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american cockroach

Giuseppe Dionisio, Per Kryger, Tove Steenberg
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes...
October 14, 2016: Insects
Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger, Katharina Neumaier, Timo Wille, Horst Thiermann
The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals...
September 14, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Kara A Tinker, Elizabeth A Ottesen
: The omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana hosts a diverse hindgut microbiota encompassing hundreds of microbial species. In this study, we use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the effect of diet on the composition of the P. americana hindgut microbial community. Results show that the hindgut microbiota of P. americana exhibits a highly stable core microbial community with low variance in composition between individuals and minimal community change in response to dietary shifts...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Vincent L Salgado
Two α-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtypes in neurons of the American cockroach have been identified as desensitizing (nAChD) and selectively inhibitable with 100nM imidacloprid, and non-desensitizing (nAChN) and selectively inhibitable with 100pM methyllycaconitine. In this paper, the single-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure concentration-response relations for the action of ACh and five antagonists on pharmacologically separated nAChD and nAChN receptors of acutely dissociated neurons from thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
A C Gutierrez, J A R Machado, R Hubner-Campos, M A Pennisi, J Rodrigues, C C López Lástra, J J García, É K K Fernandes, C Luz
AIMS: To study the marked resistance of Periplaneta americana to entomopathogenic Metarhizium anisopliae. METHODS AND RESULTS: The low susceptibility of 4th instar nymphs applied topically with conidia seemed to be related to an active removal of conidia by the cockroach and to a disabled or retarded germination and subsequent development of conidia on the cuticle (up to 80% germination in the next 7 days after application). Inhibitions or delays of germination were related to the composition of the epicuticular fatty acids (30·1% w/w oleic, 28·3% w/w linoleic, 24·5% w/w palmitic and 11·7% w/w stearic acid) reported here...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yoshitaka Hamanaka, Run Minoura, Hiroshi Nishino, Toru Miura, Makoto Mizunami
The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine's actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons...
2016: PloS One
Eoin Parle, Hannah Larmon, David Taylor
Insects are among the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Their cuticle exoskeletons vary greatly in terms of size and shape, and are subjected to different applied forces during daily activities. We investigated the biomechanics of the tibiae of three different insect species: the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Death's Head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis). In a previous work, we showed that these tibiae vary not only in geometry (length, radius and thickness) but also in material quality (Young's modulus) and in the applied stress required to cause failure when loaded in bending...
2016: PloS One
Norma Alicea-Alvarez, Carlo Foppiano Palacios, Melanie Ortiz, Diana Huang, Kathleen Reeves
OBJECTIVE: Minority children with asthma who live in low-income urban communities bear a disproportionate burden of the disease. This study explores the perceived health care needs related to asthma care, identifies asthma triggers, potential barriers to care, and assesses the need for additional community resources. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Hispanic and African American adults (n = 53) who take care of a child with asthma and live in an urban community of North Philadelphia...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Volker Herzig, Maria Ikonomopoulou, Jennifer J Smith, Sławomir Dziemborowicz, John Gilchrist, Lucia Kuhn-Nentwig, Fernanda Oliveira Rezende, Luciano Andrade Moreira, Graham M Nicholson, Frank Bosmans, Glenn F King
The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Chaweewan Sripramong, Chaweewan Bunnag, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) are approved for evaluation of allergen sensitization. Local allergen extracts are less expensive and more available but need to be standardized. OBJECTIVE: To compare SPT results of local and imported allergen extracts and sIgE levels in response to the American cockroach, dog, cat, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and Cladosporium spp. allergens. METHOD: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, self-controlled study was performed in respiratory allergic volunteers...
June 30, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Anna B Fishbein, Todd A Lee, Miao Cai, Sam S Oh, Celeste Eng, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Harold J Farber, Denise Serebrisky, Jonathan Silverberg, L Keoki Williams, Max A Seibold, Saunak Sen, Luisa N Borrell, Pedro Avila, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Esteban G Burchard, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Pest allergen sensitization is associated with asthma morbidity in urban youth but minimally explored in Latino populations. Specifically, the effect of mouse sensitization on the risk of asthma exacerbation has been unexplored in Latino subgroups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether pest allergen sensitization is a predictor of asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control in urban minority children with asthma. METHODS: Latino and African American children (8-21 years old) with asthma were recruited from 4 sites across the United States...
July 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Paul A Ayayee, Thomas Larsen, Zakee Sabree
Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA...
2016: PeerJ
In-Woo Kim, Joon Ha Lee, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Eun-Young Yun, Iksoo Kim, Junhyung Park, Jae Sam Hwang
Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides...
2016: PloS One
Thomas R Lemonds, Jin Liu, Aleksandar Popadić
The most prominent colors observed in insects are black or brown, whose production is attributed to the melanin pathway. At present, though, the contribution of this pathway to overall body pigmentation throughout ontogenesis is still lacking. To address this question we examined the roles of 2 key melanin genes (TH and DDC), in embryonic and postembryonic development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Our results show that the melanin pathway does not contribute to the light brown coloration observed in the first nymphs...
August 2016: Insect Science
Sota Ozawa, Jans Morffe, Cláudia S L Vicente, Kenji Ikeda, Ryoji Shinya, Koichi Hasegawa
The American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) has been spreading worldwide by commerce and has successfully adjusted to living with humans. There are many reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematode isolated from P. americana in many countries including USA, Canada, India, Argentina, Bulgaria, but not in Japan. We have investigated the parasitic nematodes in P. americana lab strain and field-captured individuals in Japan and found that Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasitizes with high infection rates...
March 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Gerd Gäde, Petr Šimek, Heather G Marco
A species of the poorly studied order Embioptera, the webspinner Oligotoma saundersii, is investigated for its complement of neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family. A methanolic extract of its corpora cardiaca (CC) is able to effect carbohydrate mobilization in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry clearly identified one decapeptide as a member of the AKH family in the CC of O. saundersii. The primary structure of this peptide, code-named Olisa-AKH, is elucidated as pEVNFSPNWGG amide...
July 2016: Amino Acids
Sirvan Sayyad, Ahmad Vahabi, Boshra Vahabi, Mahnaz Sayyadi, Shahnaz Haji Sahne
INTRODUCTION: American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. GOAL: The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. METHODS: The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013...
February 2016: Materia Socio-medica
Yanli Che, Dong Wang, Yan Shi, Xiaohong Du, Yongquan Zhao, Nathan Lo, Zongqing Wang
Cryptocercus is a genus of sub-social wood-feeding cockroaches that represents the sister group to the eusocial termites. We generated mitochondrial (12S+16S rRNA, COII), nuclear (28S rRNA) and Blattbacterium endosymbiont (16S+23S rRNA) sequence data for 8 new Chinese species, and combined these with previously available data to undertake the most extensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the genus to date. As expected, phylogenetic relationships among Blattabacterium strains were found to be congruent with those of their hosts...
May 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Eoin Parle, Simona Herbaj, Fiona Sheils, Hannah Larmon, David Taylor
Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods...
February 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sebastian Sturm, Divya Ramesh, Axel Brockmann, Susanne Neupert, Reinhard Predel
UNLABELLED: We investigated the peptide inventory of the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, by direct tissue profiling using MALDI-TOF MS combined with proteomic approaches focusing on cysteine-containing peptides. An agatoxin-like peptide (ALP) was identified as a component of the glandular part of the CC and was associated with the presence of the adipokinetic hormone in mass spectra. Although abundant in the CC, ALP does not belong to the toxins observed in the venom gland of A...
January 30, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
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