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Dennis D Spencer, Jason L Gerrard, Hitten P Zaveri
Intracranial electrophysiological recording in patients with refractory focal epilepsy is the gold standard for defining epileptogenic tissue. Although the concordance of intracranial electrophysiology, structural MRI, and pathology can identify brain regions for resection, complete seizure control after surgery is not achieved in all patients with focal epilepsy. Repetitive identical behavioural seizures suggest one onset area, but epileptogenesis might be distributed and connected by functional and structural brain networks outside the seizure onset area, which could explain poor postsurgical outcomes in some patients...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
John W Kakareka, Anthony Z Faranesh, Randall H Pursley, Adrienne Campbell-Washburn, Daniel A Herzka, Toby Rogers, Josh Kanter, Kanishka Ratnayaka, Robert J Lederman, Thomas J Pohida
Hemodynamic recording during interventional cardiovascular procedures is essential for procedural guidance, monitoring patient status, and collection of diagnostic information. Recent advances have made interventions guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible and attractive in certain clinical scenarios. However, in the MRI environment, electromagnetic interference (EMI) can cause severe distortions and artifacts in acquired hemodynamic waveforms. The primary aim of this paper was to develop and validate a system to minimize EMI on electrocardiogram (ECG) and invasive blood pressure (IBP) signals...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Ali A Alattar, Kate Carroll, Brian R Hirshman, Rushikesh S Joshi, Parag Sanghvi, Clark C Chen
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the natural history and etiology of cystic formation after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis (BM). We aimed to characterize the natural history of cyst formation after SRS of BM and analyze potential risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 214 consecutive patients who underwent 1,106 SRS for BM. Demographic, clinical, dosimetric, and MRI data were reviewed. Statistical analysis was accomplished with Student's t-test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression...
March 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ravikant Jain, Nikhil Jain, Tanveer Sheikh, Charanjeet Yadav
PURPOSE: Wrist has a complex anatomy and undergoes complex injuries. Scaphoid fracture is one of such injuries. It is the most common fracture in carpal bone. Most of the scaphoid fractures are missed on initial X-rays. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered as a gold standard for diagnosing scaphoid fractures. Ultrasonography (USG) is emerging as a good alternative to make an early diagnosis of scaphoid fractures. Our aim is to throw light upon the role of USG in detection of scaphoid fractures...
January 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Nitika Paudel, Kevin P Bethke, Lilian C Wang, Jonathan B Strauss, John P Hayes, Eric D Donnelly
PURPOSE: The current standard of care for women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer is breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by external beam radiation therapy, commonly delivered over 3-6 weeks. As an alternative, select patients can undergo intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) at the time of BCT. This technique delivers a single fraction of radiation at the time of surgery, enabling patients to undergo both surgery and radiation in a single session. Our current study analyzed the value of incorporating breast MRI into the routine work-up of patients deemed eligible for IORT, to quantify the impact on patient eligibility and requirement for additional work-up...
March 2018: Surgical Oncology
Sa Xiao, He Deng, Caohui Duan, Junshuai Xie, Huiting Zhang, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
Dynamic hyperpolarized (HP)129 Xe MRI is able to visualize the process of lung ventilation, which potentially provides unique information about lung physiology and pathophysiology. However, the longitudinal magnetization of HP129 Xe is nonrenewable, making it difficult to achieve high image quality while maintaining high temporal-spatial resolution in the pulmonary dynamic MRI. In this paper, we propose a new accelerated dynamic HP129 Xe MRI scheme incorporating the low-rank, sparse and gas-inflow effects (L + S + G) constraints...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Christopher G Roth, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Flavius F Guglielmo
MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation...
March 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nobuyuki Kosaka, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuji Kurokawa, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Masayuki Kanamoto, Naoyuki Takei, Kenji Takata, Jin Takahashi, Yoshio Yoshida, Hirohiko Kimura
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the vascularity of retained products of conception (RPOC) using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) to clarify the clinical feasibility of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pulsed-continuous ASL sequence with echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions was used. Ten consecutive patients with RPOC were enrolled. All ASL images were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively and compared with the findings of Doppler ultrasound (US) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)...
March 16, 2018: Magma
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Jorge Vilar-Palop, Ildefonso Hernandez-Aguado, María Pastor-Valero, José Vilar, Isabel González-Alvarez, Blanca Lumbreras
OBJECTIVES: To determine the appropriateness of medical imaging examinations involving radiation and to estimate the effective radiation dose and costs associated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. SETTING: Two Spanish public tertiary hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 2022 medical imaging tests were extracted from the radiology information system in February and March of 2014. MRI and ultrasound examinations were excluded...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
J M G van Bergen, X Li, F C Quevenco, A F Gietl, V Treyer, R Meyer, A Buck, P A Kaufmann, R M Nitsch, P C M van Zijl, C Hock, P G Unschuld
The accumulation of β-amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and recently published data suggest that increased brain iron burden may reflect pathologies that synergistically contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. While preclinical disease stages are considered most promising for therapeutic intervention, the link between emerging AD-pathology and earliest clinical symptoms remains largely unclear. In the current study we therefore investigated local correlations between iron and β-amyloid plaques, and their possible association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Mark O Wielpütz, Ho Yun Lee, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Shinichiro Seki, Yuji Kishida, Yasuhiro Sakai, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Kazuro Sugimura, Yoshiharu Ohno
OBJECTIVE: Ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI has been shown to deliver high-resolution images comparable to CT images. Here we evaluate the potential of UTE-MRI for precise lung nodule characterization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients (mean [± SD] age, 68.7 ± 10.8 years) with 119 nodules or masses (mean size, 17.4 ± 16.3 mm; range, 4-88 mm) prospectively underwent CT (1-mm slice thickness) and UTE-MRI (TE, 192 μs; 1 mm3 resolution). Two radiologists assessed nodule dimensions and morphologic features (i...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Luke Gerges, Dorota Popiolek, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of texture analysis of multiple MRI sequences for the differentiation of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen leiomyosarcomas and 51 leiomyomas undergoing MRI before resection were included. Whole-lesion volumes of interest were placed on T2-weighted images, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The diagnostic performance of histogram metrics was assessed...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Kazuhisa Matsui, Takashi Tachibana, Katsuya Nobuhara, Yasushi Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: The glenohumeral joint is subjected to opposing forces when the direction of shoulder motion is changed, accelerating and decelerating to make the movements. The influence of motion velocity or acceleration on translation of the humeral head has not been evaluated although direction and distance of humeral head translation has been analyzed in real time in normal shoulders. We hypothesized that, in a normal shoulder, the humeral head does not deviate significantly or suddenly during active shoulder rotation regardless of motion velocity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
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