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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726679/accuracy-of-rhenium-188-spect-ct-activity-quantification-for-applications-in-radionuclide-therapy-using-clinical-reconstruction-methods
#1
Pedro L Esquinas, Carlos F Uribe, M Gonzalez, Cristina Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Urs O Häfeli, Anna Celler
The main applications of (188)Re in radionuclide therapies include trans-arterial liver radioembolization and palliation of painful bone-metastases. In order to optimize (188)Re therapies, the accurate determination of radiation dose delivered to tumors and organs at risk is required. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to perform such dosimetry calculations. However, the accuracy of dosimetry estimates strongly depends on the accuracy of activity quantification in (188)Re images...
July 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725321/effect-of-switching-from-an-anti-diabetic-loose-dose-combination-to-a-fixed-dose-combination-regimen-at-equivalent-dosage-for-6-months-on-glycemic-control-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#2
Kazutaka Aoki, Mieko Nagakura, Masataka Taguri, Hiroshi Kamiyama, Makoto Masumura, Tadashi Furuie, Masanao Oka, Kazunari Kamiko, Shigeru Nakajima, Noriko Akema, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often take multiple anti-diabetic drugs for a long period. Fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy is expected to improve drug adherence for patients with diabetes. The effect of switching from a loose dose combination (LDC) regimen to an FDC regimen at equivalent dosage on glycemic control has not been evaluated fully. Therefore, we investigated the effect of switching from LDC to FDC at equivalent dosage for 6 months on glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724644/the-effect-of-magnesium-supplementation-on-blood-pressure-in-individuals-with-insulin-resistance-prediabetes-or-noncommunicable-chronic-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Daniel T Dibaba, Pengcheng Xun, Yiqing Song, Andrea Rosanoff, Michael Shechter, Ka He
Background: To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases has not been previously investigated in a meta-analysis, and the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent.Objective: We sought to determine the pooled effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in participants with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases.Design: We identified RCTs that were published in English before May 2017 that examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, clinicaltrials...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724002/challenges-in-a-product-development-partnership-a-malaria-treatment-case-study
#4
Vera Lucia Luiza, Gabriela Costa Chaves, Tayná Marques Torres Barboza, Luciana de Paula Barros Gonçalves, Eric G Stobbaerts
This paper examines the development of a treatment - a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and mefloquine - in Brazil, from three points of view: in terms of access to medication; to record and report successes; and to look at the lessons learned. This product development took place in the ambit of a public-private partnership. Semi-structured interviews were held with key actors involved in the different phases of the development, and documents were analyzed. Two important points of reference orienting the design of the study and analysis were: a logical model for access to medication; and evaluation of programs...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723715/novel-weight-based-dose-threshold-for-18f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-using-advanced-pet-ct-systems-a-potential-tool-for-reducing-radiation-burden
#5
Fahad Marafi, Abdulreda Esmail, Rashid Rasheed, Fareeda Alkandari, Sharjeel Usmani
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is an important tool for detecting and evaluating metastatic bone cancer. Besides traditional dose metrics, recent methods such as real-time dose mapping, dose calculation from DICOM information, and their relevance to entrance skin exposure are currently in use to reduce the radiation burden. In this study, we have analyzed the data of 1062 patients retrospectively to evaluate patterns of absorbed dose for institutional weight-based dose protocol as compared with fixed dose method guidelines of Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)...
July 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#6
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722356/hansen-solubility-parameters-for-assay-method-optimization-of-simvastatin-ramipril-atenolol-hydrochlorothiazide-and-aspirin-in-human-plasma-using-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Murali Mohan Reddy Devalapalli, Hanumanth Srikanth Cheruvu, Thejaswi Yertha, Vijaya Bhaskar Veeravalli, Sunitha Sampathi, Savithri Shivakumar
A simple, specific, sensitive validated method was developed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization of human plasma for the simultaneous estimation of drugs (simvastatin, ramipril, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and aspirin) of Polycap(TM) capsule used in cardiovascular therapy. The interaction of these actives including internal standards between the stationary and mobile phase were investigated using Hansen solubility parameters. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Synergi Polar-RP (30 × 2 mm, 4 μm) column with a gradient mobile phase composition of acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate for positive mode and 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720415/assessment-of-cirrhotic-liver-enhancement-with-multiphasic-computed-tomography-using-a-faster-injection-rate-late-arterial-phase-and-weight-based-contrast-dosing
#9
Kathleen Eddy, Andreu F Costa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to update our liver computed tomography (CT) protocol according to published guidelines, and to quantitatively evaluate the effect of these modifications. METHODS: The modified liver CT protocol employed a faster injection rate (5 vs 3 mL/s), later arterial phase (20-second vs 10-second postbolus trigger), and weight-based dosing of iodinated contrast (1.7 mL/kg vs 100 mL fixed dose). Liver and vascular attenuation values were measured on CTs of patients with cirrhosis from January to September 2015 (old protocol, n = 49) and from October to December 2015 (modified protocol, n = 31)...
July 15, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720336/baseline-symptom-score-impact-on-benefits-of-glycopyrrolate-formoterol-mdi-in-copd
#10
Fernando J Martinez, Leonardo M Fabbri, Gary T Ferguson, Chad Orevillo, Patrick Darken, Ubaldo J Martin, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinical severity is presently categorized by symptom burden and exacerbation risk. Previous 24-week Phase III trials (NCT01854645 and NCT01854658) that demonstrated better improvement of lung function with GFF MDI, a metered dose inhaler fixed-dose combination of glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate 18/9.6 μg, over individual monocomponent MDIs included a cross-section of patients with moderate-to-very severe airflow limitation and a broad range of COPD symptoms...
July 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720173/simultaneous-determination-of-first-line-4-fdc-antituberculosis-drugs-by-uhplc-uv-and-hplc-uv-a-comparative-study
#11
Pedro H C Franco, Paula R Chellini, Marcone A L Oliveira, Gerson A Pianetti
Tuberculosis is the second most deadly infectious disease, surpassed only by HIV/AIDS, and has resulted in over 1 billion deaths in the last 200 years. The World Health Organization estimates that in 2014, 9.6 million people were infected by this disease and 1.5 million had died. First-choice treatment consists of fixed-dose combination tablets containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol hydrochloride (4-FDC). There are pharmacopeial protocols available to test 4-FDC, but they are prolonged, two-step methods...
July 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720132/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-switch-to-indacaterol-glycopyrronium-in-patients-with-moderate-copd-the-crystal-open-label-randomised-trial
#12
Claus F Vogelmeier, Mina Gaga, Maryam Aalamian-Mattheis, Timm Greulich, Jose M Marin, Walter Castellani, Vincent Ninane, Stephen Lane, Xavier Nunez, Francesco Patalano, Andreas Clemens, Konstantinos Kostikas
BACKGROUND: Dual bronchodilation combining a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is the preferred choice of treatment recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 guidelines for the management of patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The once-daily (q.d.) fixed-dose combination (FDC) of LABA, indacaterol 110 μg and LAMA, glycopyrronium 50 μg (IND/GLY 110/50 μg q...
July 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719222/how-drug-life-cycle-management-patent-strategies-may-impact-formulary-management
#13
Jan Berger, Jeffrey D Dunn, Margaret M Johnson, Kurt R Karst, W Chad Shear
Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers...
October 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716723/pharmacological-characterization-of-the-interaction-between-umeclidinium-and-vilanterol-in-human-bronchi
#14
Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Francesco Facciolo, Erino Rendina, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera
The long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) / long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy represents the cornerstone for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, conflicting clinical findings still exist on the real benefit of the LABA/LAMA FDCs. Therefore, we investigated whether combining the LABA vilanterol with the LAMA umeclidinium may induce synergistic bronchorelaxant effect in isolated airways. The effect of umeclidinium and vilanterol, administered alone, in combination at the ratio of concentrations reproducing the doses delivered by Anoro(®) Ellipta(®) (55:22), or at isoeffective low concentrations, was investigated on the cholinergic contractile tone induced by the parasympathetic activation of human isolated airways...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716543/a-novel-method-for-ct-dosimetry-with-a-suspended-phantom-setup
#15
Mariaconcetta Longo, Elisabetta Genovese, Chiara Orlandi, Salvatore Donatiello, Bartolomeo Cassano, Mauro Colajacomo, Andrea Magistrelli, Paolo Tomà, Vittorio Cannatà
PURPOSE: This work presents a method for estimating CT dosimetric indices with a prototype designed for suspending the phantom/ion chamber system fixed at the CT isocenter. The purpose of this study was to validate the proposed methodology, which can be used to provide a direct assessment of dosimetric indices in helical scans. METHODS: The method is based on a reference setup in which the measuring system for CT dosimetry is in a stationary configuration, i.e. not bound to the CT table, and on a mathematical formalism developed for the proposed reference system...
July 14, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714462/a-hybrid-phantom-monte-carlo-based-method-for-historical-reconstruction-of-organ-doses-in-patients-treated-with-cobalt-60-for-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#16
Heather Petroccia, Nancy Mendenhall, Chihray Liu, Clifford Hammer, Wesley Culberson, Tim Thar, Tom Mitchell, Zuofeng Li, Wesley Bolch
Historical radiotherapy treatment plans lack 3D images sets required for estimating mean organ doses to patients. Alternatively, Monte Carlo-based models of radiotherapy devices coupled with whole-body computational phantoms can permit estimates of historical in-field and out-of-field organ doses as needed for studies associating radiation exposure and late tissue toxicities. In recreating historical patient treatments with (60)Co based systems, the major components to be modeled include the source capsule, surrounding shielding layers, collimators (both fixed and adjustable), and trimmers as needed to vary field size...
July 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714372/risk-of-severe-pulmonary-embolism-in-cancer-patients-receiving-bevacizumab-results-from-a-meta-analysis-of-published-and-unpublished-data
#17
Meidan Liu, Yayuan Zheng, Zuguang Chen, Yumiao Qiu, Zhanchun Pan, Zitao Cai, Yapeng Shi, Junfen Cheng, Weimin Yao
To evaluate the association between severe pulmonary embolism events and bevacizumab, we conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating the incidence and risk of pulmonary embolism associated with bevacizumab-based therapy. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to September 2016 for randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab with no bevacizumab on cancer patients. Incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713563/recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-the-era-of-the-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Weitz, Iqbal H Jaffer, James C Fredenburgh
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have now supplanted vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The DOACs include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. The DOACs are as effective for the prevention of recurrence as conventional VTE treatment, consisting of a parenteral anticoagulant followed by a VKA, and are associated with less bleeding. Because of these properties and the convenience of fixed dosing without the need for routine coagulation monitoring, guidelines now recommend DOACs over VKAs for VTE treatment in patients without active cancer...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711186/megavoltage-2d-topographic-imaging-an-attractive-alternative-to-megavoltage-ct-for-the-localization-of-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-tomodirect
#19
Philippe Meyer, Fabien Le Pennec, Susanta K Hui, Nicolas Dehaynin, Delphine Jarnet, Matthieu Gantier, Claudine Niederst, Christophe Mazzara, Etienne Baudrier, Vincent Noblet
PURPOSE: To show the usefulness of topographic 2D megavoltage images (MV2D) for the localization of breast cancer patients treated with TomoDirect (TD), a radiotherapy treatment technique with fixed-angle beams performed on a TomoTherapy system. METHODS: A method was developed to quickly localize breast cancer patients treated with TD by registering the MV2D images produced before a TD treatment with reference images reconstructed from a kilovoltage CT simulation scanner and by using the projection of the beam-eye-view TD treatment field...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710980/association-of-individual-level-concentrations-and-human-respiratory-tract-deposited-doses-of-fine-particulate-matter-with-alternation-in-blood-pressure
#20
Wenjun Yin, Jian Hou, Tian Xu, Juan Cheng, Xiaoying Wang, Shilin Jiao, Lin Wang, Cheng Huang, Youjian Zhang, Jing Yuan
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) contributes to the risk of cardiovascular events, partially owing to its deposition in the human respiratory tract. To investigate short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure on alternation of blood pressure (BP), this study was conducted during the winter-summer period between 2014 and 2015. The study included 106 community residents in Wuhan city, China. We repeatedly monitored the household and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations as well as individual-level PM2.5 in each season, and then assessed personal PM2...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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