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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419902/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-dna-differential-extraction-methods-for-sexual-assault-evidence
#1
Sonja B Klein, Martin R Buoncristiani
Analysis of sexual assault evidence, often a mixture of spermatozoa and victim epithelial cells, represents a significant portion of a forensic DNA laboratory's case load. Successful genotyping of sperm DNA from these mixed cell samples, particularly with low amounts of sperm, depends on maximizing sperm DNA recovery and minimizing non-sperm DNA carryover. For evaluating the efficacy of the differential extraction, we present a method which uses a Separation Potential Ratio (SPRED) to consider both sperm DNA recovery and non-sperm DNA removal as variables for determining separation efficiency...
March 31, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407560/genital-and-anal-injuries-a-cross-sectional-australian-study-of-1266-women-alleging-recent-sexual-assault
#2
Renate R Zilkens, Debbie A Smith, Maureen A Phillips, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Maire C Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of genital and anal injury and associated demographic and assault characteristics in women alleging sexual assault. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1266 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. METHODS: Women underwent a standardised data collection procedure by forensically trained doctors...
March 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403803/metabolic-profile-of-flunitrazepam-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-aspects
#3
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Flunitrazepam is a potent hypnotic, sedative, and amnestic drug used to treat insomnia and as a pre-anesthetic agent. The illicit practice in drug-facilitated sexual assault has been implicating important clinical and forensic issues. OBJECTIVE: In this work the metabolism of flunitrazepam was fully reviewed. METHODS: Flunitrazepam and related known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites were searched in books and in PubMed (U.S...
April 7, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402419/a-systematic-review-of-sexual-assaults-in-nursing-homes
#4
Daisy Smith, Lyndal Bugeja, Nicola Cunningham, Joseph E Ibrahim
Purpose of the Study: The dramatic growth in the older adults (65 years+) has created an equivalent increase in the number of nursing home (NH) residents. NH residents often lack physical and cognitive abilities, making them particularly vulnerable to assault. Although sexual assault is among one of the most shocking types of assault, it is also the least acknowledged, detected, and reported type of assault against NH residents. This systematic review examines victim/perpetrator sociodemographic and relationship characteristics as well as the forensic characteristics of sexual assaults occurring in NH...
April 12, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401661/chemical-discrimination-of-lubricant-marketing-types-using-dart-tofms
#5
Mark Maric, Lauren Harvey, Maren Tomcsak, Angelique Solano, Candice Bridge
RATIONALE: In comparison to other violent crimes, sexual assaults suffer from very low prosecution and conviction rates especially in the absence of DNA evidence. As a result, the forensic community needs to utilize other forms of trace contact evidence, like lubricant evidence, in order to provide a link between the victim and the assailant. METHODS: In this study, 90 personal bottled and condom lubricants from the three main marketing types, silicone-based, water-based and condoms, were characterized by direct analysis in real time-time of flight mass spectrometry (DART-TOFMS)...
April 12, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364495/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#6
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
Introduction: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. Aims and Methods: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS), and were monitored 1-2 nights with video-polysomnography. Results: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17-76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n = 11), complete sexual intercourse (n = 8), masturbation (n = 8), and spontaneous orgasm (n = 1)...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#7
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240349/the-griffiths-question-map-a-forensic-tool-for-expert-witnesses-assessments-of-witnesses-and-victims-statements
#8
Olivier Dodier, Vincent Denault
Expert witnesses are sometimes asked to assess the reliability of young witnesses and victims' statements because of their high susceptibility to memory biases. This technical note aims to highlight the relevance of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM) as a professional forensic tool to improve expert witnesses' assessments of young witnesses and victims' testimonies. To do so, this innovative question type assessment grid was used to proceed to an in-depth analysis of the interview of an alleged 13-year-old victim of a sexual assault and two rapes...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238498/legal-social-ethical-and-medical-perspectives-on-the-care-of-the-statutory-rape-adolescent-in-the-emergency-department
#9
Shiu-Lin Tsai, Elvira Acosta, Toni Cardenas, Jeremy K Sigall, Kevin Van Geem
Rapes involving adolescents who present to the emergency department (ED) are fraught with ethical and legal complexities and are often emotionally turbulent for patients, their families, and medical providers. Management requires a thoughtful approach from multiple standpoints, including legal, psychosocial, ethical, and medical ones. However, there is no standardized sexual assault education for emergency medicine residents, and management practices vary widely.(1,2) We present a hypothetical statutory rape case based on real cases that occurred in New York City and bring together the perspectives of an attorney on the legal parameters, two social workers on the psychosocial issues, an ethicist on the moral considerations, and a pediatric emergency physician-who is also a sexual assault forensic examiner-on the medical treatments...
February 24, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212194/creating-a-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-an-empirically-supported-planning-framework
#10
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral, Sheena Horsford
In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205460/complaints-against-health-care-professionals-providing-police-custodial-and-forensic-medical-health-care-services-and-sexual-offence-examiner-services-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
#11
Kieran M Kennedy, Peter G Green, J Jason Payne-James
Complaints management is an integral component of good clinical governance and an essential contributor to patient safety. Little is known about complaints against health-care professionals (HCPs) in police custodial settings and sexual assault referral centres. This study explored the frequency with which complaints are made against such HCPs working in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It explored the nature of those complaints and the procedures by which they are investigated. Relevant information was requested from all police services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; professional regulatory bodies; and the Independent Police Complaints Commission under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134394/evaluation-and-management-of-female-victims-of-sexual-assault
#12
Roxanne A Vrees
Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women...
January 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133731/the-use-of-laser-microdissection-in-forensic-sexual-assault-casework-pros-and-cons-compared-to-standard-methods
#13
Sergio Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá, Maria J Porto, Laura Cainé
Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122286/does-the-forensic-physician-have-a-role-beyond-injury-documentation-and-specimen-collection-in-australia-a-personal-view
#14
John A M Gall
Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102433/advanced-forensic-validation-for-human-spermatozoa-identification-using-sperm-hy-liter%C3%A2-express-with-quantitative-image-analysis
#15
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu
Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096105/the-value-of-paediatric-assessment-in-historic-child-sexual-abuse
#16
Sarah Al-Jilaihawi, Kevin Borg, Sabine Maguire, Deborah Hodes
INTRODUCTION: A perception exists that there are few benefits of a paediatric assessment in historic child sexual abuse (CSA), as the likelihood of finding forensic evidence is low. AIM: To determine the value of a comprehensive paediatric assessment in a dedicated clinic for children and young people who present following suspicion or allegation of historic CSA. METHOD: All children with suspected or alleged historic CSA, defined as >7 days after the last episode of sexual assault in pubertal girls, or >3 days for prepubertal girls and all boys, were assessed in a specialised paediatric clinic...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008604/the-persistence-of-sperm-and-the-development-of-time-since-intercourse-tsi-guidelines-in-sexual-assault-cases-at-forensic-science-ireland-dublin-ireland
#17
David G Casey, Katarina Domijan, Sarah MacNeill, Damien Rizet, Declan O'Connell, Jennifer Ryan
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996354/different-perceptions-of-interprofessional-collaboration-and-factors-influencing-the-one-stop-service-for-sexual-assault-victims-in-taiwan
#18
Lih-Chu Tien, Yi-Ling Wu, Tsai-Wen Lin, Samuel Shih-Chih Wang
The purpose of interprofessional collaboration is to bring better services for sexual assault victims. In order to avoid secondary victimisation and improve the quality of forensic examination and prosecution rate, a one-stop service has been developed recently in Taiwan. However, whether the collaboration is successful may depend on participants' professional backgrounds and personal experiences and can be influenced by a number of factors. This study used the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration to examine the different perceptions of collaboration in team members and the related influences on collaboration...
January 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#19
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907243/an-optimized-centrifugal-method-for-separation-of-semen-from-superabsorbent-polymers-for-forensic-analysis
#20
Lucy R Camarena, Bailey K Glasscock, Demi Daniels, Nicolle Ackley, Marybeth Sciarretta, Sarah J Seashols-Williams
Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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