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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#1
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788872/recent-advances-in-magnetic-nanoparticle-based-molecular-probes-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
Qi Zhang, Sudan Wang, Ruirui Qiao, Michael Whittaker, John Quinn, Thomas P Davis, Hongjun Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, leading to the second most likely cause of cancer-related deaths. Medical imaging is crucial in clinic for HCC screening and diagnosis. Due to the relatively high special resolution and excellent sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents has been used so far in HCC imaging and staging, demonstrating great potential and promising in vivo applications. This review focuses on the use of different magnetic nanoparticles for construction of HCC nanoprobes for MR imaging and theranostic purpose...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787468/cortical-thickness-alterations-in-chronic-pain-disorder-an-exploratory-mri-study
#3
Stefano Magon, Till Sprenger, Alexander Otti, Athina Papadopoulou, Harald Gündel, Michael Noll-Hussong
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain disorder (CPD) has been associated with brain changes, especially in limbic circuits. However, in the majority of patients with chronic pain, depression or anxiety are common comorbidities. In this exploratory and naturalistic study, we investigated brain cortical thickness differences between patients with CPD and healthy controls, with consideration of concurrent psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CPD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study...
May 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787383/deep-learning-for-undersampled-mri-reconstruction
#4
Chang Min Hyun, Hwa Pyung Kim, Sung Min Lee, Sungchul Lee, Jin Keun Seo
This paper presents a deep learning method for faster magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by reducing k-space data with sub-Nyquist sampling strategies and provides a rationale for why the proposed approach works well. Uniform subsampling is used in the time-consuming phase-encoding direction to capture high-resolution image information, while permitting the image-folding problem dictated by the Poisson summation formula. To deal with the localization uncertainty due to image folding, a small number of low-frequency k-space data are added...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785932/cortical-thickness-correlates-of-minor-neurological-signs-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#5
Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784430/microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm-surgical-techniques-and-intraoperative-monitoring
#6
M Sindou, P Mercier
Primary hemifacial spasm with few exceptions is due to the vascular compression of the facial nerve that can be evidenced with high resolution MRI. Microvascular decompression is the only curative treatment for this pathology. According to literature review detailed in chapter "conflicting vessels", the compression is located at the facial Root Exit Zone (REZ) in 95% of the cases, and in 5% distally at the cisternal or the intrameatal portion of the root as the sole conflict or in addition to one at brainstem/REZ...
May 18, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784058/fat-suppressed-gadolinium-enhanced-isotropic-high-resolution-3d-gre-t1wi-for-predicting-small-node-metastases-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer
#7
Yan Chen, Xinyue Yang, Ziqiang Wen, Baolan Lu, Xiaojuan Xiao, Bingqi Shen, Shenping Yu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the application value of fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced isotropic high-resolution 3D-GRE-T1WI in regional nodes with different short-axis diameter ranges in rectal cancer, especially in nodes ≤5 mm. METHODS: Patients with rectal adenocarcinoma confirmed by postoperative histopathology were included, and all the patients underwent preoperative 3.0 T rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and total mesorectal excision (TME) within 2 weeks after an MR scan...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#8
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782653/data-driven-gating-in-pet-influence-of-respiratory-signal-noise-on-motion-resolution
#9
Florian Büther, Iris Ernst, Lynn Johann Frohwein, Joost Pouw, Klaus Peter Schäfers, Lars Stegger
PURPOSE: Data-driven gating (DDG) approaches for positron emission tomography (PET) are interesting alternatives to conventional hardware-based gating methods. In DDG, the measured PET data themselves are utilized to calculate a respiratory signal that is subsequently used for gating purposes. The success of gating is then highly dependent on the statistical quality of the PET data. In this study we investigate how this quality determines signal noise and thus motion resolution in clinical PET scans using a center-of-mass-based (COM) DDG approach, specifically with regard to motion management of target structures in future radiotherapy planning applications...
May 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780922/mri-findings-of-contralateral-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-in-parry-romberg-syndrome
#10
Emily K Tam, Marcela Lonngi, Joseph L Demer
Purpose: To study a case of right Parry Romberg syndrome associated with contralateral oculomotor nerve palsy using high-resolution cerebral and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observations: There were no brain MRI abnormalities. However, there was marked enophthalmos on the right with reduction of orbital fat. Extraocular muscles contracted normally in the right eye, but in the left eye, there was reduced contractility of the medial, inferior, and superior rectus muscles...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779243/co-occurrence-of-schwannomatosis-and-rhabdoid-tumor-predisposition-syndrome-1
#11
Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, Uwe Kordes, Simone Seiffert, Anna Summerer, Christian Hagel, Ulrich Schüller, Said Farschtschi, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Martin Bendszus, Tim Godel, Victor-Felix Mautner
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotype associated with germline SMARCB1 mutations has as yet not been fully documented. It is known that germline SMARCB1 mutations may cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS1) or schwannomatosis. However, the co-occurrence of rhabdoid tumor and schwannomas in the same patient has not so far been reported. METHODS: We investigated a family with members harboring a germline SMARCB1 deletion by means of whole-body MRI as well as high-resolution microstructural magnetic resonance neurography (MRN)...
May 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772956/lumbar-muscle-structure-predicts-operational-postures-in-active-duty-marines
#12
David B Berry, Bahar Shahidi, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto, Jan M Hughes-Austin, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The relationship between lumbar spine posture and muscle structure is not well understood. Objectives Investigate the predictive capacity of muscle structure on lumbar spine posture in active duty Marines. Methods Fouty-three Marines were scanned using an upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while standing unloaded and standing, sitting, and prone on elbows with body armor. Cobb, horizontal, and sacral angles were measured. Marines were then scanned unloaded in supine using a supine MRI scanner...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769642/high-resolution-imaging-of-myeloperoxidase-activity-sensors-in-human-cerebrovascular-disease
#13
Youssef Z Wadghiri, Dung Minh Hoang, Anita Leporati, Matthew J Gounis, Aurora Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mary L Mazzanti, John P Weaver, Ajay K Wakhloo, Peter Caravan, Alexei A Bogdanov
Progress in clinical development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substrate-sensors of enzymatic activity has been slow partly due to the lack of human efficacy data. We report here a strategy that may serve as a shortcut from bench to bedside. We tested ultra high-resolution 7T MRI (µMRI) of human surgical histology sections in a 3-year IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study of surgically clipped brain aneurysms. µMRI was used for assessing the efficacy of MRI substrate-sensors that detect myeloperoxidase activity in inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764037/-the-value-of-high-resolution-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-differentiating-benign-and-malignant-epithelial-tumors-of-parotid-gland
#14
B H Wen, J L Cheng, H X Zhang, Z X Zhang, F F Wang, K K Xue
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of RESOLVE DWI in the evaluation of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Methods: A total of 106 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University with epithelial tumors of parotid gland confirmed by pathology from July 2015 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative routine MRI and RESOLVE DWI, the ADC average values were calculated, t test were used to compare the ADC values of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760665/left-ventricular-trabeculations-decrease-the-wall-shear-stress-and-increase-the-intra-ventricular-pressure-drop-in-cfd-simulations
#15
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758339/population-averaged-atlas-of-the-macroscale-human-structural-connectome-and-its-network-topology
#16
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Sandip Panesar, David Fernandes, Antonio Meola, Masanori Yoshino, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
A comprehensive map of the structural connectome in the human brain has been a coveted resource for understanding macroscopic brain networks. Here we report an expert-vetted, population-averaged atlas of the structural connectome derived from diffusion MRI data (N = 842). This was achieved by creating a high-resolution template of diffusion patterns averaged across individual subjects and using tractography to generate 550,000 trajectories of representative white matter fascicles annotated by 80 anatomical labels...
May 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755611/morphological-biomarker-differentiating-mci-converters-from-nonconverters-longitudinal-evidence-based-on-hemispheric-asymmetry
#17
Xiaojing Long, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may probably progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for better understanding the disease mechanisms and facilitating early treatments. In addition to the direct volumetric and thickness measurement based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hemispheric asymmetry could be a potential index to detect morphological variations in MCI patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. The present study collected a set of longitudinal MRI data from 53 MCI converters and nonconverters and investigated the asymmetry differences between groups...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755313/individualized-functional-parcellation-of-the-human-amygdala-using-a-semi-supervised-clustering-method-a-7t-resting-state-fmri-study
#18
Xianchang Zhang, Hewei Cheng, Zhentao Zuo, Ke Zhou, Fei Cong, Bo Wang, Yan Zhuo, Lin Chen, Rong Xue, Yong Fan
The amygdala plays an important role in emotional functions and its dysfunction is considered to be associated with multiple psychiatric disorders in humans. Cytoarchitectonic mapping has demonstrated that the human amygdala complex comprises several subregions. However, it's difficult to delineate boundaries of these subregions in vivo even if using state of the art high resolution structural MRI. Previous attempts to parcellate this small structure using unsupervised clustering methods based on resting state fMRI data suffered from the low spatial resolution of typical fMRI data, and it remains challenging for the unsupervised methods to define subregions of the amygdala in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755312/integrated-fmri-preprocessing-framework-using-extended-kalman-filter-for-estimation-of-slice-wise-motion
#19
Basile Pinsard, Arnaud Boutin, Julien Doyon, Habib Benali
Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit the acquisition processes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754519/the-role-of-imaging-in-early-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-joint-damage-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#20
Jiang Yue, Dongze Wu, Lai-Shan Tam
Inflammatory arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation in the synovium, associated with degradation of cartilage and erosion of juxta-articular bone. The bone loss and joint destruction mediated by aberrant immunological responses resulting in proinflammatory cytokine release and various immune cell activation are known as osteoimmunology. Areas covered: A structured literature search including Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses and abstracts of international congresses was performed to review joint damage in inflammatory arthritis in terms of pathogenesis, novel imaging assessment and prevention...
May 13, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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