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Subjective experience

Riikka Homanen
This article discusses practices of parental support in the maternity healthcare provided by the welfare state. Drawing on ethnographic material from clinics in Finland, I discuss maternity healthcare practices and processes as the specific contexts of subjectification to parenthood in the Nordic welfare state. The analysis shows that in both nurses' (work) experience-based knowledge and population-statistical knowledge, parental competence is achieved largely through the 'natural' process of experiencing pregnant life...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Julia Diehle, Samantha K Brooks, Neil Greenberg
PURPOSE: Previous research has mainly focused on veterans' mental health problems, especially on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Less is known about the impact that the veteran's experienced potentially traumatic events (PTEs) might have on their significant others. Therefore, we reviewed the scientific literature to find out what is known about the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) in significant others of veterans. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library and PILOTS for relevant articles...
October 21, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jasper Stevens, Kenneth Meijer, Wouter Bijnens, Mathijs C H W Fuchs, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Joris P S Hermus, Sander van Hoeve, Martijn Poeze, Adhiambo M Witlox
BACKGROUND: Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP1) joint is an intervention often used in patients with severe MTP1 joint osteoarthritis and relieves pain in approximately 80% of these patients. The kinematic effects and compensatory mechanism of the foot for restoring a more normal gait pattern after this intervention are unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify this compensatory mechanism, in which it was hypothesized that the hindfoot and forefoot would be responsible for compensation after an arthrodesis of the MTP1 joint...
October 21, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Hilary Bradbury, Svante Lifvergren
We discuss action research healthcare as a transformative approach that continuously innovates in healthcare, attending to the "quadruple" aim. This article is shaped around a decade of evidence in Sweden. At the heart of healthcare action research is the endeavour to "learn by doing" with the participation of key stakeholders, including the patient. Experience suggests that an action research approach is particularly relevant when treating patients with chronic diseases and complex care needs. This inclusion is itself a social learning process and is key to realizing the improved outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Marty D Spranger, Jasdeep Kaur, Javier A Sala-Mercado, Abhinav C Krishnan, Rania Abu-Hamdah, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Robert A Augustyniak, Donal S O'Leary
Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise is, in part, a function of muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA). As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction during mild treadmill exercise with MMA (elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
V Rougeron, T De Meeûs, A-L Bañuls
One key process of the life cycle of pathogens is their mode of reproduction. Indeed, this fundamental biological process conditions the multiplication and the transmission of genes and thus the propagation of diseases in the environment. Reproductive strategies of protozoan parasites have been a subject of debate for many years, principally due to the difficulty in making direct observations of sexual reproduction (i.e. genetic recombination). Traditionally, these parasites were considered as characterized by a preeminent clonal structure...
October 18, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mariel S Bello, Raina D Pang, Gregory S Chasson, Lara A Ray, Adam M Leventhal
The association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and smoking is poorly understood, particularly in African Americans-a group subject to smoking- and OC-related health disparities. In a non-clinical sample of 253 African American smokers, we tested the negative reinforcement model of OC-smoking comorbidity, purporting that smokers with higher OC symptoms experience greater negative affect (NA) and urge to smoke for NA suppression upon acute tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline visit involving OC assessment, participants completed two counterbalanced experimental visits (non-abstinent vs...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Adey A Berhanu, Svetlana Krasnokutsky, Robert T Keenan, Michael H Pillinger
INTRODUCTION: Pegloticase is a highly effective therapy for patients with refractory and/or tophaceous gout, but has a high discontinuation rate (30-50%) due to development of anti-drug antibodies causing loss of efficacy and risk of infusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of azathioprine or other immunosuppressive therapies as a pegloticase adjunct to prevent pegloticase immunogenicity when treating gout. METHODS: Case report of azathioprine use in a patient receiving pegloticase therapy for refractory tophaceous gout, and review of the literature for the impact of immunosuppressive agents on development of anti-drug antibodies...
September 20, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Bharat V Shah, Zamurrud M Patel
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and more so in India. With limited availability and high cost of therapy, barely 10 % of patients with incident end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases get treatment in India. Therefore, all possible efforts should be made to retard progression of CKD. This article reviews the role of low protein diet (LPD) in management of CKD subjects and suggests how to apply it in clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The role of LPD in retarding progression of CKD is well established in animal experimental studies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Camilo A F Salvador, Mariana R Dal Bó, Fernando H Costa, Marcia O Taipina, Eder S N Lopes, Rubens Caram
In this study, we explored the Ti-Nb-Fe system to find an optimal cost-effective composition with the lowest elastic modulus and the lowest added Nb content. Six Ti-(31-4x)Nb-(1+0.5x)Fe ingots were prepared and Nb was substituted with Fe, starting at Ti-31Nb-1.0Fe and going up to Ti-11Nb-3.5Fe (wt%). The ingots were subjected to cold rolling, recrystallization and solution treatment, followed by water-quenching (WQ), furnace cooling (FC) or step-quenching to 350°C, which caused massive formation of isothermal ω phase...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Helene R White, Jordan Beardslee, Dustin Pardini
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have delineated risk factors for adolescent regular marijuana use, few studies have identified those factors that differentiate who will and will not eventually stop using marijuana during young adulthood. This study examined the extent to which adolescent risk factors, including individual attitudes, temperament, and behaviors and peer, family, and neighborhood factors, could prospectively identify which adolescence-onset monthly marijuana users (AMMU) would stop using marijuana in young adulthood and whether race moderated these associations...
October 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Minglei Yang, Hui Ding, Lei Zhu, Guangzhi Wang
PURPOSE: Ultrasound fusion imaging is an emerging tool and benefits a variety of clinical applications, such as image-guided diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and unresectable liver metastases. However, respiratory liver motion-induced misalignment of multimodal images (i.e., fusion error) compromises the effectiveness and practicability of this method. The purpose of this paper is to develop a subject-specific liver motion model and automatic registration-based method to correct the fusion error...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Surajeet Chakravarty, Miguel A Fonseca, Sudeep Ghosh, Sugata Marjit
We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study...
2016: PloS One
David L Horn, Jong Ho Won, Jay T Rubinstein, Lynne A Werner
OBJECTIVES: Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise...
October 20, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Ashley Currier, Thérèse Migraine-George
Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.
October 21, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Elisabet Sundewall Thorén, Julie Hefting Pedersen, Nis Ove Jørnæs
Purpose: This paper describes the results from the iterative development and usability testing of an online audiological rehabilitation (OAR) program. The OAR was based on previous experience with Internet interventions and OAR. Method: The described OAR consisted of weekly learning modules, each of which had a specific topic and contained information and learning activities. A virtual coach, a trained audiologist, led the participants through the modules. The participants' feedback was collected using the "think-aloud" method in which the participants gave their feedback in a structured manner...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Xiangyi Zhang, Gavin O Jones, James L Hedrick, Robert M Waymouth
Ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a versatile approach to generate well-defined functional polyesters. Typical ring-opening catalysts are subject to a trade-off between rate and selectivity. Here we describe an effective catalytic system combining alkoxides with thioureas that catalyses rapid and selective ring-opening polymerizations. Deprotonation of thioureas by sodium, potassium or imidazolium alkoxides generates a hydrogen-bonded alcohol adduct of the thiourea anion (thioimidate). The ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide mediated by these alcohol-bonded thioimidates yields highly isotactic polylactide with fast kinetics and living polymerization behaviour, as evidenced by narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn < 1...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
J Kyle Bohannon, Krisztina Janosko, Michael R Holbrook, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jiro Wada, Jens H Kuhn, Matthew G Lackemeyer
Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission. Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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