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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903331/biomarkers-in-prodromal-parkinson-disease-a-qualitative-review
#1
Christine A Cooper, Lama M Chahine
BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, the concept of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD) has been increasingly recognized. This term refers to individuals who do not fulfill motor diagnostic criteria for PD, but who have clinical, genetic, or biomarker characteristics suggesting risk of developing PD in the future. Clinical diagnosis of prodromal PD has low specificity, prompting the need for objective biomarkers with higher specificity. In this qualitative review, we discuss objectively defined putative biomarkers for PD and prodromal PD...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898200/transcranial-sonography-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
Xudong Li, Shuang Xue, Shuhong Jia, Zhi Zhou, Yanan Qiao, Chunlei Hou, Kun Wei, Wenjing Zheng, Pei Rong, Jinsong Jiao
AIMS: We investigated preclinical abnormalities revealed by transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) compared with those revealed in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and in normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with iRBD, 21 patients with MSA, 22 patients with PD and 21 normal controls were included in this study. All participants underwent one night of video-polysomnography (PSG) monitoring, and the sleep parameters were analyzed using Polysmith software and by visual analysis...
November 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888722/a-pilot-study-on-predictors-of-brainstem-raphe-abnormality-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Milutin Kostić, Ana Munjiza, Danilo Pesic, Amir Peljto, Ivana Novakovic, Valerija Dobricic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Milija Mijajlovic
BACKGROUND: Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. METHODS: TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857051/elevation-of-the-acth-cortisol-ratio-in-female-opioid-dependent-patients-a-biomarker-of-aging-and-correlate-of-metabolic-and-immune-activation
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Whilst the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis is a major stress axis, and is necessarily perturbed in opioid dependency, and stress is a major contributor to aging mechanisms, the HPA axis has not been studied in opioid dependency in an age-dependent manner. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis - Differences in age dependent levels of HPA components. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of general medical and opioid dependent patients (ODP, GMP)...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837189/middle-cerebral-artery-diameter-changes-during-rhythmic-handgrip-exercise-in-humans
#5
J Verbree, Agt Bronzwaer, M A van Buchem, Mjap Daemen, J J van Lieshout, Mjp van Osch
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography is a frequently employed technique for quantifying cerebral blood flow by assuming a constant arterial diameter. Given that exercise increases arterial pressure by sympathetic activation, we hypothesized that exercise might induce a change in the diameter of large cerebral arteries. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) cross-sectional area was assessed in response to handgrip exercise by direct magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observations. Twenty healthy subjects (11 female) performed three 5 min bouts of rhythmic handgrip exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction, alternated with 5 min of rest...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812167/usefulness-of-cardiac-mibg-scintigraphy-olfactory-testing-and-substantia-nigra-hyperechogenicity-as-additional-diagnostic-markers-for-distinguishing-between-parkinson-s-disease-and-atypical-parkinsonian-syndromes
#6
Hiroaki Fujita, Keisuke Suzuki, Ayaka Numao, Yuji Watanabe, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Masayuki Miyamoto, Koichi Hirata
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the utility of the combined use of cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, olfactory testing, and substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography (TCS) in differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APSs), such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: Cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, card-type odor identification testing (Open Essence (OE), Wako, Japan), and TCS were performed with 101 patients with PD and 38 patients with APSs (MSA and PSP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790125/a-case-of-turner-syndrome-with-multiple-embolic-infarcts
#7
Cindy W Yoon, Eungseok Lee, Byung-Nam Yoon, Hee-Kwon Park, Joung-Ho Rha
Only a few cases of Turner syndrome (TS) with ischemic stroke have been reported. Various arteriopathies of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia, moyamoya syndrome, and premature atherosclerosis have been assumed to be the cause of ischemic stroke in TS. There has been no case report of a TS patient presenting with an embolic stroke pattern without any cerebral arteriopathy. A 28-year-old woman with TS was referred to our hospital because of abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750247/transcranial-sonography-and-datscan-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor
#8
Joana Jesus-Ribeiro, António Freire, João Sargento-Freitas, Mário Sousa, Fernando Silva, Fradique Moreira, Maria João Cunha, Uwe Walter, Cristina Januário
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) can sometimes be a challenge in the early stages of the disease. Both transcranial sonography (TCS) and DaTSCAN are recommended as auxiliary examinations for the differential diagnosis of PD; however, only few data exist regarding their diagnostic accuracy in the early stage of PD and essential tremor (ET). METHODS: We evaluated patients with clinically suspected diagnosis of PD at early stages (Hoehn and Yahr ≤2) or ET...
2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740993/ultrasound-in-neurology
#9
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Andrei V Alexandrov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low cost, avoidance of irradiation, and high temporal resolution are inherent advantages of ultrasound imaging that translate into multiple clinical uses in many domains of neurology. This article presents clinical uses of ultrasound examination in cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, and peripheral nervous system diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Modern treatment and prevention of ischemic stroke rely on prompt diagnosis. Ultrasonography has found a place as a noninvasive screening test and bedside technique that provides estimates of the degree of stenosis as well as hemodynamic and structural information about intracranial and extracranial vessels in real time...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731537/transcranial-sonography-in-dopa-responsive-dystonia
#10
M Svetel, A Tomić, M Mijajlović, V Dobričić, I Novaković, T Pekmezović, L Brajković, V S Kostić
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mutations in the GCH1 gene, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1, the enzyme critically important for dopamine production in nigrostriatal neurons, are the most common cause of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), characterized predominantly by limb dystonia, although parkinsonian features may also be present. It has been suggested that DRD is a neurochemical rather than neurodegenerative disorder. METHODS: Transcranial brain sonography, which might be a risk marker for nigral injury, was obtained from 141 subjects divided into four groups: (i) 11 patients with genetically confirmed DRD; (ii) 55 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); (iii) 30 patients diagnosed as isolated adult-onset focal dystonia; and (iv) 45 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699751/-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-implications-of-transcranial-color-coded-duplex-sonography-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-tibi-and-cogif-scores-validation
#11
P Sobrino-Garcia, A Garcia-Pastor, A Garcia-Arratibel, R Dominguez-Rubio, P M Rodriguez-Cruz, A M Iglesias-Mohedano, F Diaz-Otero, P Vazquez-Alen, Y Fernandez-Bullido, J A Villanueva-Osorio, A Gil-Nunez
AIM: To describe the information provided by transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD) sonography for therapeutic decision-making in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to analyze the relationship between TCCD findings and the severity and prognosis of stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: TCCD performed within the six first hours after an acute ischemic stroke were analyzed in our institution. The presence of an arterial occlusion and its location were collected using TIBI (Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia) and COGIF (Consensus on Grading Intracranial Flow Obstruction) criteria...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698183/resistive-index-variability-in-anterior-cerebral-artery-measurements-during-daily-transcranial-duplex-sonography-a-predictor-of-cerebrovascular-complications-in-infants-undergoing-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#12
Carlos A Zamora, Alexander Oshmyansky, Melania Bembea, Ivor Berkowitz, Eman Alqahtani, Shen Liu, James McGree, Steven Stern, Thierry A G M Huisman, Aylin Tekes
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the value of resistive index (RI) variability in predicting cerebrovascular complications during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: This retrospective study included 36 infants treated by ECMO. The RI was measured on daily transfontanellar duplex sonography, obtained first without fontanel compression and then after gentle compression with the transducer. The age at ECMO cannulation, sex, gestational age at birth, method of delivery, indication, and type and duration of ECMO were recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689165/transcranial-color-coded-sonography-to-assess-collateral-posterior-pathways-in-a-case-of-spontaneous-bilateral-carotid-arteries-dissection-in-the-absence-of-ischaemic-event
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689154/the-posterior-cerebral-artery-and-its-main-cortical-branches-identified-with-noninvasive-transcranial-color-coded-duplex-sonography
#14
P E Frid, S J Schreiber, O Pade, F Doepp, J Valdueza
PURPOSE: To differentiate PCA segments and cortical branches by means of transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) and to measure flow parameters at rest and during visual stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 healthy subjects with a good acoustic temporal bone window were examined. The main stem of the PCA (P1, P2 and P3) and 4 main cortical branches - the anterior temporal artery (ATA), the occipital temporal artery (OTA), the parietooccipital artery (POA) and the calcarine artery (CA) - were assessed using an axial transtemporal approach...
November 2015: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677727/neuropsychological-performance-and-seizure-control-after-subsequent-anteromesial-temporal-lobe-resection-following-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy
#15
Thomas Sauvigny, Katja Brückner, Lasse Dührsen, Oliver Heese, Manfred Westphal, Stefan R G Stodieck, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (sAHE) is a well-established treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy, commonly with favorable neuropsychological outcome. Yet, it is still unknown if subsequent resection of the anteromesial temporal lobe (AMTLR), when necessary, deteriorates neuropsychological performance in this selected group of patients. Thus, we evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological data of patients who, due to insufficient seizure control after sAHE, received a subsequent ipsilateral AMTLR and compared these findings with patients who did not receive a second resection (control group)...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648976/determinants-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-during-the-trail-making-test-in-schizophrenia
#16
Daniel Schuepbach, Stephan T Egger, Heinz Boeker, Stefan Duschek, Stefan Vetter, Erich Seifritz, Sabine C Herpertz
Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in cognitive functioning, and studies on cerebral hemodynamics have revealed aberrant patterns of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV), an equivalent of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Therefore, we carried out a controlled study that assessed MFV in schizophrenia during a well-known neuropsychological task, the Trail Making Test (TMT). We measured MFV in the middle cerebral arteries using functional transcranial Doppler sonography in 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642106/transcranial-sonography-of-subcortical-structures-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
P Puz, A Lasek-Bal, P Radecka
BACKGROUND: Transcranial sonography may be applied to assess the basal ganglia nuclei and brain atrophy by the measurement of the width of the third ventricle. The aim of this study was to assess usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the echogenicity of subcortical structures and the width of the third ventricle. METHOD: Transcranial sonography evaluation of substantia nigra, brain stem raphe nuclei, diameter of the third ventricle, width of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, thalamus, lenticular nucleus, and head of the caudate nucleus in 41 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 23 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 20 healthy controls was compared...
September 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579796/doppler-and-duplex-sonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-the-irreversible-cessation-of-brain-function-brain-death-current-guidelines-in-germany-and-neighboring-countries
#18
U Walter, S J Schreiber, M Kaps
Extra- and transcranial sonography of brain-supplying arteries is accepted worldwide in brain death protocols as a valid "ancillary" method of proving brain circulatory arrest. Color-coded duplex sonography and CT angiography have been newly incorporated in the fourth update of the German Medical Association's guidelines for the determination of the irreversible cessation of brain function ("brain death"), effective July 2015. The updated guidelines address in more detail the diagnostic procedures and the required qualifications of the examiners...
August 31, 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544866/decreased-flow-velocity-with-transcranial-color-coded-duplex-sonography-correlates-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-due-to-peripheral-vasospasm-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery
#19
Hirokazu Sadahiro, Satoshi Shirao, Hiroshi Yoneda, Hideyuki Ishihara, Takayuki Oku, Akinori Inamura, Akiko Yamane, Kazutaka Sugimoto, Yuichi Fujiyama, Michiyasu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite intensive therapy, vasospasm remains a major cause of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in worsening patient outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) are noninvasive modalities that can be used to assess vasospasm. However, high flow velocity does not always reflect DCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of TCD/TCCS in decreasing permanent neurological deficits...
October 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544503/near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-transcranial-sonography-to-evaluate-cerebral-autoregulation-in-middle-cerebral-artery-steno-occlusive-disease
#20
Andreas Oldag, Jens Neumann, Michael Goertler, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Kupsch, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Klaus Kopitzki
The measurement of autoregulatory delay by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative technique to assess cerebral autoregulation, which is routinely assessed via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in most centers. Comparitive studies of NIRS and TCD, however, are largely missing. We investigated whether cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), as assessed via TCD, correlates with the delay of the autoregulatory response to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) as assessed by NIRS, i...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
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