fixed ratio combination of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) with basal insulin regimens, and re-analysed these data using alternative hypoglycaemia definitions and stratified outcomes by dosing time and baseline characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analyses of the DUAL I (patients uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs) and DUAL V (patients uncontrolled on insulin glargine (IGlar) U100) trials were carried out using different definitions of hypoglycaemia and by whether treatments were administered in the AM or PM...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417463/pharmacological-interventions-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Saffioti, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Neil Hawkins, Clare D Toon, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Brian R Davidson, Douglas Thorburn
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, which can result in liver cirrhosis and its complications. The optimal pharmacological treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis by performing a network meta-analysis, and to generate rankings of available pharmacological interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417245/elbasvir-grazoprevir-a-review-in-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1-and-4
#15
Zaina T Al-Salama, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination tablet comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor elbasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (elbasvir/grazoprevir; Zepatier™) was recently approved for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection in the EU and the USA. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin...
April 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415046/cost-benefit-effectiveness-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-uncomplicated-hypertension-a-comparative-analysis
#16
Alberto Mazza, Antonella Paola Sacco, Danyelle M Townsend, Gianni Bregola, Edgardo Contatto, Isabella Cappello, Laura Schiavon, Emilio Ramazzina, Domenico Rubello
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of hypertensive patients (HTs) requires a long-term commitment of compliance for the patient and resources by the healthcare system. This poses an economic dilemma in countries where universal healthcare is standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs/health benefit and effectiveness of treatment with angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) in uncomplicated essential hypertension. DESIGN AND METHODS: The daily and annual economic commitment for treating patients with ARBs was estimated using pharmacy dispensing records and the BP-lowering effects of candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan and valsartan was evaluated retrospectively...
April 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414987/effects-of-different-radiation-doses-on-the-microhardness-superficial-morphology-and-mineral-components-of-human-enamel
#17
Sandra Ribeiro de Barros da Cunha, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Pedro Augusto Minorin Mendes Ramos, Cecília Maria Kalil Haddad, Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani, Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of three different radiotherapy doses (20, 40, and 70Gy) on the microhardness, superficial morphology, and mineral content (based on Ca and P values) of three different depths of human enamel (cervical, middle, and occlusal). DESIGN: Thirty-four third molars were cut, separated, and prepared. Microhardness samples (n=30) were embedded in acrylic resin and then polished, and depths were delimited. Microhardness tests were performed on cervical, middle, and occlusal enamel pre- and post-radiotherapy with a load of 50g for 30s...
April 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413969/optimizing-the-management-of-uncontrolled-hypertension-what-do-triple-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-add
#18
Costas Thomopoulos, Georgios Katsimagklis, Stefanos Archontakis, Georgios Skalis, Thomas Makris
Fixed-dose triple drug combinations represent one of the latest innovations of pharmacotherapy for hypertension (HT). They combine a traditional renin-angiotensin system blocker, a diuretic and a calcium channel blocker. The main benefit is the simplification of treatment regimen because 3 different agents are combined at different doses in a single pill. Improving adherence to treatment partly explains why this kind of combination may effectively reduce blood pressure (BP). BP lowering by a single-pill triple-drug combination can be approximately predicted, by using appropriate formulas described in previous meta-analysis of randomized trials...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413680/seven-day-capecitabine-plus-docetaxel-and-oxaliplatin-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-a-phase-i-clinical-trial
#19
Rong Liang, Yan Lin, Yongqiang Li, Qian Li, Chunling Yuan, Xiaoli Liao, Sina Liao, Jinyan Zhang, Zhihui Liu
Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF regimen) are currently applied as an effective combination treatment for various human malignancies; however, the efficacy of this regimen is impaired by severe adverse events associated with it. Therefore, better-tolerated regimens with comparable efficiency are required for patients with gastric cancer. To explore such possibilities, a phase-I clinical trial was performed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of a modified regimen replacing cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with oxaliplatin and capecitabine, respectively (DOX program)...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410809/a-randomized-phase-ii-trial-of-concurrent-chemoradiation-with-two-doses-of-radiotherapy-60gy-and-66gy-concomitant-with-a-fixed-dose-of-oral-vinorelbine-in-locally-advanced-nsclc
#20
Olfred Hansen, Marianne M Knap, Azza Khalil, Christa H Nyhus, Tine McCulloch, Bente Holm, Carsten Brink, Lone Hoffmann, Tine Schytte
INTRODUCTION: In order to test the best performing radiation dose with a convenient chemotherapy schedule of an oral formulation of radio-sensitizing vinorelbine in inoperable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a randomized phase II trial based on a "pick the winner" design. METHODS: After 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 117 patients with NSCLC stage IIB-IIIB in performance status 0-1 were randomized to radiotherapy 60Gy/30 fractions or 66Gy/33 fractions concurrent with a fixed dose of oral vinorelbine 50mg administered 3 times weekly...
April 11, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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