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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819499/multiple-jejunal-perforation-secondary-to-intestinal-tuberculosis-infection-a-case-report
#1
Anthony Lyonga Ngonge, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Carlson-Babila Sama, Joffi Musonge-Effoe, Valery Sammah Effoe, Gerald Ekwen
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in the incidence of abdominal TB favored by the emergence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immunosuppression especially from HIV co-infection. Our case is that of a 31 year old HIV-positive woman, adherent to antiretroviral therapy, who presented with a 2 month history of progressive abdominal distention, drenching night sweat and fatigue, but without fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819312/shared-peptide-binding-of-hla-class-i-and-ii-alleles-associate-with-cutaneous-nevirapine-hypersensitivity-and-identify-novel-risk-alleles
#2
Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J McKinnon, David A Ostrov, Bjoern Peters, Soren Buus, David Koelle, Abha Chopra, Ryan Schutte, Craig Rive, Alec Redwood, Susana Restrepo, Austin Bracey, Thomas Kaever, Paisley Myers, Ellen Speers, Stacy A Malaker, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Yuan Jing, Silvana Gaudieri, Donald F Hunt, Mary Carrington, David W Haas, Simon Mallal, Elizabeth J Phillips
Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP), is an HIV-1 antiretroviral with treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) associated with multiple class I and II HLA alleles. Here we utilize a novel analytical approach to explore these multi-allelic associations by systematically examining HLA molecules for similarities in peptide binding specificities and binding pocket structure...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818087/bugs-drugs-and-hiv-the-role-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-hiv-risk-and-antiretroviral-efficacy-for-hiv-prevention
#3
Lenine J P Liebenberg, Derseree Archary, Aida Sivro, Douglas S Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817720/targeting-of-cdk9-with-indirubin-3-monoxime-safely-and-durably-reduces-hiv-viremia-in-chronically-infected-humanized-mice
#4
Sandra Medina-Moreno, Thomas C Dowling, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Edward Sausville, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Alonso Heredia
Successful propagation of HIV in the human host requires entry into a permissive cell, reverse transcription of viral RNA, integration into the human genome, transcription of the integrated provirus, and assembly/release of new virus particles. Currently, there are antiretrovirals against each of these viral steps, except for provirus transcription. An inhibitor of HIV transcription could both increase potency of treatment and suppress drug-resistant strains. Cellular cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) serves as a cofactor for the HIV Tat protein and is required for effective transcription of the provirus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#5
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#6
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807730/development-of-a-dual-reporter-screening-assay-for-distinguishing-the-inhibition-of-hiv-tat-mediated-transcription-from-off-target-effects
#7
YoungHyun Shin, Byeong-Sun Choi, Kyung-Chang Kim, Chun Kang, Kisoon Kim, Cheol-Hee Yoon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes a transcription trans-activator (Tat) with an essential role in the transcriptional elongation of viral RNA based on the viral promoter long terminal repeat (LTR). Tat-mediated transcription is conserved and can be distinguished from host transcription, so it is a therapeutic target for combating HIV replication. Traditional screening assays for Tat-mediated transcriptional inhibitors are based on the biochemical properties of Tat and transactivation-responsive RNA...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806195/antiretroviral-combination-use-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-major-congenital-malformations
#8
Anick Bérard, Odile Sheehy, Jin-Ping Zhao, Michal Abrahamowicz, Mona Loutfy, Isabelle Boucoiran, Sasha Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of major congenital malformations associated with gestational combination antiretroviral use. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Using the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort from 1998-2015, we included women who covered by Quebec Drug Plan and have a singleton livebirth. All antiretroviral use alone or in combination were considered. Major congenital malformations overall and organ-specific malformations in the first year of life were identified...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805985/willingness-to-pay-for-antiretroviral-drugs-among-hiv-and-aids-clients-in-south-east-nigeria
#9
Chinyere Mbachu, Chijioke Okoli, Obinna Onwujekwe, Fabian Enabulele
BACKGROUND: The current trend of withdrawal of donor support for HIV/AIDS treatment in Nigeria may require that the cost of antiretroviral drugs be borne in part by infected people and their families. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the economic value for free antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) expressed by clients receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital. STUDY METHOD: The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the values attached to free ARVs from people living with HIV/AIDS that were receiving care in a public tertiary hospital in south-east Nigeria...
August 14, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799998/use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-hiv-a-review
#10
Timothy A West, Jacinta Perram, Cameron J Holloway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is increasingly common in the ageing population. Patients with atrial fibrillation and HIV have a higher stroke risk, with guidelines recommending anticoagulation in the majority. Whilst anticoagulation options have diversified in the last decade for the general population, there is limited evidence for the safety and efficacy of these medications when used concurrently with antiretroviral therapy. We review the potential for patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy to have direct-acting oral anticoagulations (DOACs)...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799997/epidemiology-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-hiv
#11
Virginia A Triant, Steven K Grinspoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize recent data on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799688/developing-a-program-for-enhancing-youth-hiv-treatment-adherence-and-risk-reduction
#12
Warunee Fongkaew, Warawan Udomkhamsuk, Nongkran Viseskul, Marisa Guptaruk
Youth living with HIV face difficult and challenging situations that decrease their adherence to antiretroviral medications. In this study, we developed a pilot program to enhance HIV treatment adherence and risk reduction among youth living with HIV based on collaboration with a community hospital involving a multi-disciplinary healthcare team. Participants were 25 youth living with HIV/AIDS, 18 caregivers, and 12 healthcare providers. The action research process comprised a preliminary stage and four phases of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation...
August 11, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798891/hiv-positive-women-taking-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-report-better-adherence-than-women-taking-short-course-prophylaxis-during-and-after-pregnancy-under-pmtct-program-option-a-in-lusaka-zambia
#13
Karen M Hampanda, Lisa L Abuogi, Yusuf Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretrovirals is critical for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to establish if mothers taking triple lifelong antiretroviral therapy report higher adherence compared to mothers taking short-course prophylaxis under Option A in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: In this clinic-based cross-sectional study, we interviewed 320 HIV-positive mothers at a large public health facility in Lusaka in 2014...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797967/multipurpose-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-electrospun-fibers-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-infections-in-vitro
#14
Kevin M Tyo, Hung R Vuong, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Houda Alatassi, Jinghua Duan, Walter H Watson, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795954/the-first-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretrovirally-treated-patients-in-kermanshah-iran
#15
Reza Golmohammadi, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Molood Farrokhi, Willi McFarland, Shahryar Parsamajd
BACKGROUND: Insufficient therapy during HIV-1 replication can promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, reduce the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and increase the likelihood of the onward transmission of drug-resistant viruses. We characterized, for the first time, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in a western region of Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted among 122 patients on ART at a major referral center in Kermanshah, Iran...
August 10, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795354/drug-resistance-mutation-profiles-of-the-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-first-line-regimen-treated-hiv-1-infected-population-of-suzhou-china
#16
Tingting Li, Feng Qian, Ting Yuan, Weilu Xu, Li Zhu, Jinlong Huang, Haiyan Wang, Yueping Zhu, Yinling Wang, Xiaohong Li, Saihong Gu, Zhuqing Tan, Hui Chen, Xiangrong Luo, Wei Zhu, Wenjuan Lu, Ping Xu, Ming Li, Yuying Chen, Yong Gao, Rongge Yang, Chuanwu Zhu, Binlian Sun
Little is known about the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1-positive individuals in Suzhou, China. To elucidate the transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance mutation (ADR) profiles, we collected blood specimens from 127 drug-naïve and 117 first-line drug-treated HIV-1-infected individuals sampled from 2014 to 2016 in Suzhou. We successfully amplified pol fragments from 100 drug-naïve and 20 drug-treated samples. We then determined the drug-resistant mutations to protease (PR) and reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitors according to the Stanford drug resistance database...
August 7, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794047/no-substantial-evidence-for-sexual-transmission-of-minority-hiv-drug-resistance-mutations-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
Antoine Chaillon, Masato Nakazawa, Joel O Wertheim, Susan J Little, Davey M Smith, Sanjay R Mehta, Sara Gianella
During primary HIV-infection, the presence of minority drug resistant mutations (DRM) may be a consequence of sexual transmission, de novo mutations or technical errors. Baseline blood samples were collected from 24 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive, genetically- and epidemiologically- linked source and recipient partners, shortly after the recipient's estimated date of infection. An additional 32 longitudinal samples were available from 11 recipients. Deep-sequencing of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) was performed (Roche/454) and screened for nucleoside and non-nucleoside RT inhibitor DRM...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793863/cardiovascular-risk-and-dyslipidemia-among-persons-living-with-hiv-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Paolo Maggi, Antonio Di Biagio, Stefano Rusconi, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
BACKGROUND: Aim of this review is to focus the attention on people living with HIV infection at risk of developing a cardiovascular event. What is or what would be the most suitable antiretroviral therapy? Which statin or fibrate to reduce the risk? How to influence behavior and lifestyles? DISCUSSION: Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains the first and essential step in a medical intervention on these patients. The lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and the education on healthy dietary practices are the main instruments...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793809/-these-people-who-dig-roots-in-the-forests-cannot-treat-hiv-women-and-men-in-durban-south-africa-reflect-on-traditional-medicine-and-antiretroviral-drugs
#19
Amy Weintraub, Joanne E Mantell, Kelsey Holt, Renée A Street, Catriona Wilkey, Suraya Dawad, Tsitsi B Masvawure, Susie Hoffman
Relatively few empirical investigations of the intersection of HIV biomedical and traditional medicine have been undertaken. As part of preliminary work for a longitudinal study investigating health-seeking behaviours among newly diagnosed individuals living with HIV, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 urban South Africans presenting for HIV testing or newly enrolled in HIV care; here we explored participants' views on African traditional medicine (TM) and biomedical HIV treatment. Notions of acceptance/non-acceptance were more nuanced than dichotomous, with participants expressing views ranging from favourable to reproachful, often referring to stories they had heard from others rather than drawing from personal experience...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792285/awareness-and-management-of-elevated-blood-pressure-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-urban-zambia-a-call-to-action
#20
Sophie Bauer, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Roma Chilengi, Charles B Holmes, Zude Zyambo, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler, Michael J Vinikoor
The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and hypertension (HTN), awareness of the diagnoses, and use of anti-hypertensive drugs were examined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia's capital Lusaka. Within a prospective cohort based at two public sector ART clinics, BP was measured at ART initiation and every 6 months thereafter as a routine clinic procedure. Predictors of HBP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) during one year on ART were analyzed using logistic regression, and the proportion with HTN (2+ episodes of HBP >3 months apart) described...
2017: Global Health Action
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