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Forensic sexual assault

Louise Morgan, Sophie Khadr, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic and assault-related characteristics of children attending an acute sexual assault referral centre in London within a week of alleged sexual assault. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review of all children aged 12 years and under who reported between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, sex, ethnicity, drugs and alcohol around the time of assault, nature of offence, relationship with perpetrator, additional violence, verbal threats, presence of injury...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
P Oswald, X Saloppé, C Ducro, D Macquet, P-J Cornu, T Pham, B Delaunoit
BACKGROUND: In Belgium, the law of "social defense" stipulates that an accused "which is either in a state of dementia or in a serious state of mental disturbance or mental deficiency, incapable of controlling his actions" can be interned. The establishment of social defense (ESD) in Tournai (Belgium) hosts 350 inmates. OBJECTIVES: In collaboration with the Centre for research in social defense, we organized a systematic assessment of patients interned in ESD. This is the first study evaluating prospectively this population...
September 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
Simone Cappelletti, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Vittorio Fineschi, Natale Mario di Luca, Costantino Ciallella
Fisting is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. A systematic review of the forensic literature yielded 14 published studies from 8 countries between 1968 and 2016 that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, illustrating that external anogenital (anal and/or genital) trauma due to fisting is observed in 22.2% and 88.8% (reported consensual and non-consensual intercourse, respectively) of the subjects, while internal injuries are observed in the totality of the patients...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Robert L Kerner, Kathleen Gallo, Michael Cassara, John DʼAngelo, Anthony Egan, John Galbraith Simmons
Simulation in multiple contexts over the course of a 10-week period served as a core learning strategy to orient experienced clinicians before opening a large new urban freestanding emergency department. To ensure technical and procedural skills of all team members, who would provide care without on-site recourse to specialty backup, we designed a comprehensive interprofessional curriculum to verify and regularize a wide range of competencies and best practices for all clinicians. Formulated under the rubric of systems integration, simulation activities aimed to instill a shared culture of patient safety among the entire cohort of 43 experienced emergency physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and patient technicians, most newly hired to the health system, who had never before worked together...
October 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Verena Blaas, Johannes Manhart, Andreas Büttner
Self-inflicted injuries and their differentiation from inflicted injuries may have severe legal implications. The detection of these injuries is an important task in clinical forensic medicine. We present two cases of skin discolorations caused by using make-up and suction of the skin which have only rarely been reported. In the first case a 19-year-old woman asserted she was punched against her left clavicle and her right eye by a perpetrator, and that during the following forced sexual intercourse she had been bitten on the neck...
August 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Alexandra Junewicz, Kelly J Kleinert, Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Arthur Caplan
Despite the critical importance of patient-physician trust, it may be compromised among vulnerable patients, such as (1) incarcerated patients and (2) those patients who have been victims of trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine patient-physician trust among forensic and civilian psychiatric inpatient populations and to explore whether it varied based on a patient's history of incarceration and/or victimization. A trust survey (WFPTS) and a trauma instrument (LEC-5) were administered to 93 patients hospitalized on forensic and civilian psychiatric hospital units in a large, urban public hospital...
August 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Jia-quan Tang, Jian-feng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the key points, difficulties and relevant practical experiences for analyzing the scene of solved intentional homicide cases. METHODS: The data of 88 solved intentional homicide cases in a county from 2004 to 2013 were collected and the retrospective analysis was performed. RESULTS: The number of local female victims obviously higher than non-local female victims and the number of non-local suspects is obviously higher than local suspects...
April 2016: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Anthony C Bruce, Yiqi Cao, Catherine Henry, Shayn M Peirce, Kathryn Laughon
Objective documentation of tears and abrasions to the external genitalia after sexual assault is an important part of the forensic examination. A 1% aqueous solution of toluidine blue (TB) dye is often used to highlight injury, but the dye can be difficult to see on dark skin. We evaluated a fluorescent dye for detecting injuries on all skin colors in a relevant preclinical murine model. We compared the ability of trained, blinded observers to detect unstained wounds and wounds stained with 1% fluorescein sodium (FL) and with TB...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Dania Nathanson, Susan Woolfenden, Karen Zwi
In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia...
September 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Xing-Chun Zhao, Le Wang, Jing Sun, Bo-Wei Jiang, Er-Li Zhang, Jian Ye
Vaginal swabs taken in rape cases usually contain epithelial cells from the victim and sperm from the assailant and forensic DNA analysis requires separation of sperm from these cell mixtures. PH-20, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase located on the head of sperm, has important functions in fertilization. Here we describe a newly developed method for sperm isolation using anti-PH-20 antibody-coupled immunomagnetic beads (anti-PH-20 IMBs). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the IMBs recognized the head of sperm specifically and exhibited a great capacity to capture sperm cells...
2016: PloS One
Margaret Adams, Sheila Fitzgerald, Debra Holbrook
Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Rageshri Dhairyawan, Kate Shardlow, Michelle Carroll, Rachel Sacks
In 2006, a national survey demonstrated wide disparities in services offered to sexual assault complainants in the UK, most marked between sexual assault referral centres and non-sexual assault referral centres (police victim examination suites). With national standards introduced in 2009 and the expansion of sexual assault referral centres, we aimed to evaluate the current situation. A questionnaire based on the original 2006 survey, collecting data on population covered, access, funding, personnel, medical care and clinical governance was sent to all 44 UK sexual assault referral centres open in 2012...
July 8, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Renate R Zilkens, Maureen A Phillips, Maire C Kelly, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Debbie A Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence, risk factors, signs and symptoms of non-fatal strangulation (NFS) in women referred to a Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC) following recent sexual assault. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using data routinely collected at time of forensic examination of women (age ≥ 13 years) referred to the Western Australian SARC between Jan-2009 and Mar-2015 alleging a recent sexual assault. Data on demographics, assault characteristics and forensic findings were available...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Shreemanta Kumar Dash, Shailendra Patel, Krishnadutt Chavali
Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator)...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Martina Nilsson, Joakim Grånemo, Magdalena M Buś, Mikael Havsjö, Marie Allen
Inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification often present a challenge in forensic investigations of e.g., terrorism, missing persons, sexual assaults and other criminal cases. Such inhibitors may be counteracted by dilution of the DNA extract, using different additives, and selecting an inhibitory resistant DNA polymerase. Additionally, DNA in forensic samples is often present in limited amounts and degraded, requiring special analyses of short nuclear targets or mitochondrial DNA. The present study evaluated the enzymes AmpliTaq Gold, HotStarTaq Plus, KAPA3G Plant, and KAPA2G Robust, with regard to their ability to overcome inhibitory effects...
September 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Françoise Jauréguy, Patrick Chariot, Annie Vessières, Bertrand Picard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most common bacteria involved in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In France, combined screening for CT and NG using nucleic acid amplification tests is recommended in populations that are considered at risk. However, no data have been published about victims of sexual assaults. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the usefulness of real-time PCR for the rapid detection of CT and NG genomic DNA, and the prevalence of CT/NG infections in a sample of sexual assault victims examined at a department of forensic medicine...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Mark Maric, Candice Bridge
Lubricant analysis is a relatively recent addition to the examination protocol in sexual assault cases by the forensic science community. Currently, lubricants cannot be unequivocally identified, although their presence can be determined based on the detection of a few chemical components, i.e. polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene glycol, glycerol or nonoxynol-9. Confirmation of their presence typically requires that an authentic reference sample be submitted and compared to the unknown sample to determine if they potentially came from the same source...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu
In investigations of sexual assaults, as well as in identifying a suspect, the detection of human sperm is important. Recently, a kit for fluorescent staining of human spermatozoa, SPERM HY-LITER™, has become available. This kit allows for microscopic observation of the heads of human sperm using an antibody tagged with a fluorescent dye. This kit is specific to human sperm and provides easy detection by luminescence. However, criteria need to be established to objectively evaluate the fluorescent signals and to evaluate the staining efficiency of this kit...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
A W Stern, M Smith-Blackmore
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Colleen Mcquown, Jennifer Frey, Sheila Steer, Gwendolyn E Fletcher, Brett Kinkopf, Michelle Fakler, Valorie Prulhiere
OBJECTIVES: Both sexual assault (SA) survivors and domestic violence (DV) survivors are populations at risk of strangulation injury. Our goal was to identify the prevalence of strangulation in patients who are survivors of SA and DV, identify presence of lethality risk factors in intimate partner violence, and assess differences in strangulation between SA and DV populations. METHODS: We reviewed all patient encounters from our health system's SA/DV forensic nurse examiner program from 2004 to 2008...
July 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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