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Lei Liang, Xue Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoyong Li, Yechen Wu, Rongyu Shi, Jinghua Jiang, Lu Gao, Fei Ye, Qiudong Zhao, Rong Li, Lixin Wei, Zhipeng Han
Babao Dan (BBD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to observe the protective effect of BBD on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and explore it possible mechanism. BBD was administrated while DEN was given. After eight weeks, values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) indicated that BBD significantly protected liver from damaging by DEN and had no obvious side effect on normal rat livers...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Sawako Moriwaki, Takeshi Into, Keiko Suzuki, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Takashi Takata, Keigo Shibayama, Shumpei Niida
Chronic inflammation-associated bone destruction, which is observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis, is mediated by excessive osteoclastogenesis. We showed previously that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism, acts as an endogenous activator of such pathological osteoclastogenesis, independent of its enzymatic activity. GGT accumulation is clinically observed in the joints of RA patients, and, in animals, the administration of recombinant GGT to the gingival sulcus as an in vivo periodontitis model induces an increase in the number of osteoclasts...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lijun Sun, Jingying Sun, Xueping Huo, Yaping Li, Yuan Li, Xin Xie, Jun Hu
Objective To explore the effect of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation on melanogenesis in melanocytes. Methods The primary melanocytes were isolated, cultured and then stimulated by TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Firstly, the melanin content changes were detected in melanocytes, and then quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to determine the expression levels of pre-melanosomal protein (Pmel17), tyrosinase (TYR) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Finally, the melanosomes were observed by electron microscopy...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Zhongping Xu, Monal Sharma, Andrew Gelman, Ramsey Hachem, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently identified as modulators of immune responses after human lung transplantation (LTx). This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after LTx. METHODS: Of the 39 recipients, 14 (35.9%) developed Grade 3 PGD (i.e., severe PGD) within the first 72 hours of LTx. The remaining 25 recipients (64.1%) had Grade 2 or less PGD, and served as the control group...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Fan-Shiu Tsai, Li-Wei Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Lupeol belongs to pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes and exhibits in edible vegetables, fruits and many plants. Many researches indicated that lupeol possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-mutagenic effects. From various disease-targeted animal models, these reports indicated that lupeol has anti-diabetic, anti-asthma, anti-arthritic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and anticancer efficiency under various routes of administration such as topical, oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yahui Fu, Jinlai Lei, Yan Zhuang, Kun Zhang, Daigang Lu
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) by stimulating several mediators that contribute to cartilage degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) inhibitors HMGB1 A-box on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and the production of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes after activation by IL-1β. We found that the overexpression of HMGB1 A-box significantly decreased the IL-1β-stimulated the production of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, and also reduced the elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Shiho Takakuwa, Natsumi Mizuno, Takayuki Takano, Sanki Asakawa, Taiki Sato, Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa
The role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in various cell types, including inflammatory cells, has been extensively studied. However, regulation of NHE1 protein level in activated inflammatory cells is yet to be characterized. In this study, we investigated whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands can regulate NHE1 protein level in the mouse macrophage-like RAW 264 cell line. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand, lowered NHE1 level and activity in RAW 264 cells and in primary murine macrophages...
October 11, 2016: Immunobiology
Jianhua Zhu, Jing Luo, Yongchao Li, Min Jia, Yueqin Wang, Yan Huang, Shuhong Ke
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein with multi-functions and plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis in various human cancers. In the present study, we found that HMGB1 induced migration of in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by up-regulating integrin αvβ3 expression. Further investigation evidenced that HMGB1 activated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-κB, which was responsible for αvβ3 up-regulation. Furthermore, HMGB1-induced integrin αvβ3 expression led to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and increased paxillin and talin mRNA expression...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rakesh Deshar, Eun-Bee Cho, Sungjoo Kim Yoon, Jong-Bok Yoon
Signaling through many transmembrane receptors is terminated by their sorting to the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivescular bodies (MVBs) and subsequent lysosomal degradation. ILV formation requires the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. CC2D1A and CC2D1B interact with the CHMP4 family of proteins, the major subunit of the ESCRT-III complex, however, their roles in receptor degradation and signaling are poorly defined. Here, we report that CC2D1A binds to CHMP4B polymers formed on endosomes to regulate the endosomal sorting pathway...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Pap) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, Nora Zidane, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Christine Harmant, Marie Lopez, Matthieu Deschamps, Nadia Naffakh, Darragh Duffy, Anja Coen, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frederic Clément, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Janet Kelso, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hitendra S Chand, Yohannes A Mebratu, Marena Montera, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Tianyi Cao, Han Zhang, Leilei Zhou, Yufeng Wang, Guanhuan Du, Hui Yao, Yanni Wang, Qingqiong Luo, Fuxiang Chen, Wanchun Wang, Guoyao Tang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to optimize the culture system of keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and verify whether this model could simulate the local inflammatory environment of OLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Keratinocytes were isolated from 48 OLP patients and cultured in vitro. The ultrastructure of OLP keratinocytes was observed via electron microscopy. The expression of pancytokeratin and vimentin was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the proliferation of OLP keratinocytes was measured by CCK-8 assay...
October 20, 2016: Oral Diseases
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Francoise Gregoire, Nargis Bolaky, Valerie Delforge, Jason Perret, Christine Delporte
Aquaglyceroporins, belonging to the family of aquaporins (AQPs), are integral plasma membrane proteins permeable to water and glycerol that have emerged as key players in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and to investigate the changes in expression of aquaglyceroporins in 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes and subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking inflammation occurring during obesity. Furthermore, the study aimed at identifying the signaling cascade involved in the regulation of aquaglyceroporins expression upon LPS stimulation...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Şivge Kurgan, Shevali Kansal, Daniel Nguyen, Danielle Stephens, Yannis Koroneos, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E Van Dyke, Alpdogan Kantarci
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil function is critical for the initiation and progression of infecto-inflammatory diseases. Key quorum-sensing plaque bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum act as bridging species between early and late colonizer pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis as the biofilm ages and periodontal inflammation increases. This study was designed to determine the impact of different F. nucleatum strains on neutrophil function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and cultured with F...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Xiaohui Liu, Ting Dong, Yu Zhou, Niu Huang, Xiaoguang Lei
Glycolipids are important structural components of biological membranes and perform crucial functions in living systems, including signaling transduction and interaction with extracellular environment. However, the mechanistic exploration of glycolipids in vivo is challenging because they are not genetically encoded. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of bifunctional monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) probes as a model by introducing diazirine and terminal alkyne moieties on an aliphatic chain. In combination with proteome profiling and molecular modeling, we have demonstrated that MGDG alleviates inflammation by antagonizing TLR4...
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Jing Zhang, Ya-Qin Tan, Ming-Hui Wei, Xiao-Jing Ye, Guan-Ying Chen, Rui Lu, Ge-Fei Du, Gang Zhou
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune mucocutaneous disease affected by the interactions among the keratinocytes, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. B7-H1 induced by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), can suppress T cell immune reaction, thereby resulting in immune tolerance. However, the role of TLRs-mediated B7-H1 on keratinocytes in the immune response of OLP is still unknown. The present study showed that TLR4 could induce time-coursed B7-H1 expression on oral keratinocytes, and blocking NF-κB or PI3K/mTOR pathway down-regulated B7-H1 transcriptional expression...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Xiao-Qian Li, Zai-Li Zhang, Wen-Fei Tan, Xi-Jia Sun, Hong Ma
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion...
2016: PloS One
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