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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982313/biomarkers-of-alcohol-consumption-in-body-fluids-possibilities-and-limitations-of-application-in-toxicological-analysis
#1
Mateusz K Woźniak, Marek Wiergowski, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Biziuk
Ethyl alcohol is the most popular legal drug, but its excessive consumption causes social problems. Despite many public campaigns against alcohol use, car accidents, instances of aggressive behaviour, sexual assaults and deterioration in labor productivity caused by inebriated people is still commonplace. Fast and easy diagnosis of alcohol consumption is required in order to introduce proper and effective therapy, and is crucial in forensic toxicology analysis. The easiest method to prove alcohol intake is determination of ethanol in body fluids or in breath...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946081/intra-and-inter-rater-agreement-of-the-genital-injury-severity-scale
#2
Dana L Kelly, Hillary J Larkin, Lauri A Paolinetti
INTRODUCTION: The Genital Injury Severity Scale (GISS) is a clinimetrically-tested tool in use for quantifying and qualifying external genital injury after sexual intercourse. PURPOSE: To evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement of the GISS amongst examiner/raters in an urban, ethnically diverse, emergency department based sexual assault center. METHODS: The study was conducted in three phases. Six examiners with various years of experience rated their own cases and each others' cases greater than one year after the initial exam...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940320/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effect-of-video-based-prevention-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-recent-sexual-assault-victims
#3
Kate Walsh, Amanda K Gilmore, Patricia Frazier, Linda Ledray, Ron Acierno, Kenneth J Ruggiero, Dean G Kilpatrick, Heidi S Resnick
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Postrape Stress; PPRS) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at three points over the course of a six-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Information; PIRI). Prior assault history, minority status, and pre-SA substance use also were examined as moderators of intervention efficacy...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921557/accountability-collaboration-and-social-change-ethical-tensions-in-an-action-research-project-to-address-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#4
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871846/traits-of-vulnerability-in-repetitive-sexual-assaults-of-mentally-disabled-people
#5
Elmas Shaqiri, Granit Shahu, Bledar Xhemali, Gentian Vyshka
The issue of sexual abuse, assault, rape and unwanted pregnancies among mentally disabled women is largely under-reported for many reasons. Several myths prevail including that mentally disabled women offer little interest to sexual predators, together with a negative public attitude and this contributes to the problem. We report the case of a single centre in Albania, where repetitive sexual assaults were perpetrated against three mentally disabled women. Three unwanted pregnancies followed. The issue gained public attention after three criminal abortions were performed secretly with the aim of covering up the story...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863402/sexual-assault-and-general-body-injuries-a-detailed-cross-sectional-australian-study-of-1163-women
#6
Renate R Zilkens, Debbie A Smith, Maire C Kelly, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Maureen A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and severity of general body injury in women alleging recent sexual assault and then identify demographic and assault characteristics associated with injury severity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1163 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. METHODS: Women underwent a standardised medical examination and data collection by forensically trained doctors...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859613/clinical-care-given-to-victims-of-sexual-assault-at-kadoma-general-hospital-zimbabwe-a-secondary-data-analysis-2016
#7
Stanley Tapesana, Daniel Chirundu, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Tshimanga Mufuta
BACKGROUND: Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted...
August 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803416/rapid-screening-method-for-male-dna-by-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#8
Masashi Kitamura, Seiji Kubo, Jin Tanaka, Tatsushi Adachi
Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771842/challenges-in-interprofessional-collaboration-experiences-of-care-providers-and-policymakers-in-a-newly-set-up-dutch-assault-centre
#9
Elza Zijlstra, Sylvie Lo Fo Wong, Anne Teerling, Giel Hutschemaekers, Antoine Lagro-Janssen
BACKGROUND: Sexual and family violence are problems that affect many women and men, and the negative health consequences of violence are numerous. As adequate acute interprofessional care can prevent negative health consequences and improve forensic medical examination, a Centre for Sexual and Family Violence was set up. AIM: We aimed to improve our understanding of the challenges in interprofessional collaboration in a newly set-up centre for sexual and family violence...
August 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714673/direct-monitoring-of-exogenous-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-body-fluids-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Yaoyao Wang, Alan D Brailsford, Teodor Parella, David A Cowan, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a popular drug increasingly associated with cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Currently, expanding procedures of analysis and having forensic evidence of GHB intake in a long term are mandatory. Up to now, most studies have been performed using GC/MS and LC-MS as analytical platforms, which involve significant manipulation of the sample and, often, indirect measurements. In this work, procedures used in NMR-based metabolomics were applied to a GHB clinical trial on urine and serum...
August 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#12
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#13
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700382/mandatory-reporting-of-intimate-partner-violence-an-ethical-dilemma-for-forensic-nurses
#14
Rosalyn M Walker
Nearly all states and provinces have laws mandating licensed healthcare professionals to report to law enforcement suspicions and allegations of the abuse of children, older adults, and disabled persons and all incidents of violence by a deadly weapon. However, a few states in the United States additionally mandate providers to report all injuries resultant from reported or suspected domestic/intimate partner violence. This can present a challenge to forensic nurses seeking to protect patient confidentiality and autonomy...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682757/-forensic-examination-of-sexual-assault-victims-medical-aspects-and-associations-with-the-legal-outcomes
#15
M Kolopp, E Delbaere-Crespo, C Lecossec, F Guillet-May, H Coudane, L Martrille
OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical and legal characteristics of sexual assault victims and to highlight which aspects of the medical examination may be associated with a conviction of the alleged offender. METHODS: This study included all women who consulted to the center for the victims of sexual assault in Nancy between 2008 and 2012 and who filed a complaint. Associations were evaluated with a logistic regression trying to explain the presence of a conviction at the end of the legal proceeding...
March 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665832/fourth-degree-perineal-laceration-in-nonconsenual-fisting-a-case-report-brief-review-of-the-literature-and-medicolegal-issues
#16
REVIEW
Simone Cappelletti, Paola Antonella Fiore, Edoardo Bottoni, Mariarosaria Aromatario
We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who was sexually assaulted with transanal forearm penetration resulting in a fourth-degree perineal laceration. Fisting is an uncommon sexual practice consisting in the penetration of the vagina, anus, or both of them with fingers, hand (fist) or forearm.Perineal lacerations are a relatively common finding in both consensual and nonconsensual fisting victims. Even though cases of fisting with first-, second-, and third-degree lacerations have been reported in literature, only one previous case of fourth-degree perineal laceration has been described in a woman, who died after anal fisting...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661168/forgotten-evidence-a-mixed-methods-study-of-why-sexual-assault-kits-saks-are-not-submitted-for-dna-forensic-testing
#17
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral, Deborah Bybee, Jessica Shaw
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing...
October 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605652/screening-and-confirmation-of-microrna-markers-for-distinguishing-between-menstrual-and-peripheral-blood
#18
Zhilong Li, Peng Bai, Duo Peng, Hui Wang, Yadong Guo, Youjing Jiang, Wang He, Huan Tian, Yu Yang, Yuan Huang, Bing Long, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
The identification of menstrual blood (MB) and peripheral blood (PB) left at a crime scene is crucial for crime reconstruction, especially in sexual assaults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-protein coding molecules, have been demonstrated to be a viable tool for body fluid identification in forensic casework. Several groups have searched for miRNAs that are specific to different body fluids. Blood has been studied the most extensively. However, menstrual blood was only involved in five studies, and the results confirming the presence of specific miRNAs could not be reproduced in other studies...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568767/self-reported-mental-health-issues-among-arrestees-in-the-paris-france-area
#19
Camille Vidal, Aude Lepresle, Patrick Chariot
We studied (May-September 2014) all arrestees who reported mental health issues during the medical examination performed by a forensic physician for the assessment of fitness for detention. Among 4814 arrestees, 420 (9%) reported a current mental health issue. The suspected crimes among arrestees reporting a current mental health issue were more often related to violent behaviors (physical assault, 23% vs. 16%, p < 0.001, sexual assault, 3% vs. 1%, p = 0.01) and less often drug offenses (18% vs. 29%, p < 0...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538460/transforming-care-for-victims-of-violence
#20
Anne C Boatright
In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force...
June 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
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