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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#1
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#2
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231251/empirical-lessons-regarding-contraception-in-a-protracted-refugee-setting-a-descriptive-study-from-maela-camp-on-the-thai-myanmar-border-1996-2015
#3
Somjet Srikanok, Daniel M Parker, Amber L Parker, Tracey Lee, Aung Myat Min, Pranee Ontuwong, Saw Oo Tan, Supachai Sirinonthachai, Rose McGready
Conflict settings and refugee camps can be chaotic places, with large and rapid population movements, exacerbated public health problems, and ad hoc health services. Reproductive health care that includes family planning is of heightened importance in such settings, however, funding and resources tend to be constrained and geared towards acute health services such as trauma management and infectious disease containment. Here we report on the complexities and challenges of providing family planning in a post-emergency refugee setting, using the example of the largest refugee camp on the Thai-Myanmar border, in existence now for over 30 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231175/mushroom-polysaccharides-chemistry-and-antiobesity-antidiabetes-anticancer-and-antibiotic-properties-in-cells-rodents-and-humans
#4
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential...
November 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231033/evaluation-of-a-commercial-field-test-to-detect-african-swine-fever
#5
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Manuele Cocco, Caterina Falconi, Giovanna Dettori, Francesco Feliziani, Maria Luisa Sanna, Annalisa Oggiano, Sandro Rolesu
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and complex infectious diseases affecting pigs ( Sus scrofa ). The disease has been present in Sardinia, Italy, since 1978. Factors influencing the presence of the disease on the island are the presence of illegally bred pigs, uncontrolled movements of animals, and local traditions. Implementation of public health programs is essential for controlling ASF. The use of new diagnostic techniques on both wild boar (WB) and illegally bred pigs would provide tools for faster and more inexpensive control of the disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230274/epidemiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-participants-of-the-millennium-cohort-incidence-deployment-related-risk-factors-and-antecedent-episodes-of-infectious-gastroenteritis
#6
C K Porter, M Welsh, M S Riddle, C Nieh, E J Boyko, G Gackstetter, T I Hooper
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two pathotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with unique pathology, risk factors and significant morbidity. AIM: To estimate incidence and identify IBD risk factors in a US military population, a healthy subset of the US population, using information from the Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Incident IBD was identified from medical encounters from 2001 to 2009 or by self-report...
February 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230117/infectious-disease-autoimmunity-in-nodding-syndrome
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230033/postoperative-infectious-complications-after-liver-resection-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Yuan Zhao, Yi Jin, Yueming Wu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postoperative infectious complications after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma by logistic regression analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six hepatocellular carcinoma patients who received surgery were retrospectively reviewed and included in this study. Of the included 166 patients, 42 patients had the postoperative infectious complications (case group) and other 124 patients did not develop postoperative infection (control group)...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229907/expression-and-functional-evaluation-of-biopharmaceuticals-made-in-plant-chloroplasts
#9
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Henry Daniell
After approval of the first plant-made biopharmaceutical by FDA for human use, many protein drugs are now in clinical development. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in expression of heterologous complex/large proteins in chloroplasts of edible plants using codon optimized human or viral genes. Furthermore, advances in quantification enable determination of in-planta drug dosage. Oral delivery of plastid-made biopharmaceuticals (PMB) is affordable because it eliminates prohibitively expensive fermentation, purification processes addressing major challenges of short shelf-life after cold storage...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229483/venous-hemodialysis-catheters-and-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-avoiding-a-high-risk-combination
#10
EDITORIAL
Theodore F Saad, Henry L Weiner
End-stage renal disease is frequently accompanied by cardiac comorbidity that warrants treatment with a cardiovascular implantable electronic device (permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator). In the United States, chronic hemodialysis (HD) population, cardiac implantable devices are present in up to 10.5% of patients; a venous HD catheter is utilized for blood access in 18% of prevalent patients. The concomitant presence of a venous HD catheter and cardiovascular implantable device creates a high-risk circumstance, with potential for causing symptomatic central venous stenosis, and for developing complicated endovascular infection...
February 23, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229472/human-capital-gaps-in-vaccine-development-an-issue-for-global-vaccine-development-and-global-health
#11
Andrea Cawein, Emilio Emini, Michael Watson, Joanna Dailey, John Donnelly, Dina Tresnan, Tom Evans, Stanley Plotkin, William Gruber
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#12
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229442/-rapidly-progressive-dementia-and-parkinsonism-associated-to-multiple-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#13
P Mejia, L M Piedra, X Merchan-Del Hierro
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive dementias are an infrequent group of diseases characterised by cognitive deterioration and other neurological disorders that develop over a period ranging from weeks to months. Their causation is varied and includes a large number of neurodegenerative, toxic, metabolic, autoimmune, infectious and vascular conditions. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old male who was admitted to hospital due to a rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism caused by multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas, which were successfully treated by means of endovascular therapy...
March 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229433/adalimumab-a-review-in-non-infectious-non-anterior-uveitis
#14
Sheridan M Hoy
Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor available in various countries worldwide, including the USA, Japan and those of the EU, for the treatment of non-infectious intermediate, posterior and panuveitis in adults. It is the first biological agent approved for this indication. In two multinational, phase III studies in adults with active and inactive disease, subcutaneous adalimumab significantly reduced the risk of treatment failure relative to placebo following the tapered withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy...
February 22, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229227/population-structure-and-infectious-disease-risk-in-southern-africa
#15
REVIEW
Caitlin Uren, Marlo Möller, Paul D van Helden, Brenna M Henn, Eileen G Hoal
The KhoeSan populations are the earliest known indigenous inhabitants of southern Africa. The relatively recent expansion of Bantu-speaking agropastoralists, as well as European colonial settlement along the south-west coast, dramatically changed patterns of genetic diversity in a region which had been largely isolated for thousands of years. Owing to this unique history, population structure in southern Africa reflects both the underlying KhoeSan genetic diversity as well as differential recent admixture. This population structure has a wide range of biomedical and sociocultural implications; such as changes in disease risk profiles...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229097/pediatric-hypovitaminosis-d-molecular-perspectives-and-clinical-implications
#16
Rafiu Ariganjoye
Vitamin D, a secosteroid, is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bone in both the adult and pediatric populations. Low level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)-D) is highly prevalent in children worldwide and has been linked to various adverse health outcomes including rickets, osteomalacia, osteomalacic myopathy, sarcopenia, and weakness, growth retardation, hypocalcemia, seizure and tetany, autism, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers (prostate, colon, breast), infectious diseases (viral, tuberculosis), and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#17
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#18
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226202/predictors-of-acute-myocarditis-in-complicated-scrub-typhus-an-endemic-province-in-the-republic-of-korea
#19
Jung Yeon Chin, Ki-Woon Kang, Kyung Min Moon, Jongwoo Kim, Yu Jeong Choi
Background/Aims: Scrub typhus is known as a self-limited infectious disease. Cardiac complication is uncommon and usually not life-threatening. Until now, few cases of fulminant myocarditis by scrub typhus have been reported. So, we investigated incidence and predictors of acute myocarditis in severe scrub typhus. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients among 91 scrub typhus confirmed patients who examined an echocardiogram and cardiac biomarkers from 2005 to 2015 in the intensive care unit at our hospital...
February 23, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226008/time-trends-in-hospitalizations-for-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-cear%C3%A3-brazil-2000-2012
#20
Líllian de Queiroz Costa, Elzo Pereira Pinto, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to analyze time trends and describe the causes of hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) in children under five years old in Ceará, Brazil, 2000-2012. METHODS: this is an ecological time series study using data from the National Hospital Information System; trends were analyzed using Prais-Winsten regression. RESULTS: from 2000 and 2016 ACSC hospitalization rates fell from 32.5 to 11.2/1,000 inhabitants under five years old (annual variation of -16...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
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