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Prevention aorta dilatation

Sathyajeeth S Chauhan, Carlos A Gutierrez, Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam, Victor De Oliveira, Satish C Muluk, Mark K Eskandari, Ender A Finol
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease characterized by the focal dilation of the aorta, which supplies blood to all the organs and tissues in the systemic circulation. With the AAA increasing in diameter over time, the risk of aneurysm rupture is generally associated with the size of the aneurysm. If diagnosed on time, intervention is recommended to prevent AAA rupture. The criterion to decide on surgical intervention is determined by measuring the maximum diameter of the aneurysm relative to the critical value of 5...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Michele Cavalera, Ulrika Axling, Catarina Rippe, Karl Swärd, Cecilia Holm
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Calogera Pisano, Carmela Rita Balistreri, Oreste Fabio Triolo, Vincenzo Argano, Giovanni Ruvolo
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition in which early diagnosis, treatment and close follow up are critical for survival. Between 60% and 70% of patients with acute aortic dissection are affected at the ascending aorta, classified as Stanford type A (TAD). Preventive surgery of the aorta in asymptomatic patients on the basis of aortic size alone remains controversial among patient populations without known risk factors for aortic dissection. In fact, many dissection patients do not appear to have markedly dilated aortas at the time of presentation...
November 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Martin Caprnda, Tawar Qaradakhi, Joanne L Hart, Nazarii Kobyliak, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by atherosclerosis remains a worldwide burden. Hydrogen sulfide is a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of CVD, however reports show exogenous H2S has both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects depending on organ examined, and in vitro studies in animal models which are not resistant to developing atherosclerosis are limited. We sought to determine if rabbit arteries constricted or dilated to hydrogen sulfide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aorta, carotid, renal and iliac arteries were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) and subjected to a concentration response curve to the fast H2S releaser NaHS...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Cristiano Spadaccio, Massimo Chello
The Ross operation provides several advantages compared to other valve substitutes to manage aortic valve disease, such as growth potential, excellent hemodynamics, freedom from oral anticoagulation and hemolysis, and better durability. However, progressive dilatation of the pulmonary autografts after Ross operation reflects the inadequate remodeling of the native pulmonary root in the systemic circulation, which results in impaired adaptability to systemic pressure and risk of reoperation after the first decade...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
Elaheh Malakan Rad, Iran Malekzadeh, Vahid Ziaee, Raheleh Rajabi, Zohreh Shahabi
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired myocardial infarction in children. Coronary artery involvement is the most serious feature of this vasculitis syndrome. Timely diagnosis of coronary artery involvement is of utmost importance since it can prevent long-term morbidity and mortality. The current methods for the diagnosis of coronary artery dilation in KD are inconsistent and are also not capable of detecting all the abnormal coronary arteries or the so-called occult dilations present...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yue Liu, Ting-Ting Wang, Ran Zhang, Wen-Yan Fu, Xu Wang, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Yang-Nan Ding, Yan Xie, De-Long Hao, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by a localized dilation of the abdominal aorta, is a life-threatening vascular pathology. Because of the current lack of effective treatment for AAA rupture, prevention is of prime importance for AAA management. Calorie restriction (CR) is a nonpharmacological intervention that delays the aging process and provides various health benefits. However, whether CR prevents AAA formation remains untested. In this study, we subjected Apoe(-/-) mice to 12 wk of CR and then examined the incidence of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAA formation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nicolas H Pope, Morgan Salmon, John P Davis, Anuran Chatterjee, Gang Su, Michael S Conte, Gorav Ailawadi, Gilbert R Upchurch
The role of resolvins in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been established. We hypothesized that treatment with D-series resolvins (RvD2 or RvD1) would attenuate murine AAA formation through alterations in macrophage polarization and cytokine expression. Male C57/B6 mice (n = 9 per group) 8 to 12 wk old received RvD2 (100 ng/kg/treatment), RvD1 (100 ng/kg/treatment), or vehicle only every third day beginning 3 d before abdominal aortic perfusion with elastase as prevention. Aortas were collected 14 d after elastase perfusion...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Alessandro Leone, Luca Di Marco, Davide Pacini
Acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) remains one of the most challenging diseases in cardiothoracic surgery and despite numerous innovations in medical and surgical management, early mortality remains high. The standard treatment of AAAD requires emergency surgery of the proximal aorta, preventing rupture and consequent cardiac tamponade. Resection of the primary intimal tear and repair of the aortic root and aortic valve are well-established surgical principles. However, the dissection in the aortic arch and descending untreated aorta remains...
July 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Kristian A Groth, Kirstine Stochholm, Hanne Hove, Kasper Kyhl, Pernille A Gregersen, Niels Vejlstrup, John R Østergaard, Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort. METHOD: The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections...
February 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Li Tang, Zhuangzhuang Cong, Shuangying Hao, Peng Li, Hairong Huang, Yi Shen, Kuanyu Li, Hua Jing
BACKGROUND: Oxidative injury, inflammation, and apoptosis are involved in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Melatonin (MLT) has been reported with an effective antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether MLT could suppress the development of AAA. METHODS: The AAA model was introduced by intraluminal perfusion of elastase in rats. All rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1) sham; (2) AAA + vehicle; and (3) AAA + MLT...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Amalia Forte, Umberto Galderisi, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Alessandro Della Corte
The term 'epigenetics' refers to heritable, reversible DNA or histone modifications that affect gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression also includes the RNA interference mechanism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is fundamental during development and throughout life, also playing a central role in disease progression. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream effectors are key players in tissue repair and fibrosis, extracellular matrix remodelling, inflammation, cell proliferation and migration...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
J Dubis, M Litwin, D Michalowska, N Zuk, A Szczepanska-Buda, R Grendziak, D Baczynska, P Barc, W Witkiewicz
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. AAA is caused by segmental weakening of the aortic walls and progressive aortic dilation leading to the eventual rupture of the aorta, accompanied by intense inflammation. Additionally, studies have indicated a close relationship between the pathogenesis and progression of AAA and cellular immune responses in aneurysm wall tissue. The Runt-related genes (RUNX) encode multifunctional mediators of the of intracellular signal transduction pathways in vascular remodeling, endothelial function, immune response and inflammation...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Jie Wu, Hui-Fang Song, Shu-Hong Li, Jian Guo, Katherine Tsang, Laura Tumiati, Jagdish Butany, Terrence M Yau, Maral Ouzounian, Songbin Fu, Tirone E David, Richard D Weisel, Ren-Ke Li
BACKGROUND: Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are at increased risk for progressive aortic dilation associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). However, the mechanisms responsible for initiating this process are unknown. In the heart, MMP activity is regulated by micro-ribonucleic acid-17 (miR-17)-related downregulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP); a similar process may exist in the aorta. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to ascertain whether aortic matrix degradation in BAV patients progresses by miR-17-related miRNA regulation of TIMP-MMP...
June 28, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Fang Wang, Houzao Chen, Yunfei Yan, Yue Liu, Shuyang Zhang, Depei Liu
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall...
September 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Mohsen Bannazadeh, Rami O Tadros, James McKinsey, Rajiv Chander, Michael L Marin, Peter L Faries
Aortic dissection (AD) is one of the most common catastrophic pathologies affecting the aorta. Anatomic classification is based on the origin of entry tear and its extension. Type A dissections originate in the ascending aorta, whereas the entry tear in Type B dissections starts distal to the left subclavian artery. The patients with aortic dissection who manifest complications such as rupture, malperfusion, aneurysmal degeneration, and intractable pain are classified as complicated AD. Risk factors for developing aortic dissection include age, male gender, and aortic wall structural abnormalities...
April 2016: Surgical Technology International
Damian Craiem, Jean-Marc Alsac, Mariano E Casciaro, Salma El Batti, Elie Mousseaux, Marie-Emmanuelle Sirieix, Alain Simon
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Thoracic aorta calcium detection is known to improve cardiovascular risk prediction for cardiac and noncardiac events beyond traditional risk factors. We investigated the influence of thoracic aorta morphometry on the presence and extent of aortic calcifications. METHODS: Nonenhanced computed tomography heart scans were performed in 970 asymptomatic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. An automated algorithm estimated the geometry of the entire thoracic aorta and quantified the aortic calcium Agatston score...
September 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Mar Orriols, Saray Varona, Ingrid Martí-Pàmies, María Galán, Anna Guadall, José Román Escudero, José Luis Martín-Ventura, Mercedes Camacho, Luis Vila, José Martínez-González, Cristina Rodríguez
AIMS: Destructive remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammation lead to dilation and ultimately abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Fibulin-5 (FBLN5) mediates cell-ECM interactions and elastic fibre assembly and is critical for ECM remodelling. We aimed to characterize FBLN5 regulation in human AAA and analyse the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: FBLN5 expression was significantly decreased in human aneurysmatic aortas compared with healthy vessels...
June 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
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