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(NOS)and(nitric oxide synthase)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924425/inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-prevents-lps-induced-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-in-mice-contribution-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-caspase-1-11-asc-nox-and-nos-isoforms
#1
Abdurrahman Dolunay, Sefika Pinar Senol, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Bahar Tunctan
The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), an intracellular signaling molecule that senses many environmental- and pathogen/host-derived factors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with inflammation. It has been suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of NLRP3-related inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome prevents inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice as well as changes in expression/activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), caspase-1/11, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), and endothelial/neuronal/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/nNOS/iNOS) that may regulate NLRP3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome formation and activity by using a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, MCC950...
December 6, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921397/nitric-oxide-induced-by-polyamines-involves-antioxidant-systems-against-chilling-stress-in-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-mill-seedling
#2
Qian-Nan Diao, Yong-Jun Song, Dong-Mei Shi, Hong-Yan Qi
Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917279/minocycline-attenuates-cirrhotic-cardiomyopathy-and-portal-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-possible-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-pathway
#4
Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Maliheh Nobakht, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, Iraj Yazdani, Amir Rashidian, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
OBJECTIVES: An increase in nitric oxide (NO) production has been reported in cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and, portal hypertension. Since minocycline has been shown to inhibit NO overproduction, we aimed to examine its role in a rat model of CCl4-induced cirrhotic cardiovascular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Portal pressure and inotropic responsiveness of isolated papillary muscles to isoproterenol were measured in cirrhotic rats, following minocycline (50 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) treatment...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915453/effects-of-chronic-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-on-v-o2max-and-exercise-capacity-in-mice
#5
M Wojewoda, K Przyborowski, B Sitek, A Zakrzewska, L Mateuszuk, J A Zoladz, S Chlopicki
Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2max) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-))) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production in C57BL6/J mice...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913896/mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#6
Leilei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Liangliang Tao, Zhijian Yang, Liansheng Wang
PURPOSE: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. RESULTS: Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#7
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909412/modeling-disease-progression-angiotensin-ii-indirectly-inhibits-nitric-oxide-production-via-adma-accumulation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Haidong Wang, Hao Jiang, Haochen Liu, Xue Zhang, Guimei Ran, Hua He, Xiaoquan Liu
Nitric oxide (NO) production impairment is involved in the onset and development of hypertension. Although NO production impairment in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been reported in a variety of researches, the time course of this progressive procedure, as well as its relationship with asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and angiotensin II (Ang II), has not been quantified. The aim of this research is to establish a mechanism-based disease progression model to assess Ang II and ADMA's inhibition of NO production in SHR's disease progression with/without ramipril's intervention...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904147/penile-constitutive-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-rats-exposed-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-role-of-inflammation
#9
T D Şahin, Y Yazır, T Utkan, S S Göçmez, D Bayramgürler
Chronic psychological stress cause erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering recent evidence that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are increased in serum of patients with ED, the present study investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α blocker) on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity of rat penile corpus cavernosum in unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Male adult rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8 per group): Control, UCMS and UCMS+infliximab...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904096/development-and-analysis-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-to-improve-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#10
Yukiko K Kaneko
 Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a major feature of type 2 diabetes. Therefore maintenance of β-cell function is essential to preventing the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell survival, we particularly focused on the roles of gasotransmitters in pancreatic β-cells. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are recognized as toxic gases. However, they are also vital physiological and pathophysiological mediators in various cell types...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903582/threshold-levels-of-extracellular-l-arginine-that-trigger-nos-mediated-ros-rns-production-in-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes
#11
Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, R Daniel Peluffo
L-arginine (L-Arg) is the substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule that is key in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. In cardiac myocytes, L-Arg is incorporated from the circulation through the functioning of system-y(+) cationic amino acid transporters. Depletion of L-Arg leads to NOS uncoupling, with O2 rather than L-Arg as terminal electron acceptor, resulting in superoxide formation. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide (O2•(-)), combined with NO, may lead to the production of the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (ONOO-), which is recognized as a major contributor to myocardial depression...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901469/obestatin-improves-hepatic-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-role-of-nitric-oxide
#12
Ola A El-Gohary
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common clinical problem. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of obestatin against I/R-induced liver injury. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): control sham-operated group, I/R group and obestatin treatment group. Rats of I/R group and obestatin treatment group underwent partial hepatic ischemia for 60 min followed by 90 min reperfusion. At the beginning of the 90-min reperfusion period, rats of obestatin treatment group were injected with obestatin (100 μg/kg) intravenously...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899136/exposure-of-the-mosquito-vector-culex-pipiens-to-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-relictum-effect-of-infected-blood-intake-on-immune-and-antioxidant-defences-fecundity-and-survival
#13
Jessica Delhaye, Consolée Aletti, Olivier Glaizot, Philippe Christe
BACKGROUND: The intake of a Plasmodium-infected blood meal may affect mosquito physiology and a series of trade-offs may occur, in particular between immune defences, reproduction and self-maintenance. We evaluated the cost of exposure to Plasmodium in the mosquito vector by investigating the effect of exposure on fecundity and survival and the implication of immune and antioxidant defences in mediating this cost. METHODS: We used the natural Culex pipiens-Plasmodium relictum association...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896806/nitric-oxide-synthase-during-early-embryonic-development-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori-gene-expression-enzyme-activity-and-tissue-distribution
#14
Ryo Kitta, Marina Kuwamoto, Yumi Yamahama, Keisuke Mase, Hiroshi Sawada
To elucidate the mechanism for embryonic diapause or the breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori, we biochemically analyzed nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the embryogenesis of B. mori. The gene expression and enzyme activity of B. mori NOS (BmNOS) were examined in diapause, non-diapause, and HCl-treated diapause eggs. In the case of HCl-treated diapause eggs, the gene expression and enzyme activity of BmNOS were induced by HCl treatment. However, in the case of diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryogenesis, changes in the BmNOS activity and gene expressions did not coincide except 48-60 h after oviposition in diapause eggs...
November 29, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895230/an-arginase-1-snp-that-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-enhances-no-mediated-apoptosis-in-lymphocytes
#15
Jennifer K Trittmann, Yi Jin, Louis G Chicoine, Yusen Liu, Bernadette Chen, Leif D Nelin
Arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) share a common substrate, l-arginine, and have opposing effects on vascular remodeling. Arginase is the first step in polyamine and proline synthesis necessary for cellular proliferation, while NO produced from NOS promotes apoptosis. Previously, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the arginase-1 (ARG1) gene, rs2781666 (T-allele) that was associated with a decreased risk for developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a cohort of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892921/an-essential-role-for-bacterial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-electron-transfer-and-colonization
#16
Traci L Kinkel, Smirla Ramos-Montañez, Jasmine M Pando, Daniel V Tadeo, Erin N Strom, Stephen J Libby, Ferric C Fang
Nitric oxide (NO(•)) is a ubiquitous molecular mediator in biology. Many signalling actions of NO(•) generated by mammalian NO(•) synthase (NOS) result from targeting of the haem moiety of soluble guanylate cyclase. Some pathogenic and environmental bacteria also produce a NOS that is evolutionary related to the mammalian enzymes, but a bacterial haem-containing receptor for endogenous enzymatically generated NO(•) has not been identified previously. Here, we show that NOS of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, in concert with an NO(•)-metabolizing flavohaemoprotein, regulates electron transfer by targeting haem-containing cytochrome oxidases under microaerobic conditions to maintain membrane bioenergetics...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890696/nitric-oxide-synthase-and-structure-based-inhibitor-design
#17
Thomas L Poulos, Huiying Li
Once it was discovered that the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for the biosynthesis of NO, NOS became a drug target. Particularly important is the over production of NO by neuronal NOS (nNOS) in various neurodegenerative disorders. After the various NOS isoforms were identified, inhibitor development proceeded rapidly. It soon became evident, however, that isoform selectivity presents a major challenge. All 3 human NOS isoforms, nNOS, eNOS (endothelial NOS), and iNOS (inducible NOS) have nearly identical active site structures thus making selective inhibitor design especially difficult...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890695/nitric-oxide-polyamines-cross-talk-during-dormancy-release-and-germination-of-apple-embryos
#18
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888018/1400w-ameliorates-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cognitive-deficits-by-suppressing-the-induction-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-microglia
#19
Qinghai Shi, Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Xinchuan Zheng, Jihua Ran, Zhengxiang Liu, Jianfeng Fu, Jiang Zheng
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in neuronal modifications, and overproduction of NO contributes to memory deficits after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. This study investigated the ability of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W to counteract spatial memory deficits following acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation, and to affect expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex. We also used primary rat microglia to investigate the effect of 1400W on expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885576/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-cause-effect-or-association
#20
Anna Czarnecka, Krzysztof Milewski, Magdalena Zielińska
The methylated derivative of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthesized in different mammalian tissues including the brain. ADMA acts as an endogenous, nonselective, competitive inhibitor of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may limit L-arginine supply from the plasma to the enzyme via reducing its transport by cationic amino acid transporters. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a relatively frequently diagnosed complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic liver failure, characterized by symptoms linked with impaired brain function leading to neurological disabilities...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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