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Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Jessica de Mattos Costa, Thiago Silva Torres, Lara Esteves Coelho, Paula Mendes Luz
INTRODUCTION: Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy is closely related with suppression of the HIV viral load in plasma, slowing disease progression and decreasing HIV transmission rates. Despite its importance, the estimated proportion of people living with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean with optimal adherence has not yet been reported in a meta-analysis. Moreover, little is known of the factors leading to poor adherence which may be setting-specific. We present a pooled estimate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of people living with HIV in Latin America and Caribbean, report the methods used to measure adherence and describe the factors associated with poor adherence among the selected studies...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
V Brown, E J Tan, A J Hayes, S Petrou, M L Moodie
Rigorous estimates of preference-based utilities are important inputs into economic evaluations of childhood obesity interventions, yet no published review currently exists examining utility by weight status in paediatric populations. A comprehensive systematic literature review and meta-analysis was therefore undertaken, pooling data on preference-based health state utilities by weight status in children using a random-effects model. Tests for heterogeneity were performed, and publication bias was assessed...
January 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sofia Persson, Yael Benn, Katie Dhingra, David Clark-Carter, Alison L Owen, Sarah Grogan
PURPOSE: As a majority of skin cancer cases are behaviourally preventable, it is crucial to develop effective strategies to reduce UV exposure. Health-focused interventions have not proved to be sufficiently effective, and it has been suggested that people might be more susceptible to information about the negative effects of the sun on their appearance. METHOD: This systematic review of 30 separate papers, reporting 33 individual studies published between 2005 and 2017, assesses the overall effectiveness of appearance interventions on participants' UV exposure and sun protection behaviour...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Cláudia C Dias, Bárbara Figueiredo, Magda Rocha, Tiffany Field
This paper is a systematic review on the reference values and changes in infant sleep-wake behaviour during the first 12 months of life. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Seventy-four papers were included, and the reference values and changes in sleep-wake behaviour during the first 12 months of life were identified. Sleep duration during the 24-h period, and day and sleep periods during the night decreased over the first 12 months of life...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Mark A Prince, Matthew R Pearson, Adrian J Bravo, Kevin S Montes
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to quantify the relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in both college student and clinical samples. METHODS: We gathered 33 college student datasets comprising of 15,618 participants and nine clinical sample datasets comprising of 4,527 participants to determine the effect size of the relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. We used random-effects meta-analytic techniques, separately in college and clinical samples, to account for a distribution of true effects and to assess for heterogeneity in effect sizes...
January 22, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Marco A Mascarella, Erin Mannard, Sabrina Daniela Silva Wurzba, Anthony Zeitouni
BACKGROUND: Hematologic markers, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), characterize the inflammatory response to cancer and are associated with poorer survival in various malignancies. We evaluate the effect of pretreatment NLR on overall survival (OS) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Using multiple databases, a systematic search for articles evaluating the effect of NLR on OS in patients with HNSCC was performed...
January 22, 2018: Head & Neck
Behzad Karami Matin, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Bijan Nouri, Shahab Rezaeian, Masoud Mohammadi, Satar Rezaei
AIMS: To estimate the 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and the reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses working in hospitals in Iran. BACKGROUND: Medication errors are one of the main factors affecting the quality of hospital services and reducing patient safety in health care systems. METHOD: A literature search from Iranian and international scientific databases was developed to find relevant studies. Meta-regression was used to identify which characteristics may have a confounding effect on the pooled prevalence estimates...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Y H Lee, G G Song
BACKGROUND: Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Adipokines are synthesized in adipose tissue, and have been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including BD. AIM: To evaluate the relationship between circulating blood adipokine levels and BD. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of papers reporting on serum/plasma resistin, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin levels in patients with BD and in healthy controls (HCs)...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Paul G Mullins
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate neurochemistry and physiology in vivo. Recently researchers have started to use MRS to measure neurotransmitter changes related to neural activity, so called functional MRS (fMRS). Particular interest has been placed on measuring glutamate changes associated with neural function, but differences are reported in the size of changes seen. This review discusses fMRS, and includes meta-analyses of the relative size of glutamate changes seen in fMRS, and the impact experimental design and stimulus paradigm may have...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Peter M Vila, Neel K Bhatt, Randal C Paniello
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether injection laryngoplasty within 6 months following the onset of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) decreases the rate of permanent thyroplasty in adults. DATA SOURCES: Search strategies created by a medical librarian were implemented in multiple online research databases. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to capture randomized clinical trials and cohort studies examining adults with UVFP who received injection laryngoplasty early in the course of treatment, within 6 months of onset, or who were observed...
January 22, 2018: Laryngoscope
Barbara Buchberger, Laura Krabbe
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a non-pharmacological option to relieve pregnancy-related complaints. OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise the best available evidence for the use of acupuncture in outpatient care. SEARCH STRATEGY: The MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched for English-language and German-language papers published from January 1980 to March 2017 using search terms related to pregnancy combined with 'acupuncture'...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) is a predictor of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, as well as in patients with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the influence of HR on cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases was searched for large follow-up studies or meta-analysis published between January 1990 and September 2017 in the English language using the following keyword "heart rate", "resting heart rate", "mortality", "outcome", "hypertension", "heart failure", "ischemic heart disease", "coronary heart disease", "stroke"...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Michael D Jenkinson, Damiano Giuseppe Barone, Andrew Bryant, Luke Vale, Helen Bulbeck, Theresa A Lawrie, Michael G Hart, Colin Watts
BACKGROUND: Extent of resection is considered to be a prognostic factor in neuro-oncology. Intraoperative imaging technologies are designed to help achieve this goal. It is not clear whether any of these sometimes very expensive tools (or their combination) should be recommended as standard care for people with brain tumours. We set out to determine if intraoperative imaging technology offers any advantage in terms of extent of resection over standard surgery and if any one technology was more effective than another...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Henk S Temmingh, Taryn Williams, Nandi Siegfried, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of people with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have co-occurring substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis can have an adverse effect on treatment and prognosis of SMI. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared to treatment with other antipsychotics (first-generation and other second-generation antipsychotics) used in people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance misuse...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Francois Dos Santos, Jahnavi Daru, Ewelina Rogozińska, Natalie A M Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Fetal fibronectin (fFN) is a validated test for assessing risk of preterm birth for women presenting with symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of fFN to detect the risk of preterm birth in asymptomatic women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches were conducted to identify studies where fFN was performed in asymptomatic women beyond 22 weeks' gestation. EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINHAL, AMED and BNI were searched between 2005 and 2017. Studies before 2005 were identified from a published systematic review...
January 21, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Paul M Foreman, Thomas J Buell, Natasha Ironside, Davis G Taylor, M Yashar Kalani, Min S Park, Andrew M Southerland, Bradford B Worrall
OBJECTIVE: Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) is the standard of care for eligible patients presenting with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the outcomes between patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA) versus conscious sedation (CS) for these procedures. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify studies reporting the EMT outcomes of AIS patients who underwent GA or CS for the procedure...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nikhil R Nayak, Matthew Piazza, Andrew Milby, Jayesh P Thawani, Lachlan J Smith, Sherman C Stein, Neil R Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) often leads to cervical myelopathy. While multiple procedures have been shown to be effective in the treatment of OPLL, outcomes are less predictable than in degenerative cervical myelopathy and surgery is associated with high rates of complications and re-operation which affect quality of life. In this study, we perform a decision analysis utilizing post-operative complication data and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) utility scores to assess the average expected health utility and 5-year quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with the most common surgical approaches for multilevel cervical OPLL...
January 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
P Govier, J M Coulson
INTRODUCTION: Halogen pulmonary irritants (HPIs) are volatile liquids that directly damage the respiratory mucosa. Chlorine is readily available in large volumes as an industrial chemical and has a significant potential for accidental or deliberate release. We conducted a systematic review to determine the clinical features; treatment and long-term sequelae of civilian chlorine gas exposure. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology...
January 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
John W Loggie, Shawn R Garner, Charlyn G Partridge, Brian Dixon, Rosemary Knapp, Bryan D Neff
The immunosuppressive effects of androgens are a key component of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH). Here, we use bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test two predictions arising from this hypothesis: (1) natural circulating concentrations of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) will be negatively related with measures of immunity, and (2) immune stimulation will lower circulating 11-KT concentration. We found no evidence for a relationship between natural circulating 11-KT concentration and measures of immunity (lymphocyte and granulocyte counts, respiratory burst, cytokine mRNA levels), and an immune stimulation with Vibrio vaccine did not affect circulating 11-KT concentration...
January 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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