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Nociceptive flexion reflex

Plínio Luna Albuquerque, Mayara Campêlo, Thyciane Mendonça, Luís Augusto Mendes Fontes, Rodrigo de Mattos Brito, Katia Monte-Silva
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over motor cortex and trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) modulate corticospinal circuits in healthy and injured subjects. However, their associated effects with physical exercise is still not defined. This study aimed to investigate the effect of three different settings of rTMS and tsDCS combined with treadmill exercise on spinal cord and cortical excitability of healthy subjects. We performed a triple blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover study with 12 healthy volunteers who underwent single sessions of rTMS (1Hz, 20Hz and Sham) and tsDCS (anodal, cathodal and Sham) associated with 20 minutes of treadmill walking...
2018: PloS One
Natalie Hellman, Bethany L Kuhn, Edward W Lannon, Michael F Payne, Cassandra A Sturycz, Shreela Palit, Joanna O Shadlow, Jamie L Rhudy
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assault (SA) is associated with an increased risk for chronic pain and affective distress. Given that emotional processes modulate pain (e.g., negative emotions enhance pain, positive emotions inhibit pain), increased pain risk in SA survivors could stem from a disruption of emotional modulation processes. METHODS: A well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm was used to study emotional modulation of pain in 33 healthy, pain-free SA survivors and a control group of 33 healthy, pain-free individuals with no reported history of SA (matched on age, sex, race, and number of non-SA traumas)...
February 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Carlo Jurth, Teresa M Dörig, Gregor Lichtner, Anna Golebiewski, Axel Jakuscheit, Falk von Dincklage
OBJECTIVE: A variety of algorithms is used for nociceptive flexion reflex threshold (NFRT) estimation, but their estimation accuracy is unknown. We developed a computer based simulation model of the NFRT to quantify and compare the accuracy of available estimation algorithms. METHODS: This simulation model is based on basic characteristics of the NFRT and specified by data collected from 60 healthy volunteers. We validated the model by comparing simulated data with data obtained independently in another volunteer population...
March 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Keith P Johnson, Stephen M Tran, Emily A Siegrist, Krishna B Paidimarri, Matthew S Elson, Ari Berkowitz
Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex) in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Veronique A Taylor, Luke Chang, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Roy
Pain spontaneously activates adaptive and dynamic learning processes affecting the anticipation of, and the responses to, future pain. Computational models of associative learning effectively capture the production and ongoing changes in conditioned anticipatory responses (eg, skin conductance response), but the impact of this dynamic process on unconditional pain responses remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dynamic modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex by fear learning in healthy human adult participants undergoing a classical conditioning procedure involving an acquisition, reversal and extinction phase...
August 2017: Pain
Axel Jakuscheit, Matthias J Posch, Stefanos Gkaitatzis, Lisa Neumark, Mark Hackbarth, Martin Schneider, Gregor Lichtner, Jan H Baars, Falk von Dincklage
INTRODUCTION: The nociceptive flexion reflex threshold (NFRT) is a promising tool to monitor analgesia during general anaesthesia. Clinical studies have shown that the NFRT allows to predict movement responses to painful stimuli under a combined anaesthetic regime of sedative and opioid agents. Experimental studies indicated that the NFRT is also able to predict such movement responses under an exclusively sedative regime like propofol mono-anaesthesia. Therefore, we performed this study to investigate the ability of the NFRT to predict movement responses to painful stimuli in patients during a clinical propofol mono-anaesthesia...
June 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Jeong-Woo Lee, Se-Won Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the measurement posture and stimulation intensity on the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII reflex). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty normal female adult subjects were selected for this study. Their RIII reflexes were measured in three positions and with three degrees of stimulation intensity. The measurement posture was randomly selected. The analysis items were the stimulation intensity of the induced RIII reflex, the amplitude of the RIII reflex, and the numeric rating scale (NRS)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Sarah B Wallwork, Luzia Grabherr, Neil E O'Connell, Mark J Catley, G Lorimer Moseley
Upregulation of defensive reflexes such as the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) has been attributed to sensitisation of peripheral and spinal nociceptors and is often considered biomarkers of pain. Experimental modulation of defensive reflexes raises the possibility that they might be better conceptualised as markers of descending cognitive control. Despite strongly held views on both sides and several narrative reviews, there has been no attempt to evaluate the evidence in a systematic manner. We undertook a meta-analytical systematic review of the extant English-language literature from inception...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
N Hellman, K Barnoski, C Sturycz, B Kuln, E Lannon, S Palit, Y Güereca, M Payne, K Thompson, J Shadlow, J Rhudy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Axel Jakuscheit, Johannes Weth, Gregor Lichtner, Carlo Jurth, Benno Rehberg, Falk von Dincklage
BACKGROUND: Immediate postoperative pain could be prevented by the administration of long-lasting analgesics before the end of the anaesthesia. However, to prevent over or underdosing of analgesics under anaesthesia, tools are required to estimate the analgesia-nociception balance. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) at the end of general anaesthesia correlate with immediate postoperative pain, as a sign of analgesic underdosing, and with delayed tracheal extubation as a sign of analgesic overdosing...
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Evangelia Boura, Maria Stamelou, David Vadasz, Vincent Ries, Marcus M Unger, Georg Kägi, Wolfgang H Oertel, Jens C Möller, Veit Mylius
Augmented spinal nociception during the "off" phase has been observed early in Parkinson's disease further increasing with disease duration. To find out whether increased spinal nociception represents a premotor feature, experimental pain sensitivity was assessed in idiopathic REM-sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) patients with or without signs of a neurodegenerative disorder compared to early Parkinson's disease (ePD) patients and healthy controls (HC). Spinal nociception as measured by the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) and experimental pain sensitivity as measured by heat and electrical pain thresholds were determined in 14 IRBD, 15 ePD patients in the medication-defined "off" state and 27 HC in an explorative cohort study...
March 2017: Journal of Neurology
David A Rice, Rosalind S Parker, Gwyn N Lewis, Michal T Kluger, Peter J McNair
OBJECTIVES: Pain catastrophizing has been associated with higher pain intensity, increased risk of developing chronic pain and poorer outcomes after treatment. Despite this, the mechanisms by which pain catastrophizing influences pain remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that pain catastrophizing may impair descending inhibition of spinal level nociception. The aims of this study were to compare spinal nociceptive processing in people with chronic widespread pain and pain-free controls and examine potential relationships between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception...
September 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
P Maxwell Slepian, Christopher R France, Jamie L Rhudy, Lina K Himawan, Yvette M Güereca, Bethany L Kuhn, Shreela Palit
Habituation (ie, decreases in responding) and sensitization (ie, increases in responding) after prolonged or repeated exposures to a fixed stimulus have been identified as important in adaptation to repeated or prolonged noxious stimulation. Determinants of habituation or sensitization are poorly understood, and experimental investigation of habituation of pain ratings have generally relied on pain reports and statistical techniques that average responses across a group of participants. Using a cross-sectional design, the current study used multilevel growth curve analyses to examine changes in the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR), a spinal nociceptive withdrawal reflex, and pain ratings in response to 12 repeated, constant intensity, noxious electrocutaneous stimuli...
March 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Andràs Tikàsz, Valérie Tourjman, Philippe Chalaye, Serge Marchand, Stéphane Potvin
Although patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain from painful symptoms, the relationship between experimental pain processes and depression has yet to be clearly characterized. Only recently have studies employing temporal summation (TS) paradigms offered preliminary insight into the co-occurrence of pain and depression. This study sets out to evaluate the contribution of spinal and supraspinal processes in pain sensitization in MDD using a TS paradigm. Thirteen volunteers with no psychiatric disorders (controls) and fourteen MDD subjects were included in the analysis...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Roberto De Icco, Laura Cucinella, Irene De Paoli, Silvia Martella, Grazia Sances, Vito Bitetto, Giorgio Sandrini, Giuseppe Nappi, Cristina Tassorelli, Rossella E Nappi
BACKGROUND: Menstrually-related headache and headaches associated with oestrogen withdrawal are common conditions, whose pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. In this study we evaluated the influence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) on pain threshold in women presenting migraine attacks during hormone-free interval. FINDINGS: Eleven women with migraine attacks recurring exclusively during the oestrogen-withdrawal period were studied with the nociceptive flexion reflex, a neurophysiological assessment of the pain control systems, during the third week of active treatment and during the hormone-free interval...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Ellen L Terry, Yvette M Güereca, Satin L Martin, Jamie L Rhudy
OBJECTIVES: Prior research has shown a relationship between blood glucose levels and some forms of self-regulation (eg, executive function), with low blood glucose levels associated with impaired self-regulation. Further, engagement in self-regulation tasks depletes blood glucose. Given these relationships, the present study examined whether blood glucose is associated with another form of self-regulation, ie, descending pain modulatory processes. METHODS: Forty-seven (32 female) pain-free participants were recruited and completed testing...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Shreela Palit, Emily J Bartley, Bethany L Kuhn, Kara L Kerr, Jennifer L DelVentura, Ellen L Terry, Jamie L Rhudy
PURPOSE: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is characterized by severe affective and physical symptoms, such as increased pain, during the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in women with PMDD have yet to be identified, and supraspinal pain modulation has yet to be examined in this population. The present study assessed endogenous pain inhibitory processing by examining conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a painful conditioning stimulus inhibiting pain evoked by a test stimulus at a distal body site) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a spinally-mediated withdrawal reflex) during the mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
V Mylius, S Pee, H Pape, M Teepker, M Stamelou, K Eggert, J-P Lefaucheur, W H Oertel, J C Möller
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous pain is a clinically relevant non-motor symptom in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental pain sensitivity, reflecting the mechanisms of nociception and pain perception leading to clinical pain, is known to be enhanced in both diseases at advanced stages. Also, this study aimed at investigating experimental pain sensitivity already at an early stage (i.e. symptom duration ≤5 years). METHODS: Experimental pain sensitivity was assessed by investigating the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, reflecting spinal nociception) and heat and electrical pain thresholds...
September 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
C J Vierck, R P Yezierski, R G Wiley
Flexion/withdrawal reflexes are attenuated by spinal, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and systemic delivery of cholinergic agonists. In contrast, some affective reactions to pain are suppressed by systemic cholinergic antagonism. Attention to aversive stimulation can be impaired, as is classical conditioning of fear and anxiety to aversive stimuli and psychological activation of stress reactions that exacerbate pain. Thus, in contrast to the suppressive effects of cholinergic agonism on reflexes, pain sensitivity and affective reactions to pain could be attenuated by reduced cerebral cholinergic activation...
April 5, 2016: Neuroscience
Hassan Jafari, Karlien Van de Broek, Léon Plaghki, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Omer Van den Bergh, Ilse Van Diest
Several observations suggest that respiratory phase (inhalation vs. exhalation) and post-inspiratory breath-holds could modulate pain and the nociceptive reflex. This experiment aimed to investigate the role of both mechanisms. Thirty-two healthy participants received supra-threshold electrocutaneous stimulations to elicit both the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex (NFR) and pain, either during spontaneous inhalations or exhalations, or during three types of instructed breath-holds: following exhalation, at mid-inhalation and at full-capacity inhalation...
March 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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