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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378263/improved-automatic-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-mri-based-on-multilevel-lesion-features
#1
M Rincón, E Díaz-López, P Selnes, K Vegge, M Altmann, T Fladby, A Bjørnerud
Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are linked to increased risk of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases among the elderly. Consequently, detection and characterization of WMHs are of significant clinical importance. We propose a novel approach for WMH segmentation from multi-contrast MRI where both voxel-based and lesion-based information are used to improve overall performance in both volume-oriented and object-oriented metrics. Our segmentation method (AMOS-2D) consists of four stages following a "generate-and-test" approach: pre-processing, Gaussian white matter (WM) modelling, hierarchical multi-threshold WMH segmentation and object-based WMH filtering using support vector machines...
April 4, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325448/diagnosis-of-autism-through-eeg-processed-by-advanced-computational-algorithms-a-pilot-study
#2
Enzo Grossi, Chiara Olivieri, Massimo Buscema
BACKGROUND: Multi-Scale Ranked Organizing Map coupled with Implicit Function as Squashing Time algorithm(MS-ROM/I-FAST) is a new, complex system based on Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) able to extract features of interest in computerized EEG through the analysis of few minutes of their EEG without any preliminary pre-processing. A proof of concept study previously published showed accuracy values ranging from 94%-98% in discerning subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or Alzheimer's Disease from healthy elderly people...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286988/exercise-and-nutritional-approaches-to-prevent-frail-bones-falls-and-fractures-an-update
#3
REVIEW
R M Daly
Osteoporosis (low bone strength) and sarcopenia (low muscle mass, strength and/or impaired function) often co-exist (hence the term 'sarco-osteoporosis') and have similar health consequences with regard to disability, falls, frailty and fractures. Exercise and adequate nutrition, particularly with regard to vitamin D, calcium and protein, are key lifestyle approaches that can simultaneously optimize bone, muscle and functional outcomes in older people, if they are individually tailored and appropriately prescribed in terms of the type and dose...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215381/intervention-effects-on-latinas-physical-activity-and-other-health-indicators
#4
Guadalupe X Ayala, Marisa Molina, Hala Madanat, Jeanne F Nichols, Thomas L McKenzie, Ming Ji, Margarita Holguin, Lisa Cuestas, Caryn Sumek, Carolina Labarca, Sandra Elvira, Elva M Arredondo, John P Elder
INTRODUCTION: U.S. Latinas do not engage in sufficient leisure-time physical activity. This study examined whether adding promotor-facilitated healthy lifestyle classes to an exercise intervention would promote exercise session attendance and improve health indicators. METHODS: The Familias Sanas y Activas II (Healthy and Active Families II) study used a within-subjects, longitudinal design, with measures at baseline and at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. The intervention was developed by the San Diego Prevention Research Center and implemented between May 2011 and June 2014 in South San Diego County...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205203/effects-of-different-types-of-exercise-on-body-composition-muscle-strength-and-igf-1-in-the-elderly-with-sarcopenic-obesity
#5
Hung-Ting Chen, Yu-Chun Chung, Yu-Jen Chen, Sung-Yen Ho, Huey-June Wu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT), or combination training (CT) interventions on the body composition, muscle strength performance, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of patients with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Community center and research center. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty men and women aged 65-75 with sarcopenic obesity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174474/effects-of-modified-pilates-on-variability-of-inter-joint-coordination-during-walking-in-the-elderly
#6
Sukhoon Yoon, Joo Nyeon Kim, Hee Sung Lim
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of an 8-week modified Pilates program on the variability of inter-joint coordination in the elderly during walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly participants with no recent history of orthopedic abnormalities (age, 67.9 ± 2.7 years; height, 163.7 ± 8.9 cm; weight, 67.1 ± 11.6 kg) were recruited for this study and randomly allocated to a modified Pilates exercise group or a control group. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed on both groups to evaluate the effects of the Pilates exercise...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168080/the-femoral-neck-mechanoresponse-to-hip-extensors-exercise-a-case-study
#7
Saulo Martelli, Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Peter Pivonka, Peter R Ebeling
Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg...
2017: Journal of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154088/a-concise-revised-myeloma-comorbidity-index-as-a-valid-prognostic-instrument-in-a-large-cohort-of-801-multiple-myeloma-patients
#8
Monika Engelhardt, Anne-Saskia Domm, Sandra Maria Dold, Gabriele Ihorst, Heike Reinhardt, Alexander Zober, Stefanie Hieke, Corine Baayen, Stefan Jürgen Müller, Hermann Einsele, Pieter Sonneveld, Ola Landgren, Martin Schumacher, Ralph Wäsch
With growing numbers of elderly multiple myeloma patients, reliable tools to assess their vulnerability are required. The objective of this analysis was to develop and validate an easy to use myeloma-risk-score (revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index) that allows risk prediction of OS and PFS differences in a large patient cohort. We conducted a geriatric assessment in 801 consecutive myeloma patients, including comorbidity risks obtained at diagnosis. The cohort was examined within a training and validation set...
February 2, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132187/combining-a-patch-based-approach-with-a-non-rigid-registration-based-label-fusion-method-for-the-hippocampal-segmentation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Carlos Platero, M Carmen Tobar
We provide and evaluate an open-source software solution for automatically hippocampal segmentation from T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method is applied for measuring the hippocampal volume, which allows discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls (NC). The method is based on a fast patch-based label fusion method, whose selected patches and their weights are calculated from a combination of similarity measures between patches using intensity-based distances and labeling-based distances...
January 28, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999852/effect-of-a-high-protein-energy-restricted-diet-combined-with-resistance-training-on-metabolic-profile-in-older-individuals-with-metabolic-impairments
#10
T Amamou, E Normandin, J Pouliot, I J Dionne, M Brochu, E Riesco
Adequate protein intake and resistance training are effective strategies to maintain muscle mass, but the effect of their combination on metabolic profile during weight loss remains to be determined in older adults. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week high-protein caloric restriction combined with resistance training on chronic disease risk factors in obese older individuals with metabolic impairments. A total of 26 overweight adults aged between 60 and 75 years (BMI 32...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935269/from-adolescent-to-elder-rats-motivation-for-palatable-food-and-cannabinoids-receptors
#11
Amancio-Belmont Octavio, Romano-López Antonio, Ruiz-Contreras Alejandra Evelin, Méndez-Díaz Mónica, Prospéro-García Oscar
To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making were evaluated in adolescent, adult, and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. They assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction, and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: (a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825536/are-falls-prevention-programs-effective-at-reducing-the-risk-factors-for-falls-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-peripheral-neuropathy-a-systematic-review-with-narrative-synthesis
#12
REVIEW
Yu Gu, Sarah M Dennis
BACKGROUND: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that predisposes the elderly to a higher falls risk. Falls prevention programs with a component of weight-bearing exercises are effective in decreasing future falls in the elderly. However, weight-bearing exercise was only recently recommended in guidelines for exercise for people with T2DM and DPN. Since then, there have been an increasing number of studies to evaluate the effectiveness of falls prevention programs on this targeted population...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806005/effect-of-1-rm-80-rm-and-50-rm-strength-exercise-in-trained-individuals-on-variations-in-plasma-redox-biomarkers
#13
Tatiana G Polotow, Tácito P Souza-Junior, Ricardo C Sampaio, Alexandre R Okuyama, Douglas Ganini, Cristina V Vardaris, Ragami C Alves, Steven R McAnulty, Marcelo P Barros
For decades, scientists have examined the participation of oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in anaerobic-like exercises, especially weight lifting and resistance exercises. The balance between the production of oxyradicals and antioxidant responses during anaerobic-like exercises is essential to assure adaptation to the physiological benefits of strength training and to prevent chronic harmful effects. The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that different weight loads (1-RM, 80%RM, and 50%RM) lifted until exhaustion could impose distinct oxidative insults and elicit diverse antioxidant responses in plasma of young trained subjects...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804270/does-body-mass-index-modify-memory-reasoning-and-speed-of-processing-training-effects-in-older-adults
#14
Daniel O Clark, Huiping Xu, Christopher M Callahan, Frederick W Unverzagt
OBJECTIVE: To describe 10-year trajectories of cognitive performance by body mass index (BMI) class and to investigate BMI differences in response to memory, reasoning, and speed of processing training in older adults. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the multisite, randomized trial Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly. There were 701 older adults with normal weight, 1,081 with overweight, and 902 with obesity (mean age 73.6) randomized to memory training, reasoning training, speed of processing training, or no-training control group...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799234/low-body-mass-index-serum-creatinine-and-cause-of-death-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#15
Kashish Goel, Rajiv Gulati, Guy S Reeder, Ryan J Lennon, Bradley R Lewis, Atta Behfar, Gurpreet S Sandhu, Charanjit S Rihal, Mandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Low body mass index (BMI) and serum creatinine are surrogate markers of frailty and sarcopenia. Their relationship with cause-specific mortality in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is not well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in 9394 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2000 to 2011. BMI and serum creatinine were divided into 4 categories...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743591/preoperative-assessment-of-surgical-risk-creation-of-a-scoring-tool-to-estimate-1-year-mortality-after-emergency-abdominal-surgery-in-the-elderly-patient
#16
Olubode A Olufajo, Gally Reznor, Stuart R Lipsitz, Zara R Cooper, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Erika L Rangel
BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality after emergency general surgery (EGS) in elderly patients is prolonged beyond initial hospitalization. Our objective was to develop a preoperative scoring tool to quantify risk of 1-year mortality. METHODS: Three hundred ninety EGS patients aged 70 years or more were analyzed. Risk factors for 1-year mortality were identified using stepwise-forward logistic multivariate regression and weights assigned using natural logarithm of odds ratios...
April 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734815/-effects-of-hydrokinezytherapy-of-obesity-in-elder-women
#17
Agnieszka Cieślak, Sławomir Motylewski, Joanna Pielużek, Katarzyna Michalak, Elżbieta Poziomska-Piątkowska
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of regular hydrokinezytherapy on the prevention of obesity in elderly women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out among the Third Age University students, participating in hydrokinezytherapy classes. The group consisted of 31 women aged 63-70 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The values obtained were compared with the average for the population using the assessment criteria for adults according to Ostrowska-Nawarycz...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720368/screening-for-frailty-in-thoracic-surgical-patients
#18
Angela K Beckert, Megan Huisingh-Scheetz, Katherine Thompson, Amy D Celauro, Jordan Williams, Paul Pachwicewicz, Mark K Ferguson
BACKGROUND: The presence of frailty or prefrailty in older adults is a risk factor for postsurgical complications. The frailty phenotype can be improved through long-term resistance and aerobic training. It is unknown whether short-term preoperative interventions targeting frailty will help to mitigate surgical risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of frail and prefrail patients presenting to a thoracic surgical clinic who could benefit from a frailty reduction intervention...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694064/elderly-and-preventive-care-of-the-geriatric-pathologies-in-african-environment
#19
Ousseynou Kâ, Awa Gaye, Mamadou Makhtar Mbacké Leye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom, Anta Tal Dia, Saïd Nourou Diop, Ahmédou Moustapha Sow
Senegal will not be spared by the process of the aging of its population. In fact, according to surveys, the demographic increase in the population of the old people, which is 3.5% higher than the national average (2.5%). But for the time being, gerontology problems are not arising in terms of demographic weight, but rather in terms of the breaking up of solidarity networks, uncontrolled urbanization and poverty. As far as health is concerned, the old people generally are faced with the same problems as their Northern counterparts; they are exposed to chronic diseases that demand their taking in charge in a long period of time...
December 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637579/-obesity-in-old-age-and-its-importance-for-functionality-and-frailty
#20
Julia Wojzischke, Rebecca Diekmann, Jürgen M Bauer
In later life a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with the lowest age-related mortality rate. The BMI range used by the World Health Organization (WHO) to classify overweight, a BMI of 25-30 kg/m(2), can be regarded as normal weight in old age; nevertheless, obesity is associated with an increased risk of disability and of a deterioration in physical functionality, particularly among older age groups. This relationship to obesity has also been established for frailty. For this reason, a reduction in weight may be appropriate under functional aspects if BMI values exceed 30 kg/m(2); however, such a decision cannot be made on the basis of an individual BMI alone...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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