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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431112/long-term-survival-of-the-mouse-es-cell-derived-mast-cell-medmc-brc6-in-mast-cell-deficient-kitw-sh-w-sh-mice
#1
Shohei Shibagaki, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Takashi Hiroyama, Yukio Nakamura, Akira Shibuya
Mast cells (MCs) play pivotal roles in allergic reactions and the host defense against microbial infection through the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent and IgE-independent signaling pathways. MC lines that can be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo would be useful for the study of MC-dependent immune responses. Here we investigated the functional characteristics of a mouse ES cell-derived mast cell-like cell line, MEDMC-BRC6. The cell line expressed FcεRI and c-Kit and showed degranulation and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, upon crosslinking FcεRI with IgE...
April 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430709/vitamin-d3-repressed-astrocyte-activation-following-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-vitro-and-in-neonatal-rats
#2
Ke-Ping Jiao, Shao-Min Li, Wen-Yan Lv, Ming-Liang Jv, Hai-Yan He
Vitamin D3 has been reported to be an immunity modulator and high levels of vitamin D3 are correlated with a decreased risk for developing diseases in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are important immune cells and contribute toward inflammation during neurological diseases. The vitamin D receptor has been reported to be expressed in astrocytes; however, the effect of vitamin D3 on astrocyte activation has not been studied. Here, we found that lipopolysaccharide stimulation in astrocytes could enhance the expression of vitamin D receptor and Cyp27B1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428349/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-administration-in-in-situ-thromboembolic-stroke
#3
Alicia García-Culebras, Sara Palma-Tortosa, Ana Moraga, Isaac García-Yébenes, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Maria I Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Ana L Barrios-Muñoz, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, Jesús M Pradillo, María A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation is the main complication of revascularization therapies after stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in cerebral damage and inflammation in stroke. This study was designed to determine the role of TLR4 in hemorrhagic transformation development after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. METHODS: Mice expressing (TLR4(+/+)) or lacking functional TLR4 (TLR4(-)(/-)) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion using an in situ thromboembolic model by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery, and tPA (10 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes or 3 hours after ischemia...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428267/association-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-polymorphisms-with-clinical-outcome-of-non-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#4
Theo S Plantinga, Mirela Petrulea, Marije Oosting, Leo Joosten, Doina Piciu, Jan Wa Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Carmen Georgescu
The NF-κB inflammatory pathway plays a major role in cancer development and clinical progression. Activation of NF-κB signaling is promoted by NFKB1 and inhibited by NFKBIA. The present study aimed to determine the relevance of NFKB1 rs4648068 and NFKBIA rs2233406 genetic variants for non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) susceptibility, progression and clinical outcome. This case-control and cohort study consists of a Romanian discovery cohort (157 patients, 258 controls) and a Dutch validation cohort (138 patients, 188 controls)...
April 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427896/toll-like-receptor-2-an-important-immunomodulatory-molecule-during-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#5
REVIEW
Maryam Nemati, Tiziana Larussa, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Merat Mahmoodi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10...
April 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427050/expression-of-high-mobility-group-protein-b1-in-cardiac-tissue-of-elderly-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-with-or-without-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#6
Mei Bruton, Ivana Hollan, Julie Xiao, Eva Lindroos, Knut Mikkelsen, Stein E Rynning, Kjell Saatvedt, Sven M Almdahl, Helena E Harris, Ingrid E Lundberg, Cecilia Wick
BACKGROUND: It is known from clinical practice and observational studies that elderly patients with a diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) bear a significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. The molecular mechanism, however, is still not known. Recently, high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous, highly conserved single polypeptide expressed in all mammal eukaryotic cells, has been identified to mediate myocardial dysfunction in vitro once released from the nuclei of cardiomyocytes...
April 21, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427048/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-attenuates-the-effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-by-causing-adam10-dependent-ectodomain-shedding-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#7
Won Seok Yang, Jin Ju Kim, Nam Jeong Han, Eun Kyoung Lee, Su-Kil Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) inhibits the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human aortic endothelial cells. METHODS: Cellular signaling was explored by determination of protein abundance with Western blot, measurement of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and immunofluorescence staining for a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). RESULTS: LPS stimulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and subsequent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)...
April 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426135/tlr-stimulated-eosinophils-mediate-recruitment-and-activation-of-nk-cells-in-vivo
#8
Shaunagh M O'Flaherty, Kripitch Sutummaporn, Walina L Häggtoft, Amy P Worrall, Marzia Rizzo, Viorica Braniste, Petter Höglund, Nadir Kadri, Benedict J Chambers
Eosinophils like many myeloid innate immune cells can provide cytokines and chemokines for the activation of other immune cells upon TLR stimulation. When TLR stimulated eosinophils were inoculated i.p. into wildtype mice, NK cells were rapidly recruited and exhibited anti-tumor cytotoxicity. However when mice depleted of CD11c(+) cells were used, a marked decrease in the number of recruited NK cells was observed. We postulated that CpG or LPS from the injected eosinophils could be transferred to host cells, which in turn could recruit NK cells...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425217/the-release-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-is-mediated-via-map-kinases-rather-than-inflammasome-signaling-pathway-in-keratinocytes
#9
Thomas Ondet, Béatrice Muscatelli-Groux, Cédric Coulouarn, Sacha Robert, Thomas Gicquel, Aude Bodin, Vincent Lagente, Jean-Alexis Grimaud
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in the skin and airway epithelial tissues, which are the most important sites of host-pathogen interactions. TLRs recognize the three-dimensional structure of pathogen associated molecules and are thus useful markers of the innate immune response. Here, we investigated the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the activation of the TLR and Nod Like Receptors (NLR) pathways in human keratinocytes. Analysis of the inflammasome compounds revealed that NLRP3 and TLR4, both of which are components of inflammasome complexes involved in the activation of IL-1β, were not expressed in keratinocytes...
April 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424738/protective-effects-of-li-fei-xiao-yan-prescription-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Lie-Qiang Xu, Xiu-Ting Yu, Shu-Hua Gui, Jian-Hui Xie, Xiu-Fen Wang, Zu-Qing Su, Yu-Cui Li, Xiao-Ping Lai, Janis Ya-Xian Zhan, You-Liang Xie
Li-Fei-Xiao-Yan prescription (LFXY) has been clinically used in China to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases including inflammatory lung diseases. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of LFXY in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, the mice were orally pretreated with LFXY or dexamethasone (positive drug) before the intratracheal instillation of LPS. Our data indicated that pretreatment with LFXY enhanced the survival rate of ALI mice, reversed pulmonary edema and permeability, improved LPS-induced lung histopathology impairment, suppressed the excessive inflammatory responses via decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and chemokine (MIP-2) and inhibiting inflammatory cells migration, and repressed oxidative stress through the inhibition of MPO and MDA contents and the upregulation of antioxidants (SOD and GSH) activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424490/direct-recognition-of-lps-drive-tlr4-expressing-cd8-t-cell-activation-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Archana Tripathy, Shweta Khanna, Prasanta Padhan, Shuchi Smita, Sunil Raghav, Bhawna Gupta
Aberrant immune responses characterize autoimmune disorders like Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) wherein lymphocytes are recognized as key players. Role of CD8(+) T cells in RA has been less defined however we found that these cells are activated in RA patients with increased expression of cytolytic granules and inflammatory mediators thereby modulating immune responses contributing to disease severity. Though unconventional expression of different Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) on CD8(+) T cells has been proposed but their expression and role in T cell activation and differentiation in RA still remains obscure...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423670/invasive-fusobacterium-nucleatum-activates-beta-catenin-signaling-in-colorectal-cancer-via-a-tlr4-p-pak1-cascade
#12
Yongyu Chen, Yan Peng, Jiahui Yu, Ting Chen, Yaxin Wu, Lei Shi, Qing Li, Jiao Wu, Xiangsheng Fu
The underlying mechanism of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Here, we examined Fn abundance in CRC tissues, as well as β-catenin, TLR4 and PAK1 protein abundance in Fn positive and Fn negative CRCs. Furthermore, we isolated a strain of Fn (F01) from a CRC tissue and examined whether Fn (F01) infection of colon cancer cells activated β-catenin signaling via the TLR4/P-PAK1/P-β-catenin S675 cascade. Invasive Fn was abundant in 62.2% of CRC tissues...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423002/human-sr-bii-mediates-saa-uptake-and-contributes-to-saa-pro-inflammatory-signaling-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Irina N Baranova, Ana C P Souza, Alexander V Bocharov, Tatyana G Vishnyakova, Xuzhen Hu, Boris L Vaisman, Marcelo J Amar, Zhigang Chen, Alan T Remaley, Amy P Patterson, Peter S T Yuen, Robert A Star, Thomas L Eggerman
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein with cytokine-like and chemotactic properties, that is markedly up-regulated during various inflammatory conditions. Several receptors, including FPRL-1, TLR2, TLR4, RAGE, class B scavenger receptors, SR-BI and CD36, have been identified as SAA receptors. This study provides new evidence that SR-BII, splice variant of SR-BI, could function as an SAA receptor mediating its uptake and pro-inflammatory signaling. The uptake of Alexa Fluor488 SAA was markedly (~3 fold) increased in hSR-BII-expressing HeLa cells when compared with mock-transfected cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421813/hemin-causes-lung-microvascular-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction-by-necroptotic-cell-death
#14
Sunit Singla, Justin R Sysol, Benjamin Dille, Nicole Jones, Jiwang Chen, Roberto F Machado
Hemin, the oxidized prosthetic moiety of hemoglobin, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell patients by virtue of its endothelial-activating properties. In this study, we examined whether hemin can cause lung microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction. By assessing transendothelial resistance using electrical cell impedance sensing, and by directly measuring trans-monolayer FITC-dextran flux, we found that hemin does cause endothelial barrier dysfunction in a concentration-dependent manner...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421541/systemic-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-brain-injury-the-astrocyte-as-an-emerging-player
#15
Bruna Bellaver, João Paulo Dos Santos, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Severe systemic inflammation has strong effects on brain functions, promoting permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and high mortality rates. Additionally, hippocampal damage seems to be directly involved in this process and astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and in the neuroimmune response. However, the contribution of the astrocytes to the pathology of acute brain dysfunction is not well understood. Recently, our group established a protocol for obtaining astrocyte cultures from mature brain to allow the characterization of these cells and their functions under pathologic conditions...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421347/tu-100-exerts-a-protective-effect-against-bacterial-translocation-by-maintaining-the-tight-junction
#16
Chie Takasu, Wubetu Gizachew Yismaw, Nobuhiro Kurita, Kozo Yoshikawa, Hideya Kashihara, Toru Kono, Mitsuo Shimada
PURPOSE: We previously reported that TU-100 suppresses irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-induced inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to further clarify the mechanism of CPT-11-induced bacterial translocation (BT) and the effect of TU-100 on BT. METHODS: Cell cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro by a WST-8 assay. For the in vivo experiments, rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group, the CPT-11 group (250 mg/kg i...
April 18, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421060/the-heme-metabolite-carbon-monoxide-facilitates-kshv-infection-by-inhibiting-tlr4-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Sara Botto, Jean K Gustin, Ashlee V Moses
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and certain rare B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. KSHV infection of endothelial cells (EC) in vitro increases expression of the inducible host-encoded enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is also strongly expressed in KS tumors. HO-1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme into iron, biliverdin and the gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO), all of which share anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, pro-survival, and tumorigenic activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420753/the-kinase-tpl2-activates-erk-and-p38-signaling-to-promote-neutrophilic-inflammation
#18
Kate Senger, Victoria C Pham, Eugene Varfolomeev, Jason A Hackney, Cesar A Corzo, Jenna Collier, Vivian W C Lau, Zhiyu Huang, Kajal Hamidzhadeh, Patrick Caplazi, Ivan Peng, A Francesca Setiadi, Ross Francis, Andres Paler-Martinez, Youngsu C Kwon, Vladimir Ramirez-Carrozzi, Yonglian Sun, Patricia W Grigg, Merone Roose-Girma, Surinder Jeet, Kai H Barck, Anna Pham, Naruhisa Ota, Connie Ha, Jeremy Stinson, Joseph Guillory, Lucinda Tam, Zora Modrusan, Claire Emson, Brent S McKenzie, Michael J Townsend, Richard A D Carano, Søren Warming, Domagoj Vucic, Jason DeVoss, Wyne P Lee, Jennie R Lill, Ali A Zarrin
Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2; also known as MAP3K8) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAP3K) that phosphorylates the MAPK kinases MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2), which, in turn, activate the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 (ERK1/2) in macrophages stimulated through the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). We describe a conserved and critical role for TPL2 in mediating the effector functions of neutrophils through the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway...
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420166/hypaphorine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-endothelial-inflammation-via-regulation-of-tlr4-and-ppar-%C3%AE-dependent-on-pi3k-akt-mtor-signal-pathway
#19
Haijian Sun, Xuexue Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Liying Qiu
Endothelial lesion response to injurious stimuli is a necessary step for initiating inflammatory cascades in blood vessels. Hypaphorine (Hy) from different marine sources is shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the potential roles and possible molecular mechanisms of Hy in endothelial inflammation have yet to be fully clarified. We showed that Hy significantly inhibited the positive effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as induction of the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in HMEC-1 cells...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419838/peptidoglycan-accelerates-granulopoiesis-through-a-tlr2-and-myd88-dependent-pathway
#20
Masaya Takehara, Soshi Seike, Teruhisa Takagishi, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Granulopoiesis is accelerated during Gram-negative bacterial infection through activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we tested whether activation of TLR2 promotes granulopoiesis by using the well-known TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN). Neutrophils in bone marrow and spleen, and plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were increased in mice that had received intraperitoneal PGN administration. Incorporation of BrdU into bone marrow neutrophils increased, demonstrating that PGN accelerated granulopoiesis...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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