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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149339/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-increases-the-risk-of-incident-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#1
Yung-Feng Yen, Yu-Ching Lan, Chun-Teng Huang, I-An Jen, Marcelo Chen, Chun-Yuan Lee, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yun Lee, Donalde E Morisky, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
Background: Currently, the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between incident AIHA and HIV infection in Taiwan. Methods: During 2000-2012, we identified people aged ≧15 years living with HIV (PLWH) from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System. Individuals were considered to be infected with HIV on the basis of positive results of an HIV type 1 Western blot...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148034/role-of-p62-sqstm1-beyond-autophagy-a-lesson-learned-from-drug-induced-toxicity-in-vitro
#2
Fernando Alegre, Ángela B Moragrega, Miriam Polo, Alberto Marti-Rodrigo, Juan V Esplugues, Ana Blas-Garcia, Nadezda Apostolova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SQSTM1/p62 is a multifunctional, stress-induced, scaffold protein involved in multiple cellular processes including autophagic clearance, regulation of inflammatory responses and redox homeostasis. Alterations in its function have been associated with a long list of human pathologies such as neurodegenerative, metabolic and bone diseases (down-regulation), and cancerogenesis (up-regulation). However, its role in the off-target effects of clinically used drugs is still not understood...
November 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#3
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147636/drug-induced-lupus-erythematosus-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#4
Jazila Mantis, Ravi Bhavsar, Adriana Abrudescu
Antiretroviral medications are the mainstay of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and some have been in use for over 20 years. To date, there have been no reported cases of antiretroviral therapy (ART) induced drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). We present a case of a 35-year-old woman who received a combination of emtricitabine, rilpivirine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV treatment. Three years later, she developed an extensive rash and polyarthralgia in her extremities with laboratory findings significant for positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibody (anti-dsDNA), and anti-histone antibody titers...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145924/pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-bedaquiline-and-clofazimine-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
G Maartens, M J E Brill, M Pandie, E M Svensson
<h2>BACKGROUND:</h2>Bedaquiline (BDQ) and clofazimine (CFZ) are both recommended for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). As CFZ is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) in vitro, and BDQ a substrate of CYP3A4, there is a potential for pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction that may result in increased BDQ exposure when co-administered with CFZ, which could increase the toxicity of BDQ.<h2>METHODS:</h2>We assessed the effect of co-administered CFZ on BDQ bioavailability, or on clearance of BDQ and its N-monodesmethyl metabolite (M2), in patients with DR-TB using a population PK model developed from data of patients with DR-TB...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144838/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-persistence-and-pathogenesis
#6
Charles R M Bangham
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1, was the first exogenous human retrovirus discovered. Unlike the distantly related lentivirus HIV-1, HTLV-1 causes disease in only 5-10% of infected people, depending on their ethnic origin. But whereas HIV-1 infection and the consequent diseases can be efficiently contained in most cases by antiretroviral drug treatment, there is no satisfactory treatment for the malignant or inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143625/trends-in-hepatitis-b-virus-testing-practices-and-management-in-hiv-clinics-across-sub-saharan-africa
#7
REVIEW
Patrick A Coffie, Matthias Egger, Michael J Vinikoor, Marcel Zannou, Lameck Diero, Akouda Patassi, Mark H Kuniholm, Moussa Seydi, Guillaume Bado, Ponsiano Ocama, Monique I Andersson, Eugène Messou, Albert Minga, Philippa Easterbrook, Kathryn Anastos, François Dabis, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Knowledge of HBV status is important to guide optimal selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitor/prevent liver-related complications. We describe changes in testing practices and management of HBV infection over a 3-year period in HIV clinics across SSA. METHODS: A medical chart review was conducted in large urban HIV treatment centers in Côte d'Ivoire (3 sites), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Uganda and Zambia (1 site each)...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140932/characteristics-of-treatment-experienced-hiv-infected-african-children-and-adolescents-initiating-darunavir-and-or-etravirine-based-antiretroviral-treatment
#8
Bethany Corrigan, Irene Mukui, Lloyd Mulenga, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Mosilinyane Letsie, Stephanie Bruno, Natella Rakhmanina
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the selection and sequencing of second and third-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to evaluate characteristics of African pediatric patients initiated on darunavir (DRV) and/or etravirine (ETR) through a specific drug donation program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline immunologic, virologic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents initiating DRV- and/or ETR-based ART...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#9
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#10
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137637/molecular-evolution-of-hiv-1-integrase-during-the-20%C3%A2-years-prior-to-the-first-approval-of-integrase-inhibitors
#11
Karolin Meixenberger, Kaveh Pouran Yousef, Maureen Rebecca Smith, Sybille Somogyi, Stefan Fiedler, Barbara Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda, Norbert Bannert, Max von Kleist, Claudia Kücherer
BACKGROUND: Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary potential of polymorphic sites in a viral protein is important for understanding the development of drug resistance in the presence of an inhibitor. We therefore set out to analyse the molecular evolution of the HIV-1 subtype B integrase at the inter-patient level in Germany during a 20-year period prior to the first introduction of integrase strand inhibitors (INSTIs). METHODS: We determined 337 HIV-1 integrase subtype B sequences (amino acids 1-278) from stored plasma samples of antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 between 1986 and 2006...
November 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136775/high-parathyroid-hormone-concentration-in-tenofovir-treated-patients-are-due-to-inhibition-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-activity
#12
Alessandra Mingione, Katia Maruca, Federica Chiappori, Francesca Pivari, Caterina Brasacchio, Tiziana Quirino, Ivan Merelli, Laura Soldati, Paolo Bonfanti, Stefano Mora
Bone health impairment is a common finding in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment. High serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration in patients on antiretroviral treatment containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been reported. Hyperparathyroidism was not always sustained by a reduction in vitamin D concentration. We thus hypothesized a direct inhibitory effect of TDF on the Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to hyperparathyroidism. Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with CASR wild-type gene or mutated in different sites (N124K, T1051G, C788T, T888M)...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136743/-drug-resistance-mutations-and-its-associated-factors-among-579-hiv-aids-patients-experiencing-failure-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-jiangsu-province-china
#13
P P Xiao, J Lu, H Y Hu, X Q Xu, P Ding, G F Fu, X P Huan, Y Zhou, H T Yang
Objective: To understand the incidence and related factors of HIV-1 drug resistance among HIV/AIDS patients experiencing treatment failure in Jiangsu province, China. Methods: The HIV/AIDS integrated prevention and control data information management system of China were used to collect the basic data of patients, blood specimens were collected from patients who had antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure with ≥12 months and older than 18 years in 2016 in Jiangsu, excluding cases with missing information, 713 cases were enrolled in this study...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136742/-antiretroviral-treatment-discontinuation-and-its-influencing-factors-among-hiv-infected-patients-who-initiated-art-from-2012-to-2015-in-wenshan-prefecture-yunnan-province
#14
X S Hu, Y Zhao, L L Huang, Y X Luo, Z Y Wu
Objective: To understand the antiretroviral treatment (ART) discontinuation rate and its influencing factors among HIV infected patients who initiated ART between 2012 and 2015 in Wenshan prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods: Demographic characteristics, baseline informations of ART, initial treatment regimens and follow-up status of a total of 4 354 patients who initiated ART from 2012 to 2015 in Wenshan prefecture were collected. A historical cohort study was used to describe the discontinuation incidence rate of ART...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136032/virological-response-and-resistance-among-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-without-virological-monitoring-in-uganda-and-zimbabwe-observational-analyses-within-the-randomised-arrow-trial
#15
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135907/efavirenz-therapeutic-range-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-participants
#16
Cindy J Bednasz, Charles S Venuto, Qing Ma, Eric S Daar, Paul E Sax, Margaret A Fischl, Ann C Collier, Kimberly Y Smith, Camlin Tierney, Yang Yang, Gregory E Wilding, Gene D Morse
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is currently suggested as an alternative to recommended antiretroviral (ARV) regimens by the Department of Health and Human Services for the treatment of HIV-1 in ARV-naive patients. A mid-dosing interval therapeutic range between 1000 and 4000 ng/mL for efavirenz has been proposed in the literature, with patients more likely to experience virologic failure below this range and adverse effects above. The current study reports an analysis of virologic outcome between those above, below, or within the reported efavirenz therapeutic range (1000-4000 ng/mL) and within subgroups...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135583/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-treatment-on-the-risk-of-acquired-hiv-drug-resistance
#17
Sara Lodi, Huldrych F Günthard, David Dunn, Federico Garcia, Roger Logan, Sophie Jose, Heiner C Bucher, Alexandra U Scherrer, Marie-Paule Schneider, Matthias Egger, Tracy R Glass, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, T Sonia Boender, Andrew N Phillips, Kholoud Porter, David Hawkins, Santiago Moreno, Susana Monge, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Metallidis Simeon, Georgia Vourli, Caroline Sabin, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: We estimated and compared the risk of clinically identified acquired drug resistance under i) immediate initiation (the currently recommended ART initiation strategy), ii) initiation with CD4 < 500, and iii) initiation with CD4 < 350 cells/mm. DESIGN: Cohort study based on routinely collected data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: For each individual, baseline was the earliest time when all eligibility criteria (ART-naïve, AIDS-free, and others) were met after 1999...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135578/when-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-fails-preventing-pretreatment-drug-resistance-in-african-children
#18
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Job Calis, Ragna Boerma, Kim Sigaloff, Clement Zeh, Peter Mugyenyi, Sulaimon Akanmu, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135577/protease-inhibitors-and-preterm-delivery-another-piece-in-the-puzzle
#19
Graziella Favarato, Claire L Townsend, Heather Bailey, Helen Peters, Pat Tookey, Graham P Taylor, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Questions remain regarding preterm delivery (PTD) risk in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including the role of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), timing of ART initiation and immune status. METHODS: We examined data from the UK/Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood on women with HIV delivering a singleton live infant in 2007-2015, including those pregnancies receiving PI/r-based (n=4184) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based regimens (n = 1889)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135574/interferon-free-therapy-for-treating-hcv-in-difficult-to-treat-hiv-coinfected-patients-as-implemented-in-routine-medical-practice
#20
Carlos Mínguez, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan Flores, Maria-José Galindo, Marta Montero, Sergio Reus, Jorge Carmena, Mar Masiá, Concepción Amador, Enrique Ortega
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data regarding the use of all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis are required, because they are generally under-represented in clinical trials. This study sought to evaluate the use of these drugs in a cohort of coinfected patients, mostly with factors that have previously been recognised as predictors of treatment failure. METHODS: COINFECOVA-2 is an observational, multicenter study conducted in Eastern Spain...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
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