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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236188/contributors-to-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-incarcerated-youth
#1
Larkin Street McReynolds, Gail Wasserman, Elise Ozbardakci
BACKGROUND: Despite elevations in risks associated with self-injurious behavior among community adolescents, the degree to which these features are associated with self-injury among incarcerated youth has rarely been examined. Although the DSM-5 recently proposed a distinct category of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), most studies of youths in forensic settings have not distinguished between subtypes of self-harming individuals. METHODS: Demographic, offense, and disorder contributors to NSSI in incarcerated youths of both genders (N = 358) were examined via a computerized self-report instrument (VISA), largely consistent with DSM-5...
December 13, 2017: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198380/the-priority-of-administering-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-cases-of-sexual-assault-in-an-emergency-department
#2
Meredith Scannell, Andrea E MacDonald, Amanda Berger, Nichole Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a genuine concern for sexually assaulted patients. Emergency departments are a place where sexually assaulted patients seek care, including treatment to prevent HIV. Prompt administration of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis is essential because of the time-sensitive nature of the medications. Quality improvement measures at an urban hospital revealed delays in administration of postexposure prophylaxis to these patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176518/lessons-learned-from-icare-a-postexamination-text-messaging-based-program-with-sexual-assault-patients
#3
Danielle L Hicks, Debra Patterson, Stella Resko
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial, few sexual assault patients seek follow-up healthcare or counseling after a medical forensic examination. Mobile technology interventions may help patients engage in postcare, but there is a dearth of research on patients' utilization of these interventions. The current study examines patients' engagement with a 4-week postassault text message program (iCare), which assessed patients' safety and well-being, if they needed assistance with accessing nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis, or scheduling appointments for follow-up pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection testing, and their experience with the criminal justice system...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064859/increasing-the-accessibility-of-sexual-assault-forensic-examinations-evaluation-of-texas-law-sb-1191
#4
Robert C Davis, Bernard Auchter, Susan Howley, Torie Camp, Ilse Knecht, William Wells
INTRODUCTION: Texas SB 1191 was enacted in 2013 with the intent of increasing access to medical forensic examinations for sexual assault victims by requiring every hospital with an emergency department to be prepared to provide a medical forensic examination if requested by a sexual assault victim. To realize that goal, the law also required basic forensic training for medical professionals before conducting a medical forensic examination as well as a requirement that hospitals develop a "plan to train personnel on sexual assault forensic evidence collection...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058082/forensic-differentiation-between-peripheral-and-menstrual-blood-in-cases-of-alleged-sexual-assault-validating-an-immunochromatographic-multiplex-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-human-hemoglobin-and-d-dimer
#5
Hannah Holtkötter, Claudemir Rodrigues Dias Filho, Kristina Schwender, Christian Stadler, Marielle Vennemann, Ana Claudia Pacheco, Gabriela Roca
Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050837/forensic-patients-in-the-emergency-department-who-are-they-and-how-should-we-care-for-them
#6
Celia J Filmalter, T Heyns, R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Patients who suffer violent, crime related injuries are likely to seek medical assistance in emergency departments. Forensic patients may not disclose the cause of their injuries leading to the impairment of evidence. We explored healthcare providers' perceptions of forensic patients and how they should be cared for. METHOD: The perceptions of physicians and nurses regarding the profiles and care of forensic patients were explored in three urban emergency departments...
October 16, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982313/biomarkers-of-alcohol-consumption-in-body-fluids-possibilities-and-limitations-of-application-in-toxicological-analysis
#7
Mateusz K Woźniak, Marek Wiergowski, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Biziuk
Ethyl alcohol is the most popular legal drug, but its excessive consumption causes social problems. Despite many public campaigns against alcohol use, car accidents, instances of aggressive behaviour, sexual assaults and deterioration in labor productivity caused by inebriated people is still commonplace. Fast and easy diagnosis of alcohol consumption is required in order to introduce proper and effective therapy, and is crucial in forensic toxicology analysis. The easiest method to prove alcohol intake is determination of ethanol in body fluids or in breath...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946081/intra-and-inter-rater-agreement-of-the-genital-injury-severity-scale
#8
Dana L Kelly, Hillary J Larkin, Lauri A Paolinetti
INTRODUCTION: The Genital Injury Severity Scale (GISS) is a clinimetrically-tested tool in use for quantifying and qualifying external genital injury after sexual intercourse. PURPOSE: To evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement of the GISS amongst examiner/raters in an urban, ethnically diverse, emergency department based sexual assault center. METHODS: The study was conducted in three phases. Six examiners with various years of experience rated their own cases and each others' cases greater than one year after the initial exam...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940320/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effect-of-video-based-prevention-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-recent-sexual-assault-victims
#9
Kate Walsh, Amanda K Gilmore, Patricia Frazier, Linda Ledray, Ron Acierno, Kenneth J Ruggiero, Dean G Kilpatrick, Heidi S Resnick
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Post-Rape Stress [PPRS]) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at 3 points over the course of a 6-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Instruction [PIRI]). Prior assault history, minority status, and pre-SA substance use also were examined as moderators of intervention efficacy...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921557/accountability-collaboration-and-social-change-ethical-tensions-in-an-action-research-project-to-address-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#10
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871846/traits-of-vulnerability-in-repetitive-sexual-assaults-of-mentally-disabled-people
#11
Elmas Shaqiri, Granit Shahu, Bledar Xhemali, Gentian Vyshka
The issue of sexual abuse, assault, rape and unwanted pregnancies among mentally disabled women is largely under-reported for many reasons. Several myths prevail including that mentally disabled women offer little interest to sexual predators, together with a negative public attitude and this contributes to the problem. We report the case of a single centre in Albania, where repetitive sexual assaults were perpetrated against three mentally disabled women. Three unwanted pregnancies followed. The issue gained public attention after three criminal abortions were performed secretly with the aim of covering up the story...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863402/sexual-assault-and-general-body-injuries-a-detailed-cross-sectional-australian-study-of-1163-women
#12
Renate R Zilkens, Debbie A Smith, Maire C Kelly, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Maureen A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and severity of general body injury in women alleging recent sexual assault and then identify demographic and assault characteristics associated with injury severity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1163 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. METHODS: Women underwent a standardised medical examination and data collection by forensically trained doctors...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859613/clinical-care-given-to-victims-of-sexual-assault-at-kadoma-general-hospital-zimbabwe-a-secondary-data-analysis-2016
#13
Stanley Tapesana, Daniel Chirundu, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Tshimanga Mufuta
BACKGROUND: Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted...
August 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803416/rapid-screening-method-for-male-dna-by-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#14
Masashi Kitamura, Seiji Kubo, Jin Tanaka, Tatsushi Adachi
Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771842/challenges-in-interprofessional-collaboration-experiences-of-care-providers-and-policymakers-in-a-newly-set-up-dutch-assault-centre
#15
Elza Zijlstra, Sylvie Lo Fo Wong, Anne Teerling, Giel Hutschemaekers, Antoine Lagro-Janssen
BACKGROUND: Sexual and family violence are problems that affect many women and men, and the negative health consequences of violence are numerous. As adequate acute interprofessional care can prevent negative health consequences and improve forensic medical examination, a Centre for Sexual and Family Violence was set up. AIM: We aimed to improve our understanding of the challenges in interprofessional collaboration in a newly set-up centre for sexual and family violence...
August 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714673/direct-monitoring-of-exogenous-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-body-fluids-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Yaoyao Wang, Alan D Brailsford, Teodor Parella, David A Cowan, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a popular drug increasingly associated with cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Currently, expanding procedures of analysis and having forensic evidence of GHB intake in a long term are mandatory. Up to now, most studies have been performed using GC/MS and LC-MS as analytical platforms, which involve significant manipulation of the sample and, often, indirect measurements. In this work, procedures used in NMR-based metabolomics were applied to a GHB clinical trial on urine and serum...
August 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#18
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#19
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700382/mandatory-reporting-of-intimate-partner-violence-an-ethical-dilemma-for-forensic-nurses
#20
Rosalyn M Walker
Nearly all states and provinces have laws mandating licensed healthcare professionals to report to law enforcement suspicions and allegations of the abuse of children, older adults, and disabled persons and all incidents of violence by a deadly weapon. However, a few states in the United States additionally mandate providers to report all injuries resultant from reported or suspected domestic/intimate partner violence. This can present a challenge to forensic nurses seeking to protect patient confidentiality and autonomy...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
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