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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#1
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907243/an-optimized-centrifugal-method-for-separation-of-semen-from-superabsorbent-polymers-for-forensic-analysis
#2
Lucy R Camarena, Bailey K Glasscock, Demi Daniels, Nicolle Ackley, Marybeth Sciarretta, Sarah J Seashols-Williams
Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885653/comparing-standard-and-selective-degradation-dna-extraction-methods-results-from-a-field-experiment-with-sexual-assault-kits
#3
Rebecca Campbell, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jessica Shaw, Hannah Feeney, Jeffrey Nye, Kristin Schelling, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
: A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods. METHODS: We evaluated selective degradation methods for DNA extraction using actual case work from a sample of previously unsubmitted SAKs in Detroit, Michigan. We randomly assigned 350 kits to either standard or selective degradation testing methods and then compared DNA testing rates and CODIS entry rates between the two groups...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864965/attempted-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-xylazine-intoxication-in-a-child
#4
Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Alexander Mueller, Sven Anders
There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857155/fluorescence-and-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting-strategies-to-separate-spermatozoa-involving-plural-contributors-from-biological-mixtures-for-human-identification
#5
Yan Xu, Jianhui Xie, Ronghua Chen, Yu Cao, Yuan Ping, Qingwen Xu, Wei Hu, Dan Wu, Lihua Gu, Huaigu Zhou, Xin Chen, Ziqin Zhao, Jiang Zhong, Rui Li
No effective method has been developed to distinguish sperm cells originating from different men in multi-suspect sexual assault cases. Here we combined MACS and FACS to isolate single donor sperm cells from forensic mixture samples including female vaginal epithelial cells and sperm cells from multiple contributors. Sperms from vaginal swab were isolated by MACS using FITC-conjugated A kinase anchor protein 3 (AKAP3) antibody; target individual sperm cells involving two or three donors were separated by FACS using FITC-labeled blood group A/B antigen antibody...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855738/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#6
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVE: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. METHODS: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS) and were monitored one to two nights with video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17 to 76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n=11), complete sexual intercourse (n=8), masturbation (n=8) and spontaneous orgasm (n=1)...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832353/a-proof-of-principal-study-on-the-use-of-direct-pcr-of-semen-and-spermatozoa-and-development-of-a-differential-isolation-protocol-for-use-in-cases-of-alleged-sexual-assault
#7
Shanan S Tobe, Yuvaneswari C Swaran, Lynn Dennany, Ursula Sibbing, Kristina Schulze Johann, Lindsey Welch, Marielle Vennemann
Sexual assault samples are some of the most common samples encountered in forensic analysis. These samples can require a significant time investment due to differential extraction processes. We report on the first record of successful direct amplification of semen for STR analysis. Neat seminal fluid, dilutions ranging from 1:5 to 1:160 and GEDNAP samples were successfully amplified using a direct method. A mild differential isolation technique to enrich spermatozoa was developed and successfully implemented to separate and directly amplify a mixture of semen and female epithelial cells...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737838/child-sexual-assault-reported-to-an-acute-sexual-assault-referral-centre-in-london
#8
Louise Morgan, Sophie Khadr, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic and assault-related characteristics of children attending an acute sexual assault referral centre in London within a week of alleged sexual assault. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review of all children aged 12 years and under who reported between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, sex, ethnicity, drugs and alcohol around the time of assault, nature of offence, relationship with perpetrator, additional violence, verbal threats, presence of injury...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644913/-clinical-characteristics-among-forensic-inpatients-a-special-case-the-establishment-of-social-defense-les-marronniers-in-tournai-belgium
#9
P Oswald, X Saloppé, C Ducro, D Macquet, P-J Cornu, T Pham, B Delaunoit
BACKGROUND: In Belgium, the law of "social defense" stipulates that an accused "which is either in a state of dementia or in a serious state of mental disturbance or mental deficiency, incapable of controlling his actions" can be interned. The establishment of social defense (ESD) in Tournai (Belgium) hosts 350 inmates. OBJECTIVES: In collaboration with the Centre for research in social defense, we organized a systematic assessment of patients interned in ESD. This is the first study evaluating prospectively this population...
September 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614327/variability-in-findings-of-anogenital-injury-in-consensual-and-non-consensual-fisting-intercourse-a-systematic-review
#10
Simone Cappelletti, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Vittorio Fineschi, Natale Mario di Luca, Costantino Ciallella
Fisting is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. A systematic review of the forensic literature yielded 14 published studies from 8 countries between 1968 and 2016 that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, illustrating that external anogenital (anal and/or genital) trauma due to fisting is observed in 22.2% and 88.8% (reported consensual and non-consensual intercourse, respectively) of the subjects, while internal injuries are observed in the totality of the patients...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607095/simulation-for-operational-readiness-in-a-new-freestanding-emergency-department-strategy-and-tactics
#11
Robert L Kerner, Kathleen Gallo, Michael Cassara, John DʼAngelo, Anthony Egan, John Galbraith Simmons
Simulation in multiple contexts over the course of a 10-week period served as a core learning strategy to orient experienced clinicians before opening a large new urban freestanding emergency department. To ensure technical and procedural skills of all team members, who would provide care without on-site recourse to specialty backup, we designed a comprehensive interprofessional curriculum to verify and regularize a wide range of competencies and best practices for all clinicians. Formulated under the rubric of systems integration, simulation activities aimed to instill a shared culture of patient safety among the entire cohort of 43 experienced emergency physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and patient technicians, most newly hired to the health system, who had never before worked together...
October 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568207/make-up-and-love-bites-two-reports-about-exceptional-cases-of-self-inflicted-injuries
#12
Verena Blaas, Johannes Manhart, Andreas Büttner
Self-inflicted injuries and their differentiation from inflicted injuries may have severe legal implications. The detection of these injuries is an important task in clinical forensic medicine. We present two cases of skin discolorations caused by using make-up and suction of the skin which have only rarely been reported. In the first case a 19-year-old woman asserted she was punched against her left clavicle and her right eye by a perpetrator, and that during the following forced sexual intercourse she had been bitten on the neck...
August 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553865/victimization-and-vulnerability-a-study-of-incarceration-interpersonal-trauma-and-patient-physician-trust
#13
Alexandra Junewicz, Kelly J Kleinert, Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Arthur Caplan
Despite the critical importance of patient-physician trust, it may be compromised among vulnerable patients, such as (1) incarcerated patients and (2) those patients who have been victims of trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine patient-physician trust among forensic and civilian psychiatric inpatient populations and to explore whether it varied based on a patient's history of incarceration and/or victimization. A trust survey (WFPTS) and a trauma instrument (LEC-5) were administered to 93 patients hospitalized on forensic and civilian psychiatric hospital units in a large, urban public hospital...
August 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501684/-a-retrospective-analysis-of-88-solved-intentional-homicide-cases
#14
Jia-quan Tang, Jian-feng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the key points, difficulties and relevant practical experiences for analyzing the scene of solved intentional homicide cases. METHODS: The data of 88 solved intentional homicide cases in a county from 2004 to 2013 were collected and the retrospective analysis was performed. RESULTS: The number of local female victims obviously higher than non-local female victims and the number of non-local suspects is obviously higher than local suspects...
April 2016: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500887/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-fluorescent-dye-for-detecting-dermal-injuries-the-injuries-were-both-abrasions-and-incision-in-a-murine-model
#15
Anthony C Bruce, Yiqi Cao, Catherine Henry, Shayn M Peirce, Kathryn Laughon
Objective documentation of tears and abrasions to the external genitalia after sexual assault is an important part of the forensic examination. A 1% aqueous solution of toluidine blue (TB) dye is often used to highlight injury, but the dye can be difficult to see on dark skin. We evaluated a fluorescent dye for detecting injuries on all skin colors in a relevant preclinical murine model. We compared the ability of trained, blinded observers to detect unstained wounds and wounds stained with 1% fluorescein sodium (FL) and with TB...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490516/is-there-a-role-for-paediatric-sexual-assault-nurse-examiners-in-the-management-of-child-sexual-assault-in-australia
#16
Dania Nathanson, Susan Woolfenden, Karen Zwi
In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia...
September 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442128/isolating-sperm-from-cell-mixtures-using-magnetic-beads-coupled-with-an-anti-ph-20-antibody-for-forensic-dna-analysis
#17
Xing-Chun Zhao, Le Wang, Jing Sun, Bo-Wei Jiang, Er-Li Zhang, Jian Ye
Vaginal swabs taken in rape cases usually contain epithelial cells from the victim and sperm from the assailant and forensic DNA analysis requires separation of sperm from these cell mixtures. PH-20, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase located on the head of sperm, has important functions in fertilization. Here we describe a newly developed method for sperm isolation using anti-PH-20 antibody-coupled immunomagnetic beads (anti-PH-20 IMBs). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the IMBs recognized the head of sperm specifically and exhibited a great capacity to capture sperm cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428791/connecting-hispanic-women-in-baltimore-to-the-mercy-medical-center-sexual-assault-forensic-examiners-forensic-nurse-examiners-program-a-preliminary-assessment-of-service-utilization-and-community-awareness
#18
Margaret Adams, Sheila Fitzgerald, Debra Holbrook
Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402337/a-national-survey-of-facilities-for-complainants-of-sexual-assault
#19
Rageshri Dhairyawan, Kate Shardlow, Michelle Carroll, Rachel Sacks
In 2006, a national survey demonstrated wide disparities in services offered to sexual assault complainants in the UK, most marked between sexual assault referral centres and non-sexual assault referral centres (police victim examination suites). With national standards introduced in 2009 and the expansion of sexual assault referral centres, we aimed to evaluate the current situation. A questionnaire based on the original 2006 survey, collecting data on population covered, access, funding, personnel, medical care and clinical governance was sent to all 44 UK sexual assault referral centres open in 2012...
July 8, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376175/non-fatal-strangulation-in-sexual-assault-a-study-of-clinical-and-assault-characteristics-highlighting-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence
#20
Renate R Zilkens, Maureen A Phillips, Maire C Kelly, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Debbie A Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence, risk factors, signs and symptoms of non-fatal strangulation (NFS) in women referred to a Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC) following recent sexual assault. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using data routinely collected at time of forensic examination of women (age ≥ 13 years) referred to the Western Australian SARC between Jan-2009 and Mar-2015 alleging a recent sexual assault. Data on demographics, assault characteristics and forensic findings were available...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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