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Nociceptive flexion reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475100/defensive-reflexes-in-people-with-pain-a-biomarker-of-the-need-to-protect-a-meta-analytical-systematic-review
#1
Sarah B Wallwork, Luzia Grabherr, Neil E O'Connell, Mark J Catley, G Lorimer Moseley
Upregulation of defensive reflexes such as the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) has been attributed to sensitisation of peripheral and spinal nociceptors and is often considered biomarkers of pain. Experimental modulation of defensive reflexes raises the possibility that they might be better conceptualised as markers of descending cognitive control. Despite strongly held views on both sides and several narrative reviews, there has been no attempt to evaluate the evidence in a systematic manner. We undertook a meta-analytical systematic review of the extant English-language literature from inception...
February 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162590/-345-is-history-of-traumatic-events-associated-with-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-nfr-threshold
#2
N Hellman, K Barnoski, C Sturycz, B Kuln, E Lannon, S Palit, Y Güereca, M Payne, K Thompson, J Shadlow, J Rhudy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141703/intraoperative-monitoring-of-analgesia-using-nociceptive-reflexes-correlates-with-delayed-extubation-and-immediate-postoperative-pain-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Axel Jakuscheit, Johannes Weth, Gregor Lichtner, Carlo Jurth, Benno Rehberg, Falk von Dincklage
BACKGROUND: Immediate postoperative pain could be prevented by the administration of long-lasting analgesics before the end of the anaesthesia. However, to prevent over or underdosing of analgesics under anaesthesia, tools are required to estimate the analgesia-nociception balance. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) at the end of general anaesthesia correlate with immediate postoperative pain, as a sign of analgesic underdosing, and with delayed tracheal extubation as a sign of analgesic overdosing...
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120040/is-increased-spinal-nociception-another-hallmark-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Evangelia Boura, Maria Stamelou, David Vadasz, Vincent Ries, Marcus M Unger, Georg Kägi, Wolfgang H Oertel, Jens C Möller, Veit Mylius
Augmented spinal nociception during the "off" phase has been observed early in Parkinson's disease further increasing with disease duration. To find out whether increased spinal nociception represents a premotor feature, experimental pain sensitivity was assessed in idiopathic REM-sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) patients with or without signs of a neurodegenerative disorder compared to early Parkinson's disease (ePD) patients and healthy controls (HC). Spinal nociception as measured by the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) and experimental pain sensitivity as measured by heat and electrical pain thresholds were determined in 14 IRBD, 15 ePD patients in the medication-defined "off" state and 27 HC in an explorative cohort study...
March 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930392/pain-catastrophizing-is-not-associated-with-spinal-nociceptive-processing-in-people-with-chronic-widespread-pain
#5
David A Rice, Rosalind S Parker, Gwyn N Lewis, Michal T Kluger, Peter J McNair
OBJECTIVES: Pain catastrophizing has been associated with higher pain intensity, increased risk of developing chronic pain and poorer outcomes after pain treatments. Despite this, the mechanisms by which pain catastrophizing influences pain remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that pain catastrophizing may impair descending inhibition of spinal level nociception. The aims of this study were to compare spinal nociceptive processing in people with chronic widespread pain and pain free controls and examine potential relationships between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919775/behavioral-inhibition-and-behavioral-activation-are-related-to-habituation-of-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-but-not-pain-ratings
#6
P Maxwell Slepian, Christopher R France, Jamie L Rhudy, Lina K Himawan, Yvette M Güereca, Bethany L Kuhn, Shreela Palit
Habituation (ie, decreases in responding) and sensitization (ie, increases in responding) after prolonged or repeated exposures to a fixed stimulus have been identified as important in adaptation to repeated or prolonged noxious stimulation. Determinants of habituation or sensitization are poorly understood, and experimental investigation of habituation of pain ratings have generally relied on pain reports and statistical techniques that average responses across a group of participants. Using a cross-sectional design, the current study used multilevel growth curve analyses to examine changes in the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR), a spinal nociceptive withdrawal reflex, and pain ratings in response to 12 repeated, constant intensity, noxious electrocutaneous stimuli...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817904/increased-spinal-pain-sensitization-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#7
Andràs Tikàsz, Valérie Tourjman, Philippe Chalaye, Serge Marchand, Stéphane Potvin
Although patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain from painful symptoms, the relationship between experimental pain processes and depression has yet to be clearly characterized. Only recently have studies employing temporal summation (TS) paradigms offered preliminary insight into the co-occurrence of pain and depression. This study sets out to evaluate the contribution of spinal and supraspinal processes in pain sensitization in MDD using a TS paradigm. Thirteen volunteers with no psychiatric disorders (controls) and fourteen MDD subjects were included in the analysis...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488685/modulation-of-nociceptive-threshold-by-combined-hormonal-contraceptives-in-women-with-oestrogen-withdrawal-migraine-attacks-a-pilot-study
#8
Roberto De Icco, Laura Cucinella, Irene De Paoli, Silvia Martella, Grazia Sances, Vito Bitetto, Giorgio Sandrini, Giuseppe Nappi, Cristina Tassorelli, Rossella E Nappi
BACKGROUND: Menstrually-related headache and headaches associated with oestrogen withdrawal are common conditions, whose pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. In this study we evaluated the influence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) on pain threshold in women presenting migraine attacks during hormone-free interval. FINDINGS: Eleven women with migraine attacks recurring exclusively during the oestrogen-withdrawal period were studied with the nociceptive flexion reflex, a neurophysiological assessment of the pain control systems, during the third week of active treatment and during the hormone-free interval...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110138/is-blood-glucose-associated-with-descending-modulation-of-spinal-nociception-as-measured-by-the-nociceptive-flexion-reflex
#9
Ellen L Terry, Yvette M Güereca, Satin L Martin, Jamie L Rhudy
OBJECTIVES: Prior research has shown a relationship between blood glucose levels and some forms of self-regulation (eg, executive function), with low blood glucose levels associated with impaired self-regulation. Further, engagement in self-regulation tasks depletes blood glucose. Given these relationships, the present study examined whether blood glucose is associated with another form of self-regulation, ie, descending pain modulatory processes. METHODS: Forty-seven (32 female) pain-free participants were recruited and completed testing...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929663/endogenous-inhibition-of-pain-and-spinal-nociception-in-women-with-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder
#10
Shreela Palit, Emily J Bartley, Bethany L Kuhn, Kara L Kerr, Jennifer L DelVentura, Ellen L Terry, Jamie L Rhudy
PURPOSE: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is characterized by severe affective and physical symptoms, such as increased pain, during the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in women with PMDD have yet to be identified, and supraspinal pain modulation has yet to be examined in this population. The present study assessed endogenous pain inhibitory processing by examining conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a painful conditioning stimulus inhibiting pain evoked by a test stimulus at a distal body site) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a spinally-mediated withdrawal reflex) during the mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914528/experimental-pain-sensitivity-in-multiple-system-atrophy-and-parkinson-s-disease-at-an-early-stage
#11
V Mylius, S Pee, H Pape, M Teepker, M Stamelou, K Eggert, J-P Lefaucheur, W H Oertel, J C Möller
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous pain is a clinically relevant non-motor symptom in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental pain sensitivity, reflecting the mechanisms of nociception and pain perception leading to clinical pain, is known to be enhanced in both diseases at advanced stages. Also, this study aimed at investigating experimental pain sensitivity already at an early stage (i.e. symptom duration ≤5 years). METHODS: Experimental pain sensitivity was assessed by investigating the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, reflecting spinal nociception) and heat and electrical pain thresholds...
September 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812034/pain-sensitivity-following-loss-of-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-cbf-neurons-in-the-rat
#12
C J Vierck, R P Yezierski, R G Wiley
Flexion/withdrawal reflexes are attenuated by spinal, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and systemic delivery of cholinergic agonists. In contrast, some affective reactions to pain are suppressed by systemic cholinergic antagonism. Attention to aversive stimulation can be impaired, as is classical conditioning of fear and anxiety to aversive stimuli and psychological activation of stress reactions that exacerbate pain. Thus, in contrast to the suppressive effects of cholinergic agonism on reflexes, pain sensitivity and affective reactions to pain could be attenuated by reduced cerebral cholinergic activation...
April 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808697/respiratory-hypoalgesia-breath-holding-but-not-respiratory-phase-modulates-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-and-pain-intensity
#13
Hassan Jafari, Karlien Van de Broek, Léon Plaghki, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Omer Van den Bergh, Ilse Van Diest
Several observations suggest that respiratory phase (inhalation vs. exhalation) and post-inspiratory breath-holds could modulate pain and the nociceptive reflex. This experiment aimed to investigate the role of both mechanisms. Thirty-two healthy participants received supra-threshold electrocutaneous stimulations to elicit both the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex (NFR) and pain, either during spontaneous inhalations or exhalations, or during three types of instructed breath-holds: following exhalation, at mid-inhalation and at full-capacity inhalation...
March 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710223/optimizing-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-nfr-scoring-criteria-by-adjusting-for-noise-and-reflex-properties-and-sampling-rate
#14
Gregor Lichtner, Teresa M Hösl, Axel Jakuscheit, Carlo Jurth, Falk von Dincklage
OBJECTIVE: To reanalyze scoring criteria for automatic detection of nociceptive flexion reflexes (NFRs) in electromyography (EMG) recordings and to improve detection accuracy by accounting for multiple characteristics of the recordings, such as baseline noise level or sampling rate. METHODS: Single scoring criteria for the NFR were reanalyzed and validated against an independent data set. To account for influences on the single scoring criteria, such as the baseline noise, multivariate classification models were derived...
September 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26525619/-migraine-and-temporomandibular-joint-dysfunction-mechanisms-of-comorbidity
#15
A S Zenkevich, E G Filatova, N V Latysheva
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency of different forms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) in episodic and chronic migraine and to study mechanisms of their comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with chronic migraine (CM) and 40 patients with episodic migraine (EM) were examined. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the HADS, quality-of-life related to headache was measured with the HIT-6. To evaluate the antinociceptive system function, we studied blink reflex (BR) and nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR)...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510702/a-new-look-at-arthritis-management-nociceptive-reflex-excitability-as-a-pain-biomarker
#16
EDITORIAL
Carol A Courtney
Research studies have begun to identify altered neurophysiological mechanisms that develop as a consequence of chronic painful knee arthritis. Neuroplastic changes may occur in nociceptive pathways, thereby contributing to heightened chronic pain and spread of symptoms, as well as diminished quality of life. One biomarker for examining central sensitization of nociceptive pathways is the measurement of flexion reflex excitability, also called the nociceptive reflex. In a recent article in Arthritis Research & Therapy, Rice and colleagues utilize this biomarker to analyze the clinical and neurophysiological effects of a very common and typical medical intervention, joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection...
October 28, 2015: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26058038/is-temporal-summation-of-pain-and-spinal-nociception-altered-during-normal-aging
#17
Rafik Marouf, Mathieu Piché, Pierre Rainville
This study examines the effect of normal aging on temporal summation (TS) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII). Two groups of healthy volunteers, young and elderly, received transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied to the right sural nerve to assess pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII-reflex). Stimulus intensity was adjusted individually to 120% of RIII-reflex threshold, and shocks were delivered as a single stimulus or as a series of 5 stimuli to assess TS at 5 different frequencies (0...
October 2015: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25887463/experimental-reduction-of-pain-catastrophizing-modulates-pain-report-but-not-spinal-nociception-as-verified-by-mediation-analyses
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ellen L Terry, Kathryn A Thompson, Jamie L Rhudy
Pain catastrophizing is associated with enhanced pain; however, the mechanisms by which it modulates pain are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that catastrophizing modulates supraspinal processing of pain but does not modulate spinal nociception (as assessed by nociceptive flexion reflex [NFR]). Unfortunately, most NFR studies have been correlational. To address this, this study experimentally reduced catastrophizing to determine whether it modulates spinal nociception (NFR). Healthy pain-free participants (N = 113) were randomly assigned to a brief 30-minute catastrophizing reduction manipulation or a control group that received pain education...
August 2015: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25881781/stimulation-site-and-phase-modulation-of-the-withdrawal-reflex-during-gait-initiation
#19
Miguel A Richard, Erika G Spaich, Mariano Serrao, Ole K Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is modulated during gait initiation. METHODS: The NWR was elicited in ten subjects using electrical stimulation at four sites in the right foot during symmetrical stance (50% of body weight on each foot) or while performing the first step during gait initiation: either during heel off (HO, 20% of body load on the starting leg) or heel contact (HC, 80% of body load on the starting leg in the first step)...
December 2015: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25817067/aversive-event-unpredictability-causes-stress-induced-hypoalgesia
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amadeu Quelhas Martins, David McIntyre, Christopher Ring
Temporal predictability, or knowing when a noxious stimulus will occur, has been implicated in stress-induced hypoalgesia, but the contribution of event predictability, or knowing what the stimulus will be, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of event predictability on pain intensity ratings and nociceptive flexion reflex responses. Participants repeatedly experienced five intensities of electrocutaneous stimulation, ranging from nonpainful to extremely painful, delivered either randomly (unpredictability group) or blocked (predictability group) with no cues provided...
August 2015: Psychophysiology
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