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Gene Therapy AND Head and Neck

Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Emre Yilmaz
Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Sagus Sampath, Haejung Won, Erminia Massarelli, Min Li, Paul Frankel, Nayana Vora, Lalit Vora, Ellie Maghami, Marcin Kortylewski
Immunomodulation contributes to the antitumor efficacy of the fractionated radiation therapy (RT). Here, we describe immune effects of RT with concurrent systemic cisplatin or cetuximab treatment of patients with stage III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using longitudinally collected blood samples, we identified significant changes in cytokines/chemokines and immune cell populations compared to immune-related gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The 7-week combinatorial RT resulted in gradual elevation of proinflammatory mediators (IFNγ, IL-6, TNFɑ, CCL2), while levels of IL-12, cytokine essential for antitumor immune responses, were decreased...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Teng Huang, Wei Huang, Hong Lu, Bi-Yun Zhang, Jun Ma, Di Zhao, Yi-Jun Wang, Da-Hai Yu, Xia He
BACKGROUND: The role of transforming growth factorβ (TGF-β)-induced tumor progression in advanced malignancy is well established, but the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in TGF-β signaling remains unclear. This study aimed to identify TGF-β-associated lncRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Expression profiling of lncRNAs was obtained using Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of EPB41L4A-AS2 in HNSCC cell line...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
T Fukusumi, J A Califano
Comprehensive genomic analyses have been performed for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), revealing a significant rate of NOTCH1 mutations and identifying NOTCH1 as the second most frequently mutated gene after TP53. Most NOTCH1 mutations are considered inactivating, indicating that NOTCH1 is a tumor suppressor gene. On the other hand, cohorts from Asian populations with HNSCC have shown activating NOTCH1 mutations. HNSCC with NOTCH1 mutations have a worse prognosis than the NOTCH1 wild-type tumors...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
A Lindemann, H Takahashi, A A Patel, A A Osman, J N Myers
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
W Shang, Q Zhang, Y Huang, R Shanti, F Alawi, A Le, C Jiang
Head and neck cancer is one of the most frequent human malignancies worldwide, with a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is cellularly and molecularly heterogeneous, with subsets of undifferentiated cancer cells exhibiting stem cell-like properties, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, gene mutation, and epigenetic modification are associated with the formation of cellular plasticity of tumor cells in HNSCC, contributing to the acquisition of invasive, recurrent, and metastatic properties and therapeutic resistance...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Thomas Melchardt, Teresa Magnes, Clemens Hufnagl, Aaron R Thorner, Matthew Ducar, Daniel Neureiter, Wolfgang Tränkenschuh, Eckhard Klieser, Alexander Gaggl, Sebastian Rösch, Gerd Rasp, Tanja N Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer, Gabriel Rinnerthaler, Lukas Weiss, Richard Greil, Alexander Egle
BACKGROUND: Tumour heterogeneity and clonal evolution within a cancer patient are deemed responsible for relapse in malignancies and present challenges to the principles of targeted therapy, for which treatment modality is often decided based on the molecular pathology of the primary tumour. Nevertheless, the clonal architecture in distant relapse of head and neck cancer is fairly unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this project, we analysed a cohort of 386 patients within the Austrian Registry of head and neck cancer...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
S Wagner, H Böckmann, S Gattenlöhner, J P Klussmann, C Wittekindt
Based on clinical and experimental data, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recognized as a distinct entity of head and neck cancers. However, outside of clinical trials, HPV status currently has no impact on treatment. The natural replication cycle of HPV takes place in epithelial cells, and is thus spatially separated from cytotoxic immune cells in the epidermis. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, LC), however, are frequent in this upper dermal layer...
February 15, 2018: HNO
Glenn J Hanna, Patrick Lizotte, Megan Cavanaugh, Frank C Kuo, Priyanka Shivdasani, Alexander Frieden, Nicole G Chau, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jochen H Lorch, Ravindra Uppaluri, Laura E MacConaill, Robert I Haddad
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have efficacy in treating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), but objective response rates are low. PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression alone is not considered a robust predictor of response and additional biomarkers are needed. This 3-year observational cohort followed 126 SCCHN patients treated with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy. Prior to treatment, 81 (64%) had targeted massively parallel tumor sequencing. Of these, 42 (52%) underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry for tumor immunoprofiling...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
A Palmieri, A Iapichino, F Cura, L Scapoli, F Carinci, M Mandrone, M Martinelli
Larynx squamous cell carcinoma represents one of the most common head and neck cancers in the world. Herbal drugs are popularly emerging as complementary and alternative therapies in cancer because of their cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-tumor potential of berberine, an isoquinolone present in the extract of Tinospora cordifolia in HEP2 human laryngeal cancer cell line. Besides, it was aimed to investigate whether berberine could enhance the anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in HEP2...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
F Martino, R Di Mauro, K Paciaroni, J Gaziev, C Alfieri, L Greco, R Floris, S Di Girolamo, M Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Verena Sailer, Arthur Charpentier, Joern Dietrich, Timo J Vogt, Alina Franzen, Friedrich Bootz, Dimo Dietrich, Andreas Schroeck
BACKGROUND: Patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region (HNSCC) are at risk for disease recurrence and metastases, even after initial successful therapy. A tissue-based biomarker could be beneficial to guide treatment as well as post-treatment surveillance. Gene methylation status has been recently identified as powerful prognostic biomarker in HNSCC. We therefore evaluated the methylation status of the homeobox gene PITX1 and the adjacent long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) C5orf66-AS1 in publicly available datasets...
2018: PloS One
Lili Ren, Tatsuo Matsuda, Boya Deng, Kazuma Kiyotani, Taigo Kato, Jae-Hyun Park, Tanguy Y Seiwert, Everett E Vokes, Nishant Agrawal, Yusuke Nakamura
Though adoptive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy has been explored in clinical trials for many years, there is little information for the clonotype composition between TILs in original tumor tissues and TILs that were in vitro expanded and infused to cancer patients. To investigate the similarity/difference in TILs in original tumor tissues and those of in vitro expanded populations in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) as well as their correlation with somatic mutations in cancer cells, we performed whole exome analysis, expression profile analysis of immune-related genes, and T cell receptor (TCR) analysis of original TILs and in vitro expanded TILs in 8 surgically-resected HPV-negative fresh tumors with SCCHN...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Keiichi Koshizuka, Naoko Kikkawa, Toyoyuki Hanazawa, Yasutaka Yamada, Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Koji Katada, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Naohiko Seki
Due to their aggressive behavior, local recurrence and distant metastasis, survival rate of advanced stage of the patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is very poor. Currently available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies are not considered curative for HNSCC. Therefore, novel approaches for identification of therapeutic targets in HNSCC are needed. All members of the miRNA-29 family (miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c) were downregulated in HNSCC tissues by analysis of RNA-sequencing based microRNA (miRNA) expression signature...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Liu Qing, Wang Qing
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family are a series of important cancer therapeutic targets involved in cancer biology. These genes play an important role in tumor biological characteristics including angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion and glucose metabolism. In recent years, progresses have been achieved upon the cellular and molecular biological characteristics of EGFR and its role in cancer development based on the study of tumor specimens and experimental animal model. EGFR(HER1/ErbB) is overexpressed in over sixty percent of triple-negative breast cancers and occurs in pancreatic, bladder, lung and head-and-neck cancers...
February 1, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
Ganesan Arunkumar, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra Rao, Mayakannan Manikandan, Harikrishnan Prasanna Srinivasa Rao, Shanmugam Subbiah, Ramachandran Ilangovan, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Arasambattu Kannan Munirajan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to function as a major component in the cellular signaling circuit, which regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Dysregulation of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family and EMT-associated genes enables tumor metastasis and resistance to therapy. The present study profiled miR-200 family members miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141 and miR-429, and also several EMT-regulatory genes including zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox (ZEB)1, ZEB2, epithelial cadherin and vimentin in 40 oral primary tumors in order to understand their role(s) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Ji Hyun Chung, Hae Rim Jung, Ah Ra Jung, Young Chan Lee, Moonkyoo Kong, Ju-Seog Lee, Young-Gyu Eun
SOX2 copy number and mRNA expression were analysed to examine the clinical significance of SOX2 activation in HNSCC. Gene expression signatures reflecting SOX2 activation were identified in an HNSCC cohort. Patients with HNSCC were classified into two subgroups according to the gene expression signature: SOX2-high and SOX2-low. The clinical significance of SOX2 activation was further validated in two independent cohorts. Moreover, clinical significance of SOX2 activation in response to radiotherapy was assessed in patients with HNSCC...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Molly E Johnson, Paul G Cantalupo, James M Pipas
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The cell cycle regulatory Rb-E2F pathway is a major target of HPV and is perturbed by these viruses in cell culture and animal models, as well as in human tumors. In this study, we examined differences in the Rb-E2F pathway displayed by HPV-positive (HPV+) and HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC tumors. We created a computational approach that effectively categorizes gene expression as unchanged, downregulated, or upregulated by comparing the gene's mRNA levels in the tumor to the corresponding mRNA levels across normal tissue samples...
January 2018: MSphere
Benjamin Solomon, Richard J Young, Danny Rischin
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. While many HNSCCs are related to classical etiologic factors of smoking and alcohol, a clinically, genomically, and immunologically distinct subgroup of tumors arise from the epithelium of the tonsil and the base of tongue as a result of infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In this review we describe the genomic and immunologic landscape of HNSCC, highlighting differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC...
January 30, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Jesus Monico, Brandon Miller, Luminita Rezeanu, Warren May, Donna C Sullivan
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been noted to be amplified in a variety of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCa) of the head, neck, and lung and increased copy number (CN) is a predictor of poor outcomes. FGFR1 is a therapeutic target for lung SCCa and inhibition therapy is currently in clinical trials. Absolute quantification of FGFR1 from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue of laryngeal SCCa was examined in this retrospective study. A droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was used for absolute quantitation of the FGFR1 gene CN...
2018: PloS One
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