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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#1
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211784/generic-antiretrovirals-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-a-novel-challenge-for-western-countries-%C3%A2
#2
Dario Cattaneo, Massimo Andreoni, Gianpiero Carosi, Roberto Cauda, Adriano Lazzarin, Giuliano Rizzardini
The introduction of generic antiretroviral medications in developing countries has resulted in significant CD4 cell restoration, HIV viral decline, and a noteworthy reduction in the time to initiation of therapy. Projection models have also predicted significant cost saving associated with the extensive diffusion of generic antiretrovirals in developed countries. However, some uncertainties on generics have recently been raised. These concerns mainly relate to the adequacy of the study design for bioequivalence testing, the potential for uncontrolled switching from one generic to another, and the loss of adherence if patients switched from fixed-dose coformulations to single components in order to incorporate the new generic drugs...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210927/efficacy-and-safety-of-daclatasvir-plus-pegylated-interferon-alfa-2a-and-ribavirin-in-previously-untreated-hcv-subjects-coinfected-with-hiv-and-hcv-genotype-1-a-phase-iii-open-label-study
#3
Mark S Sulkowski, Walford J Fessel, Adriano Lazzarin, Juan Berenguer, Natalia Zakharova, Hugo Cheinquer, Pierre Côté, Douglas Dieterich, Adrian Gadano, Gail Matthews, Jean-Michel Molina, Christophe Moreno, Juan Antonio Pineda, Federico Pulido, Antonio Rivero, Jurgen Rockstroh, Dennis Hernandez, Fiona McPhee, Timothy Eley, Zhaohui Liu, Patricia Mendez, Eric Hughes, Stephanie Noviello, Peter Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Daclatasvir (DCV) is a potent, pangenotypic, hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A inhibitor with low potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of DCV plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in HIV-1/HCV genotype-1-coinfected patients. METHODS: AI444043 (NCT01471574), an open-label, Phase III, single-arm, response-guided treatment (RGT) study included 301 patients. They received DCV doses of 30, 60 or 90 mg once daily (depending on concomitant ART), plus weight-based RBV (<75 kg, 1000 mg/day; or ≥75 kg, 1200 mg/day), and once-weekly PegIFN 180 μg, for 24 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210286/bilastine-in-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis-and-urticaria-a-practical-approach-to-treatment-decisions-based-on-queries-received-by-the-medical-information-department
#4
REVIEW
Amalia Leceta, Ander Sologuren, Román Valiente, Cristina Campo, Luis Labeaga
BACKGROUND: Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H1-antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs)...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209209/perceived-quality-of-life-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-coinfected-migrant-male-workers-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#5
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Ten participants were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the remaining 10 have not yet started ART...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208121/2017-update-of-the-drug-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1
#6
Annemarie M Wensing, Vincent Calvez, Huldrych F Günthard, Victoria A Johnson, Roger Paredes, Deenan Pillay, Robert W Shafer, Douglas D Richman
The 2017 edition of the IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list updates the figures last published in November 2015. The mutations listed are those that have been identified by specific criteria for evidence and drugs described. The figures are designed to assist practitioners in identifying key mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs and, therefore, in making clinical decisions regarding antiretroviral therapy.
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207816/hiv-drug-therapy-duration-a-swedish-real-world-nationwide-cohort-study-on-infcarehiv-2009-2014
#7
Amanda Häggblom, Stefan Lindbäck, Magnus Gisslén, Leo Flamholc, Bo Hejdeman, Andreas Palmborg, Amy Leval, Eva Herweijer, Sverrir Valgardsson, Veronica Svedhem
BACKGROUND: As HIV infection needs a lifelong treatment, studying drug therapy duration and factors influencing treatment durability is crucial. The Swedish database InfCareHIV includes high quality data from more than 99% of all patients diagnosed with HIV infection in Sweden and provides a unique opportunity to examine outcomes in a nationwide real world cohort. METHODS: Adult patients who started a new therapy defined as a new 3rd agent (all antiretrovirals that are not N[t]RTIs) 2009-2014 with more than 100 observations in treatment-naive or treatment-experienced patients were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207809/kazakhstan-can-achieve-ambitious-hiv-targets-despite-expected-donor-withdrawal-by-combining-improved-art-procurement-mechanisms-with-allocative-and-implementation-efficiencies
#8
Andrew J Shattock, Clemens Benedikt, Aliya Bokazhanova, Predrag Đurić, Irina Petrenko, Lolita Ganina, Sherrie L Kelly, Robyn M Stuart, Cliff C Kerr, Tatiana Vinichenko, Shufang Zhang, Christoph Hamelmann, Manoela Manova, Emiko Masaki, David P Wilson, Richard T Gray
BACKGROUND: Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. METHODOLOGY: We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure-two areas identified for potential cost-reductions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207500/strategic-use-of-dual-regimens-of-boosted-protease-inhibitors-plus-maraviroc-in-poorly-adherent-subjects-in-view-of-long-acting-drugs-a-retrospective-study
#9
Amedeo Ferdinando Capetti, Mariangela Micale, Laura Carenzi, Fosca Niero, Simona Landonio, Stefania Vimercati, Gianfranco Dedivitiis, Giuliano Rizzardini
In view of the forthcoming long-acting antiretrovirals, measures should be taken to prevent the selection of HIV drug resistance mutations. All subjects who had been switched to boosted protease inhibitors plus maraviroc (bPIs/MVC) with baseline HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL between June, 2014, and April, 2015, were retrospectively evaluated. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T-cells, serum glucose, creatinine, ALT, and adverse events were controlled every 3 to 4 months. We retrospectively analyzed 44 patients: 18 were taking darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) and 26 atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) once daily, plus MVC 300 mg once daily...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207060/do-national-drug-policies-influence-antiretroviral-drug-prices-evidence-from-the-southern-african-development-community
#10
Yao Liu, Omar Galárraga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205616/dependence-on-glycolysis-sensitizes-braf-mutated-melanomas-for-increased-response-to-targeted-braf-inhibition
#11
Keisha N Hardeman, Chengwei Peng, Bishal B Paudel, Christian T Meyer, Thong Luong, Darren R Tyson, Jamey D Young, Vito Quaranta, Joshua P Fessel
Dysregulated metabolism can broadly affect therapy resistance by influencing compensatory signaling and expanding proliferation. Given many BRAF-mutated melanoma patients experience disease progression with targeted BRAF inhibitors, we hypothesized therapeutic response is related to tumor metabolic phenotype, and that altering tumor metabolism could change therapeutic outcome. We demonstrated the proliferative kinetics of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells treated with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 fall along a spectrum of sensitivity, providing a model system to study the interplay of metabolism and drug sensitivity...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202762/maternal-binding-and-neutralizing-igg-responses-targeting-the-c-terminal-region-of-the-v3-loop-are-predictive-of-reduced-peripartum-hiv-1-transmission-risk
#12
David R Martinez, Nathan Vandergrift, Ayooluwa O Douglas, Erin McGuire, John Bainbridge, Nathan I Nicely, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Genevieve G Fouda, Sallie R Permar
The development of an effective maternal HIV-1 vaccine that could synergize with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infection will require the characterization of maternal immune responses capable of blocking transmission of autologous HIV viruses to the infant. We previously identified that maternal plasma antibody binding to linear epitopes within the variable loop 3 (V3) region of HIV envelope (Env) and neutralizing responses against easy to neutralize tier 1 viruses were associated with reduced risk of peripartum HIV infection in the historic U...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202759/relationship-between-measures-of-hiv-reactivation-and-the-decline-of-latent-reservoir-under-latency-reversing-agents
#13
Janka Petravic, Thomas A Rasmussen, Sharon R Lewin, Stephen J Kent, Miles P Davenport
Antiretroviral-free HIV remission requires substantial reduction of the number of latently infected cells and enhanced immune control of viremia. Latency-reversing agents (LRA) aim to eliminate latently infected cells by increasing the rate of reactivation of HIV transcription, which exposes these cells to killing by the immune system. As LRA are explored in clinical trials, it becomes increasingly important to assess the effect of increased HIV reactivation rate on the decline of latently infected cells, and estimate LRA efficacy in increasing virus reactivation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201952/mortality-among-people-living-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-bali-indonesia-incidence-and-predictors
#14
Sri Utami, Anak Agung Sagung Sawitri, Luh Putu Lila Wulandari, I Wayan Gede Artawan Eka Putra, Putu Ayu Swandewi Astuti, Dewa Nyoman Wirawan, Louise Causer, Bradley Mathers
Indonesia has the third highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and the greatest increase in proportion of AIDS-related mortality in the Asia Pacific region between 2005 and 2013. Longitudinal mortality data among PLWH in Indonesia are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from medical records of antiretroviral treatment (ART) recipients attending Badung General Hospital (BGH) and Bali Medica Clinic (BMC) between 2006 and 2014. We explored incidence of mortality by Kaplan-Meier analysis and identified predictors using a Cox proportional hazard model...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199405/co-financing-for-viral-load-monitoring-during-the-course-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-patients-with-hiv-aids-in-vietnam-a-contingent-valuation-survey
#15
Quyen Le Thi Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thi Thu Phan, Huong Thi Le, Hinh Duc Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Cuong Duy Do, Cuong Manh Nguyen, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Carl Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
BACKGROUND: Viral load testing is considered the gold standard for monitoring HIV treatment; however, given its high cost, some patients cannot afford viral load testing if this testing is not subsidized. Since foreign aid for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam is rapidly decreasing, we sought to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for viral load and CD4 cell count tests among HIV-positive patients, and identified factors that might inform future co-payment schemes. METHODS: A multi-site cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1133 HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi and Nam Dinh...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198788/high-rates-of-baseline-drug-resistance-and-virologic-failure-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-mali
#16
Claudia S Crowell, Almoustapha I Maiga, Mariam Sylla, Babafemi Taiwo, Niaboula Kone, Assaf P Oron, Robert L Murphy, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Ban Traore, Djeneba B Fofana, Gilles Peytavin, Ellen G Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on drug resistance and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in HIV-1 infected children in West Africa. We determined the prevalence of baseline resistance and correlates of virologic failure (VF) in a cohort of ART naïve HIV-1 infected children <10 years of age initiating ART in Mali. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase and protease genes were sequenced at baseline (before ART) and at 6 months. Resistance was defined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198711/longitudinal-opioid-use-among-hiv-infected-patients-2000-to-2014
#17
Laurence Brunet, Sonia Napravnik, Amy D Heine, Peter A Leone, Joseph J Eron
Longitudinal opioid prescription use is unknown among HIV-infected patients. Group-based trajectory modeling followed by multinomial logistic regression was used to identify distinct trajectories and their association with baseline characteristics among 1239 HIV-infected UNC CFAR HIV Clinical Cohort participants, 2000-2014. Three trajectories were identified: 1) 72% never/sporadic opioid use (referent group), 2) 11% episodic use (associated with female sex, depression, drug-related diagnoses, antiretroviral therapy use and undetectable HIV RNA), and 3) 16% chronic use (associated with older age, female sex and mental health diagnoses)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198203/enteral-administration-of-twice-daily-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-as-a-part-of-a-triple-therapy-regimen-in-a-critically-ill-patient-with-hiv
#18
Sarah Lynn Turley, Patricia Pecora Fulco
The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in intubated critically ill patients may be challenging. Limited pharmacokinetic data exist characterizing the effects of crushed ART with subsequent enteral administration on antiretroviral drug concentrations or the clinical impact on HIV virologic suppression. We report a case of a 27-year-old HIV-positive male with presumed multidrug-resistant HIV and a diagnosis of lymphoma who required enteral ART administration after intensive care unit admission. Crushed twice-daily dolutegravir (separated from enteral nutrition by 2 hours) and rilpivirine (concurrently with a bolus feed) were administered via an orogastric tube...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197845/correlation-of-adherence-by-pill-count-self-report-mems-and-plasma-drug-levels-to-treatment-response-among-women-receiving-arv-therapy-for-pmtct-in-kenya
#19
Victor Mudhune, Roman Gvetadze, Sonali Girde, Richard Ndivo, Frank Angira, Clement Zeh, Timothy Thomas, Shirley Lee Lecher
Success of antiretroviral therapy depends on adherence to effective treatment. We evaluated four adherence methods and their correlation with immunological and virologic response among women receiving PMTCT. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess how adherence by pill count (n = 463), self-report (n = 463), MEMS (n = 129) and plasma drug level (n = 89) was associated with viral load suppression within a 6 months period. Longitudinal analysis was performed to determine the correlation of CD4 cell count with each measure of adherence...
February 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193650/interaction-of-rifampicin-and-darunavir-ritonavir-or-darunavir-cobicistat-in-vitro
#20
Owain Roberts, Saye Khoo, Andrew Owen, Marco Siccardi
Treatment of HIV patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) is challenging due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and anti-TB drugs. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of cobicistat (COBI), or ritonavir (RTV), in modulating DDIs between darunavir (DRV) and rifampicin (RIF) in a human hepatocyte-based in vitro model. Human primary hepatocyte cultures were incubated with RIF alone, or in combination with either COBI or RTV for three days, followed by co-incubation with DRV for one hour...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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