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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212194/creating-a-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-an-empirically-supported-planning-framework
#1
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral, Sheena Horsford
In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205460/complaints-against-health-care-professionals-providing-police-custodial-and-forensic-medical-health-care-services-and-sexual-offence-examiner-services-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
#2
Kieran M Kennedy, Peter G Green, J Jason Payne-James
Complaints management is an integral component of good clinical governance and an essential contributor to patient safety. Little is known about complaints against health-care professionals (HCPs) in police custodial settings and sexual assault referral centres. This study explored the frequency with which complaints are made against such HCPs working in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It explored the nature of those complaints and the procedures by which they are investigated. Relevant information was requested from all police services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; professional regulatory bodies; and the Independent Police Complaints Commission under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134394/evaluation-and-management-of-female-victims-of-sexual-assault
#3
Roxanne A Vrees
Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women...
January 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133731/the-use-of-laser-microdissection-in-forensic-sexual-assault-casework-pros-and-cons-compared-to-standard-methods
#4
Sergio Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá, Maria J Porto, Laura Cainé
Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122286/does-the-forensic-physician-have-a-role-beyond-injury-documentation-and-specimen-collection-in-australia-a-personal-view
#5
John A M Gall
Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102433/advanced-forensic-validation-for-human-spermatozoa-identification-using-sperm-hy-liter%C3%A2-express-with-quantitative-image-analysis
#6
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu
Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096105/the-value-of-paediatric-assessment-in-historic-child-sexual-abuse
#7
Sarah Al-Jilaihawi, Kevin Borg, Sabine Maguire, Deborah Hodes
INTRODUCTION: A perception exists that there are few benefits of a paediatric assessment in historic child sexual abuse (CSA), as the likelihood of finding forensic evidence is low. AIM: To determine the value of a comprehensive paediatric assessment in a dedicated clinic for children and young people who present following suspicion or allegation of historic CSA. METHOD: All children with suspected or alleged historic CSA, defined as >7 days after the last episode of sexual assault in pubertal girls, or >3 days for prepubertal girls and all boys, were assessed in a specialised paediatric clinic...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008604/the-persistence-of-sperm-and-the-development-of-time-since-intercourse-tsi-guidelines-in-sexual-assault-cases-at-forensic-science-ireland-dublin-ireland
#8
David G Casey, Katarina Domijan, Sarah MacNeill, Damien Rizet, Declan O'Connell, Jennifer Ryan
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996354/different-perceptions-of-interprofessional-collaboration-and-factors-influencing-the-one-stop-service-for-sexual-assault-victims-in-taiwan
#9
Lih-Chu Tien, Yi-Ling Wu, Tsai-Wen Lin, Samuel Shih-Chih Wang
The purpose of interprofessional collaboration is to bring better services for sexual assault victims. In order to avoid secondary victimisation and improve the quality of forensic examination and prosecution rate, a one-stop service has been developed recently in Taiwan. However, whether the collaboration is successful may depend on participants' professional backgrounds and personal experiences and can be influenced by a number of factors. This study used the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration to examine the different perceptions of collaboration in team members and the related influences on collaboration...
January 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#10
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907243/an-optimized-centrifugal-method-for-separation-of-semen-from-superabsorbent-polymers-for-forensic-analysis
#11
Lucy R Camarena, Bailey K Glasscock, Demi Daniels, Nicolle Ackley, Marybeth Sciarretta, Sarah J Seashols-Williams
Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885653/comparing-standard-and-selective-degradation-dna-extraction-methods-results-from-a-field-experiment-with-sexual-assault-kits
#12
Rebecca Campbell, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jessica Shaw, Hannah Feeney, Jeffrey Nye, Kristin Schelling, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
: A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods. METHODS: We evaluated selective degradation methods for DNA extraction using actual case work from a sample of previously unsubmitted SAKs in Detroit, Michigan. We randomly assigned 350 kits to either standard or selective degradation testing methods and then compared DNA testing rates and CODIS entry rates between the two groups...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864965/attempted-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-xylazine-intoxication-in-a-child
#13
Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Alexander Mueller, Sven Anders
There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857155/fluorescence-and-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting-strategies-to-separate-spermatozoa-involving-plural-contributors-from-biological-mixtures-for-human-identification
#14
Yan Xu, Jianhui Xie, Ronghua Chen, Yu Cao, Yuan Ping, Qingwen Xu, Wei Hu, Dan Wu, Lihua Gu, Huaigu Zhou, Xin Chen, Ziqin Zhao, Jiang Zhong, Rui Li
No effective method has been developed to distinguish sperm cells originating from different men in multi-suspect sexual assault cases. Here we combined MACS and FACS to isolate single donor sperm cells from forensic mixture samples including female vaginal epithelial cells and sperm cells from multiple contributors. Sperms from vaginal swab were isolated by MACS using FITC-conjugated A kinase anchor protein 3 (AKAP3) antibody; target individual sperm cells involving two or three donors were separated by FACS using FITC-labeled blood group A/B antigen antibody...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855738/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#15
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVE: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. METHODS: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS) and were monitored one to two nights with video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17 to 76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n=11), complete sexual intercourse (n=8), masturbation (n=8) and spontaneous orgasm (n=1)...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832353/a-proof-of-principal-study-on-the-use-of-direct-pcr-of-semen-and-spermatozoa-and-development-of-a-differential-isolation-protocol-for-use-in-cases-of-alleged-sexual-assault
#16
Shanan S Tobe, Yuvaneswari C Swaran, Lynn Dennany, Ursula Sibbing, Kristina Schulze Johann, Lindsey Welch, Marielle Vennemann
Sexual assault samples are some of the most common samples encountered in forensic analysis. These samples can require a significant time investment due to differential extraction processes. We report on the first record of successful direct amplification of semen for STR analysis. Neat seminal fluid, dilutions ranging from 1:5 to 1:160 and GEDNAP samples were successfully amplified using a direct method. A mild differential isolation technique to enrich spermatozoa was developed and successfully implemented to separate and directly amplify a mixture of semen and female epithelial cells...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737838/child-sexual-assault-reported-to-an-acute-sexual-assault-referral-centre-in-london
#17
Louise Morgan, Sophie Khadr, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic and assault-related characteristics of children attending an acute sexual assault referral centre in London within a week of alleged sexual assault. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review of all children aged 12 years and under who reported between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, sex, ethnicity, drugs and alcohol around the time of assault, nature of offence, relationship with perpetrator, additional violence, verbal threats, presence of injury...
February 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644913/-clinical-characteristics-among-forensic-inpatients-a-special-case-the-establishment-of-social-defense-les-marronniers-in-tournai-belgium
#18
P Oswald, X Saloppé, C Ducro, D Macquet, P-J Cornu, T Pham, B Delaunoit
BACKGROUND: In Belgium, the law of "social defense" stipulates that an accused "which is either in a state of dementia or in a serious state of mental disturbance or mental deficiency, incapable of controlling his actions" can be interned. The establishment of social defense (ESD) in Tournai (Belgium) hosts 350 inmates. OBJECTIVES: In collaboration with the Centre for research in social defense, we organized a systematic assessment of patients interned in ESD. This is the first study evaluating prospectively this population...
September 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614327/variability-in-findings-of-anogenital-injury-in-consensual-and-non-consensual-fisting-intercourse-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Simone Cappelletti, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Vittorio Fineschi, Natale Mario di Luca, Costantino Ciallella
Fisting is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. A systematic review of the forensic literature yielded 14 published studies from 8 countries between 1968 and 2016 that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, illustrating that external anogenital (anal and/or genital) trauma due to fisting is observed in 22.2% and 88.8% (reported consensual and non-consensual intercourse, respectively) of the subjects, while internal injuries are observed in the totality of the patients...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607095/simulation-for-operational-readiness-in-a-new-freestanding-emergency-department-strategy-and-tactics
#20
Robert L Kerner, Kathleen Gallo, Michael Cassara, John DʼAngelo, Anthony Egan, John Galbraith Simmons
Simulation in multiple contexts over the course of a 10-week period served as a core learning strategy to orient experienced clinicians before opening a large new urban freestanding emergency department. To ensure technical and procedural skills of all team members, who would provide care without on-site recourse to specialty backup, we designed a comprehensive interprofessional curriculum to verify and regularize a wide range of competencies and best practices for all clinicians. Formulated under the rubric of systems integration, simulation activities aimed to instill a shared culture of patient safety among the entire cohort of 43 experienced emergency physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and patient technicians, most newly hired to the health system, who had never before worked together...
October 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
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