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Forensic sexual assault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618539/sexsomnia-as-a-defense-in-repeated-sex-crimes
#1
Amir Mohebbi, Brian J Holoyda, William J Newman
Sexsomnia and related sexual behaviors during sleep may be diagnosed in individuals accused of sex crimes. Although sexsomnia is now formally recognized in the DSM-5, the variable presentation of such behaviors and the possibility of malingering in medicolegal situations can cause challenges for forensic evaluators and legal professionals alike. Review of the literature reveals a paucity of cases involving allegations of repeated incidents due to abnormal sexual behaviors or experiences in sleep. It is important for experts involved in such cases to understand how the courts have responded to sexsomnia defenses involving diverse alleged incidents...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609058/sperm-cell-purification-from-mock-forensic-swabs-using-somamer%C3%A2-affinity-reagents
#2
Evaldas Katilius, Andrew B Carmel, Heidi Koss, Dan O'Connell, Breanna C Smith, Glenn M Sanders, Greggory S LaBerge
We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection...
March 27, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530441/-an-assessment-of-the-direct-costs-of-healthcare-for-victims-of-sexual-assaults-in-hospital-emergency-units
#3
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518256/homicide-in-a-horse-barn
#4
Samuel P Prahlow, Joseph A Prahlow
As forensic scientists and physicians, forensic pathologists are duty-bound to perform their examinations with integrity and professionalism. The practice of medicine requires knowledge regarding the history and presentation of the patient. In forensic pathology, the history includes scene and other investigative information, and the decedent's medical and social history. Such information is important for the correct certification of the cause and manner of death. Herein, the authors present a case originally thought by police and death investigators to represent a sexual-assault-related homicide, as an elderly female's body was found partially nude, and apparently beaten, on the muddy floor of her horse barn...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494880/improving-the-efficacy-of-the-standard-dna-differential-extraction-method-for-sexual-assault-evidence
#5
Mark D Timken, Sonja B Klein, Martin R Buoncristiani
The efficacy of a DNA differential extraction procedure relies on reducing the amount of non-sperm female DNA carryover into the sperm fraction, while providing a sufficient recovery of male DNA from the sperm cell component. A standard approach to this extraction is to use a mild initial lysis step to digest the female (epithelial cell) component in the mixture, followed by a series of centrifugation and wash steps to further purify the resulting sperm-pellet fraction. This sperm fraction is then digested in the presence of a chemical reducing agent in preparation for DNA extraction...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468380/guidelines-examination-of-victims-of-sexual-assault-harmonization-of-forensic-and-medico-legal-examination-of-persons
#6
B Ludes, A Geraut, M Väli, D Cusack, D Ferrara, E Keller, P Mangin, D N Vieira
Sexual assault is a complex situation with medical, psychological, and legal aspects. Forensic experts play a major role in terms of forensic and gynecological medical examination and evidence collection in order to maintain the chain of custody. Victims should be examined by a specially trained medico-legal examiner in order to avoid multiple examinations in the surroundings that do not meet minimum health standards. The evolution and treatment of sexual assault victims are time-intensive and should optimally be provided by a team that includes a forensic medical doctor...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464703/a-comparison-among-three-multiplex-y-str-profiling-kits-for-sexual-assault-cases
#7
Benedita Ferreira-Silva, Margarida Fonseca-Cardoso, Maria João Porto, Teresa Magalhães, Laura Cainé
Biological evidence of sexual assault is one of the most difficult sample types to analyze in forensic laboratories. Y-STR markers are thus a valuable tool for analyzing these samples. The aim of this project was to compare three Y-STR commercial kits by analyzing their amplification performance on casework samples. Overall, 247 trace samples were analyzed with a Yfiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex® Y23 (Promega® ) System and AmpFLSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427705/dismantling-the-justice-silos-flowcharting-the-role-and-expertise-of-forensic-science-forensic-medicine-and-allied-health-in-adult-sexual-assault-investigations
#8
Sally F Kelty, Roberta Julian, Eva Bruenisholz, Linzi Wilson-Wilde
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373282/-forensic-medical-examination-of-adolescent-and-adult-victims-of-sexual-assault-or-intimate-partner-violence-who-do-not-complain-to-the-police-an-observational-study-in-seine-saint-denis-france
#9
Céline Denis, Céline Paret, Patrick Chariot
OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics of victims of sexual assault or domestic violence who consulted in a Department of Forensic Medicine without a formal complaint to the police. METHODS: observational study (03/01/2014-08/31/2015) of individuals (age>15years) consulting in a Department of Forensic Medicine near Paris, France, after a sexual assault or domestic violence. Among the individuals who were examined in the department of Forensic Medicine, we compared the individuals who had not complained to the police to those who had complained to the police...
January 17, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366411/effects-of-ghb-on-psychomotor-and-driving-performance
#10
Carmela Centola, Arianna Giorgetti, Simona Zaami, Raffaele Giorgetti
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (γ-hydroxybutyrate or GHB) is a physiological compound of mammalians with specific receptors in central nervous system (CNS). Apart from an endogenous production, GHB is also an exogenous molecule found in pharmaceutical as well as in illicit formulations, and it shares the same binding sites and is. Products manufactured and spread in these two fields, whose borders are all but strictly defined and traced, differ for the in-vivo effects and for the potential of abuse...
January 23, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339839/trends-in-trauma-related-mortality-among-adolescents-a-6-year-snapshot-from-a-teaching-hospital-s-post-mortem-data
#11
Sachil Kumar, Anoop K Verma
Introduction: The aim is to explore the trends in trauma mortality in children aged 0-18 years can help to co-ordinate resources toward research and programs to reduce the burden. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out on adolescents ≤18 years of age autopsied according to the attorney request at Forensic Medicine & Toxicology department of King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India in the period from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2014...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#12
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
March 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301113/factors-associated-with-trace-evidence-analyses-and-dna-findings-among-police-reported-cases-of-rape
#13
Camilla Forr, Berit Schei, Lise Eilin Stene, Kari Ormstad, Cecilie Therese Hagemann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between victim, suspect and assault characteristics and (1) forensic analysis of trace evidence, (2) detection of spermatozoa and (3) DNA match in police-reported cases of rape/attempted rape. In addition, we explored whether DNA findings were associated with legal outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on police-reported rapes and attempted rapes of women  ≥16 years of age in Sør-Trøndelag Police District throughout 1997-2010...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294816/shifting-sexual-assault-forensic-examiners-orientation-from-prosecutorial-to-patient-centered-the-role-of-training
#14
Debra Patterson, Megan Pennefather, Kathleen Donoghue
Sexual assault forensic examiners (SAFEs) have a complex role that entails providing health care and medical forensic evidence collection. The literature indicates that there are two orientations that guide SAFEs in this role. A patient-centered orientation emphasizes attending to emotional needs, offering options, and respecting survivors' decisions, which has been linked to positive emotional outcomes. A prosecutorial orientation places emphasis on evidence collection and has been associated with providing fewer comprehensive services...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294695/factors-influencing-labeling-nonconsensual-sex-as-sexual-assault
#15
Monica C Yndo, Tina Zawacki
The current study examined the effects of physical attractiveness and sexual interest cues on men's sexual perceptions of women and whether increases in sexual perceptions of a woman would lead to decreases in labeling of subsequent nonconsensual sex as sexual assault. Two hundred thirty-three male college students ( Mage = 19.17, SD = 1.22) read a vignette describing a hypothetical social interaction between a man and a woman; within the vignette, the female character's physical attractiveness (attractive vs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280759/phylogenetic-analysis-as-a-forensic-tool-in-hiv-transmission-investigations
#16
Ana B Abecasis, Marta Pingarilho, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
: Because HIV is a fast-evolving virus, HIV genomic sequences of several individuals can be used to investigate whether they belong to a transmission network. Since the infamous 'Florida dentist case' in the beginning of the 1990s, phylogenetic analyses has been recurrently used in court settings as a forensic tool in HIV transmission investigations, for example cases where one or more complainants allege that a defendant has unlawfully infected them with HIV. Such cases can arise both in the context of HIV-specific criminal laws - in countries where transmission of HIV infection is specifically criminalized - or in the context of general laws, for example, by applying physical or sexual assault laws to HIV-related cases...
March 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236188/contributors-to-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-incarcerated-youth
#17
Larkin Street McReynolds, Gail Wasserman, Elise Ozbardakci
BACKGROUND: Despite elevations in risks associated with self-injurious behavior among community adolescents, the degree to which these features are associated with self-injury among incarcerated youth has rarely been examined. Although the DSM-5 recently proposed a distinct category of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), most studies of youths in forensic settings have not distinguished between subtypes of self-harming individuals. METHODS: Demographic, offense, and disorder contributors to NSSI in incarcerated youths of both genders (N = 358) were examined via a computerized self-report instrument (VISA), largely consistent with DSM-5...
December 13, 2017: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198380/the-priority-of-administering-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-cases-of-sexual-assault-in-an-emergency-department
#18
Meredith Scannell, Andrea E MacDonald, Amanda Berger, Nichole Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a genuine concern for sexually assaulted patients. Emergency departments are a place where sexually assaulted patients seek care, including treatment to prevent HIV. Prompt administration of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis is essential because of the time-sensitive nature of the medications. Quality improvement measures at an urban hospital revealed delays in administration of postexposure prophylaxis to these patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176518/lessons-learned-from-icare-a-postexamination-text-messaging-based-program-with-sexual-assault-patients
#19
Danielle L Hicks, Debra Patterson, Stella Resko
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial, few sexual assault patients seek follow-up healthcare or counseling after a medical forensic examination. Mobile technology interventions may help patients engage in postcare, but there is a dearth of research on patients' utilization of these interventions. The current study examines patients' engagement with a 4-week postassault text message program (iCare), which assessed patients' safety and well-being, if they needed assistance with accessing nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis, or scheduling appointments for follow-up pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection testing, and their experience with the criminal justice system...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064859/increasing-the-accessibility-of-sexual-assault-forensic-examinations-evaluation-of-texas-law-sb-1191
#20
Robert C Davis, Bernard Auchter, Susan Howley, Torie Camp, Ilse Knecht, William Wells
INTRODUCTION: Texas SB 1191 was enacted in 2013 with the intent of increasing access to medical forensic examinations for sexual assault victims by requiring every hospital with an emergency department to be prepared to provide a medical forensic examination if requested by a sexual assault victim. To realize that goal, the law also required basic forensic training for medical professionals before conducting a medical forensic examination as well as a requirement that hospitals develop a "plan to train personnel on sexual assault forensic evidence collection...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
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