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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778946/mechanisms-underlying-anticonvulsant-and-proconvulsant-actions-of-norepinephrine
#1
REVIEW
Maedeh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to exert a potent suppressant effect on seizure development. On the other hand, several lines of evidence have shown that increased NE level is proconvulsant under certain conditions. These data suggest that variations in NE levels could affect modulatory action of noradrenergic system on seizures. Less, however, is known about the mechanisms by which adrenergic pathways protect against seizures or promote seizures. Knowing the mechanisms involved in anti- or proconvulsive effects of NE may help to the development of new therapeutic candidates for patients with refractory epilepsy...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778878/structural-elucidation-of-lignin-carbohydrate-complexes-lccs-from-chinese-quince-chaenomeles-sinensis-fruit
#2
Zhao Qin, Yu-Xiang Ma, Hua-Min Liu, Guang-Yong Qin, Xue-De Wang
The lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) of the mesocarp (MS) and near the endocarp (NE) of Chinese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis) fruits were analyzed using three different methods of fractioning: milled wood lignin (MWL), LCC extracted from crude MWL with acetic acid (LCC-AcOH), and Bjorkman LCC. The MWL and LCC fractions were characterized by carbohydrate composition analysis, SEC, FT-IR, Py-GC/MS, thermal analysis and 2D HSQC NMR. Notably, large amounts of arabinose and galactose remained in the Björkman LCC fractions suggesting a chemical bond between the lignin and pectin...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778534/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-protects-the-heart-from-oxidative-stress-induced-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-activation-of-ampk-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#3
Xin Li, Di Wu, Ye Tian
Diabetes affects cardiac structure and function, where it leads to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19, an enterokine, is synthesized and released into the ileum. In the present study, we revealed that FGF19 induced an antioxidant response through stimulating the expression of nuclear erythroid factor 2 (NE-F2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and as well as reducing ROS production through the AMPK signaling pathway...
May 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778225/identification-growth-and-toxicity-assessment-of-coolia-meunier-dinophyceae-from-nova-scotia-canada
#4
Nancy I Lewis, Jennifer L Wolny, John Claude Achenbach, Lee Ellis, Joseph S Pitula, Cheryl Rafuse, Detbra S Rosales, Pearse McCarron
Benthic dinoflagellates of the toxigenic genus Coolia Meunier (Dinophyceae) are known to have a global distribution in both tropical and temperate waters. The type species, C. monotis, has been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the NE Atlantic and from Rhode Island, USA in the NW Atlantic, whereas other species in the genus have been reported from tropical locations. Coolia cells were observed in algal drift samples collected at seven sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Clonal isolates were established from four of these locations and identified with light and scanning electron microscopy, then confirmed with genetic sequencing to be C...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777385/changes-in-selection-intensity-on-the-mitogenome-of-subterranean-and-fossorial-rodents-respective-to-aboveground-species
#5
William Corrêa Tavares, Hector N Seuánez
Several rodent lineages independently acquired the ability to dig complex networks of tunnels where fossorial and subterranean species spend part or their whole life, respectively. Their underground lifestyles imposed harsh physiological demands, presumably triggering strong selective pressures on genes involved in energy metabolism like those coding for mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, underground lifestyles must have increased inbreeding and susceptibility to population bottlenecks as well as restricted migration, leading to small effective population size (Ne ) that, in turn, must have reduced the effectiveness of selection...
May 18, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776812/preservation-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-improves-primary-graft-function-of-murine-lung-transplants
#6
Jessica Götzfried, Natalia F Smirnova, Carmela Morrone, Brice Korkmaz, Ali Önder Yildirim, Oliver Eickelberg, Dieter E Jenne
BACKGROUND: Vascular damage and primary graft dysfunction increase with prolonged preservation times of transplanted donor lungs. Hence, storage and conservation of donated lungs in protein-free, dextran-containing electrolyte solutions, like Perfadex, is limited to about 6 hours. We hypothesized that transplanted lungs are protected against neutrophil-mediated proteolytic damage by adding α1 -anti-trypsin (AAT), a highly abundant human plasma proteinase inhibitor, to Perfadex. METHODS: A realistic clinically oriented murine model of lung transplantation was used to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion process...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775613/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-attenuates-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-nlgn3-deficient-mice
#7
Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775408/lack-of-tone-in-mouse-small-mesenteric-arteries-leads-to-outward-remodeling-which-can-be-prevented-by-prolonged-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction
#8
Anika Klein, Philomeena Daphne Joseph, Vibeke Grøsfjeld Christensen, Lars Jørn Jensen, Jens Christian Brings Jacobsen
Inward remodeling of resistance vessels is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Thus far, the remodeling process remains incompletely elucidated, but the activation level of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) appears to play a central role. Accordingly, previous data suggest that an antagonistic and, supposedly beneficial, response - outward remodeling - may follow prolonged vasodilatation. This study aims to determine if 1) outward remodeling follows 3 days of vessel culture without tone, 2) a similar response can be elicited in a much shorter 4-hour time frame and finally 3) a 4-hour response can be prevented or reversed by the presence of vasoconstrictors in the medium...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775332/many-body-theory-for-positronium-atom-interactions
#9
D G Green, A R Swann, G F Gribakin
A many-body-theory approach has been developed to study positronium-atom interactions. As first applications, we calculate the elastic scattering and momentum-transfer cross sections and the pickoff annihilation rate ^{1}Z_{eff} for Ps collisions with He and Ne. For He the cross section is in agreement with previous coupled-state calculations, while comparison with experiment for both atoms highlights discrepancies between various sets of measured data. In contrast, the calculated ^{1}Z_{eff} (0.13 and 0.26 for He and Ne, respectively) are in excellent agreement with the measured values...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774835/bioclinical-test-to-predict-nephropathia-epidemica-severity-at-hospital-admission
#10
Maxime Hentzien, Stéphanie Mestrallet, Pascale Halin, Laure-Anne Pannet, Delphine Lebrun, Moustapha Dramé, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Jean-Marc Galempoix, Christophe Strady, Jean-Marc Reynes, Christian Penalba, Amélie Servettaz
We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with serologically proven nephropathia epidemica (NE) living in Ardennes Department, France, during 2000-2014 to develop a bioclinical test predictive of severe disease. Among 205 patients, 45 (22.0%) had severe NE. We found the following factors predictive of severe NE: nephrotoxic drug exposure (p = 0.005, point value 10); visual disorders (p = 0.02, point value 8); microscopic or macroscopic hematuria (p = 0.04, point value 7); leukocyte count >10 × 109 cells/L (p = 0...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774181/embolization-with-ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer-onyx-%C3%A2-for-peripheral-hemostatic-and-non-hemostatic-applications-a-feasibility-and-safety-study
#11
Romaric Né, Olivier Chevallier, Nicolas Falvo, Olivier Facy, Pierre-Emmanuel Berthod, Christophe Galland, Sophie Gehin, Marco Midulla, Romaric Loffroy
Background: Onyx® is a liquid embolic agent, which is approved for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesions but still rarely used in peripheral interventional radiology. The goal of this study is to report the feasibility and safety of embolization with Onyx® for peripheral hemostatic and non-hemostatic endovascular procedures. Methods: Retrospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent visceral or peripheral embolization with Onyx® for hemostatic or non-hemostatic purpose in our department between May 2014 and November 2016...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772440/inhibition-of-nogo-b-promotes-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Junli Li, Wenchao Wu, Yanguo Xin, Mingyue Zhao, Xiaojing Liu
AIMS: Nogo-B is a key endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that regulates ER stress signaling. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains poorly understood. ER stress is interrelated with autophagy in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that both ER stress and autophagy signaling mediate the function of Nogo-B in cardiac hypertrophy. MAIN METHODS: Rat models of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with norepinephrine (Ne) and primary cardiac fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were used in this study...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771997/core-neurological-examination-items-for-neurology-clerks-a-modified-delphi-study-with-a-grass-roots-approach
#13
Chi-Hung Liu, Li-Ling Hsu, Cheng-Ting Hsiao, Suh-Ing Hsieh, Chun-Wei Chang, Elaine Shinwei Huang, Yeu-Jhy Chang
BACKGROUND: With the evolution of treatments for neurological diseases, the contents of core neurological examinations (NEs) for medical students may need to be modified. We aimed to establish a consensus on the core NE items for neurology clerks and compare viewpoints between different groups of panelists. METHODS: First, a pilot group proposed the core contents of NEs for neurology clerks. The proposed core NE items were then subject to a modified web-based Delphi process using the online software "SurveyMonkey"...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770827/%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-induced-high-current-density-and-improved-efficiency-in-ternary-organic-solar-cells
#14
Lijuan Li, Hui Lin, Xiao Kong, Xiaoyang Du, Xinwei Chen, Ling Zhou, Silu Tao, Caijun Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang
Ternary blend systems have been used to enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, it is still a challenge to find suitable third components that concurrently possess complementary light absorption and well-matched energy levels. Here, a small organic molecule, 4,4'-(9,9-dihexyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(N,N-bis(4-(pyren-1-yl)phenyl)anili-ne) (DFNPy), which contains a triphenylamine core and bulky pyrene rings, was designed and used to construct ternary blend OSCs...
May 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767240/munc13%C3%A2-4-mediates-human-neutrophil-elastase%C3%A2-induced-airway-mucin5ac-hypersecretion-by-interacting-with-syntaxin2
#16
Rui Xu, Jia Zhou, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Qi Li, Juliy M Perelman, Victor P Kolosov
The overexpression and hypersecretion of mucus is a hallmark of chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease. Mucin5AC (MUC5AC) is a major component of airway gel‑forming mucin. Members of the Unc13 (Munc13) protein family act as important activators of granule exocytosis from various types of mammalian cells. The present study aimed to determine the role of Munc13 family proteins in MUC5AC secretion via an in vitro study with BEAS‑2B and Calu‑3 cell lines. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting indicated that stimulation of the cells with 100 nM human neutrophil elastase (hNE) for 1 h did not affect the expression of either unc13 homolog B (Munc13‑2) or unc13 homolog D (Munc13‑4), but immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that hNE treatment was associated with the recruitment of Munc13‑4 to the plasma membrane...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767160/effects-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-and-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acid-concentrations-of-broilers-in-an-experimental-necrotic-enteritis-model
#17
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767149/the-role-of-supplemental-glycine-in-establishing-a-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis-challenge-model-in-broiler-chickens
#18
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease in the broiler industry. With the move towards removal of antibiotics from feeds, solutions to control subclinical NE are desperately being sought. Dietary glycine has been shown to promote proliferation of Clostridium perfringens (Cp) and may thus be useful to include in a NE challenge model. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increased dietary glycine levels on subclinical NE. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was carried out using day-old male Ross 308 chicks ( n  = 624) allocated to 48 floor pens with 8 treatments of 6 replicates with 11 birds per treatment...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766930/measurement-of-the-permeability-perfusion-and-histogram-characteristics-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-with-extended-tofts-linear-model
#19
Ping Yin, Hua Xiong, Yi Liu, Shambhu K Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li, Nan Hong
Objective: To investigate the application value of using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with extended Tofts linear model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and its correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores and disease duration. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DCE-MRI with a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. An extended Tofts linear model was used to quantitatively measure MR imaging biomarkers...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765759/crystal-structures-of-5-12-dimethyl-1-4-8-11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane-cobalt-iii-mono-phenyl-acetyl-ide-and-bis-phenyl-acetyl-ide
#20
Benjamin M Oxley, Brandon Mash, Matthias Zeller, Susannah Banziger, Tong Ren
Reported in this contribution are the synthesis and crystal structures of new mono- and bis-phenyl-acetyl-ides based on CoIII (DMC) (DMC is 5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne). Chlorido-(5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne)(phenyl-ethyn-yl)cobalt(III) chloride-aceto-nitrile-methanol (1/1/1), [Co(C8 H5 )Cl(C12 H28 N4 )]Cl·CH3 CN·CH3 OH, 1 , and (5,12-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne)bis-(phenyl-ethyn-yl)cobalt(III) tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate-di-chloro-methane (2/1), [Co(C8 H5 )2 (C12 H28 N4 )]2 (CF3 SO3 )2 ·CH2 Cl2 , 2 , were prepared under weak-base conditions in satisfactory yields...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
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