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(NOS)and(nitric oxide synthase)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091880/inhibition-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-does-not-alter-vasopressin-secretion-in-septic-rats
#1
Camila Henriques Coelho, Thalita Freitas Martins, Gabriela Ravanelli Oliveira-Pelegrin, Maria José Alves da Rocha
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: During the early phase of sepsis, hypotension is accompanied by increase of plasma vasopressin hormone (AVP) levels, which decline during the late phase. This hypotension is due in part to increase of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme. Neuronal isoform of this enzyme (nNOS) is present in vasopressinergics neurons of hypothalamus, but its role in vasopressin secretion during sepsis is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the role of nNOS in NO production and vasopressin secretion during sepsis...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090634/dietary-interventions-for-fetal-growth-restriction-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#2
Elizabeth Cottrell, Teresa Tropea, Laura Ormesher, Susan Greenwood, Mark Wareing, Edward Johnstone, Jenny Myers, Colin Sibley
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089735/effects-of-simvastatin-on-cat-1-mediated-arginine-transport-and-no-level-under-high-glucose-conditions-in-conditionally-immortalized-rat-inner-blood-retinal-barrier-cell-lines-tr-ibrb
#3
Temdara Tun, Young-Sook Kang
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia causes the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Statins have many pleiotropic effects such as improving endothelial barrier permeability and increasing eNOS mRNA stability. The objective of this study was to determine effect of simvastatin on l-arginine transport and NO production under high-glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB). METHODS: Changes in l-arginine transport uptake and, expression levels of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) and eNOS mRNA were investigated after pre-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors (l-NMMA and l-NAME) under high-glucose conditions using TR-iBRB, an in vitro model of iBRB...
January 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077315/inhibition-of-inos-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-and-depression-in-diabetic-mice-through-downregulating-the-no-sgc-cgmp-pkg-signal-pathway
#4
Xiao Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Chang Jiang Ying, Jing Chen, Ling Chen, Jing Dong, Yue Shi, Mang Tang, Xiao Tong Hu, Zhi Hua Pan, Na Na Xu, Kui Yang Zheng, Ren Xian Tang, Yuan Jian Song
Diabetes mellitus often results in a number of complications involving impaired brain function, including cognitive deficits and depression. However, the potential mechanisms for diabetes-related cognitive deficits and depression are not fully understood. Neurons in the hippocampal, cortical and amygdala functional regions are more susceptible to damage during hyperglycemia. Neuroprotection in the brain can rescue cognitive deficits and depression induced by hyperglycemia. This study investigated the potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related congnitive deficits and depression, determined whether the inflammatory factor inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, play key roles in cognitive deficits and depression associated...
January 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076881/constitutive-nos-uncoupling-and-nadph-oxidase-upregulation-in-the-penis-of-type-2-diabetic-men-with-erectile-dysfunction
#5
B Musicki, A L Burnett
Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves dysfunctional nitric oxide (NO) signaling and increased oxidative stress in the penis. However, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) dysregulation, and the sources of oxidative stress, are not well defined, particularly at the human level. The objective of this study was to define whether uncoupled eNOS and nNOS, and NADPH oxidase upregulation, contribute to the pathogenesis of ED in T2DM men...
January 11, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074650/revisiting-the-val-ile-mutation-in-mammalian-and-bacterial-no-synthases-a-spectroscopic-and-kinetic-study
#6
Marine Weisslocker-Schaetzel, Mehdi Lembrouk, Jerome Santolini, Pierre Dorlet
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in mammals by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at a catalytic site comprising a heme associated with a biopterin cofactor. Through genome sequencing, proteins with high homology to the oxygenase domain of NOSs have been identified, in particular in bacteria. The active site is highly conserved except for a valine residue in the distal pocket that is replaced by an isoleucine in bacteria. This switch was previously reported to influence the kinetics of the reaction. We have used the V346I mutant of the mouse inducible NOS (iNOS) as well as the I224V mutant of the NOS from Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS) to study their spectroscopic signatures in solution and look for potential structural differences compared to their respective wild types...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074232/vasoactive-actions-of-nitroxyl-hno-are-preserved-in-resistance-arteries-in-diabetes
#7
Marianne Tare, Rushita S R Kalidindi, Kristen J Bubb, Helena C Parkington, Wee-Ming Boon, Xiang Li, Christopher G Sobey, Grant R Drummond, Rebecca H Ritchie, Barbara K Kemp-Harper
Endothelial dysfunction is a major risk factor for the vascular complications of diabetes. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a hallmark of diabetes, reduces the bioavailability of endothelial vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO·). The vascular endothelium also produces the one electron reduced and protonated form of NO·, nitroxyl (HNO). Unlike NO·, HNO is resistant to scavenging by superoxide anions (·O2(─)). The fate of HNO in resistance arteries in diabetes is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the vasodilator actions of endogenous and exogenous HNO are preserved in resistance arteries in diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065581/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-aminoguanidine-reduces-intracerebroventricular-colchicine-induced-neurodegeneration-memory-impairments-and-changes-of-systemic-immune-responses-in-rats
#8
Susmita Sil, Tusharkanti Ghosh, Rupsa Ghosh, Pritha Gupta
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of colchicine induces neurodegeneration, memory impairments and changes of some systemic immune responses in rats. Though the role of cox 2 in these colchicine induced changes have been evaluated, the influence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) remains to be studied. The present study was designed to assess the role of NOS on the i.c.v. colchicine induced neurodegeneration, memory impairments and changes of some systemic immune responses by inhibiting its activity with aminoguanidine...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064018/alterations-in-nitric-oxide-homeostasis-during-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Andrey V Kozlov, Soheyl Bahrami, Heinz Redl, Csaba Szabo
Changes in nitric oxide (NO) levels have been often associated with various forms of trauma, including secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several studies demonstrate the upregulation of NO synthase (NOS) enzymes, and concomitant increases in brain NO levels, which contribute to the TBI-associated glutamate cytotoxicity, including the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction. TBI is also associated with elevated NO levels in remote organs, indicating that TBI can induce systemic changes in NO regulation, which can be either beneficial or detrimental...
January 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040796/role-of-rpl39-in-metaplastic-breast-cancer
#10
Bhuvanesh Dave, Daniel D Gonzalez, Zhi-Bin Liu, Xiaoxian Li, Helen Wong, Sergio Granados, Nadeer E Ezzedine, Douglas H Sieglaff, Joe E Ensor, Kathy D Miller, Milan Radovich, Agda KarinaEtrovic, Steven S Gross, Olivier Elemento, Gordon B Mills, Michael Z Gilcrease, Jenny C Chang
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast cancer is one of the most therapeutically challenging forms of breast cancer because of its highly heterogeneous and chemoresistant nature. We have previously demonstrated that ribosomal protein L39 (RPL39) and its gain-of-function mutation A14V have oncogenic activity in triple-negative breast cancer and this activity may be mediated through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The function of RPL39 and A14V in other breast cancer subtypes is currently unknown...
June 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039371/granular-layer-neurons-control-cerebellar-neurovascular-coupling-through-an-nmda-receptor-no-dependent-system
#11
Lisa Mapelli, Giuseppe Gagliano, Teresa Soda, Umberto Laforenza, Francesco Moccia, Egidio D'Angelo
: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the process whereby neuronal activity controls blood vessel diameter. In the cerebellum, the molecular layer is regarded as the main NVC determinant. However, the granular layer is a region with variable metabolic demand caused by large activity fluctuations, that shows a prominent expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is therefore much more suitable for effective NVC. Here we show that, in the granular layer of acute rat cerebellar slices, capillary diameter rapidly changes following mossy fiber stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031017/nitric-oxide-signaling-and-the-cross-talk-with-prostanoids-pathways-in-vascular-system
#12
Bruno R Silva, Tiago D Paula, Michele Paulo, Lusiane M Bendhack
BACKGROUND: This review provides an overview of the cellular signaling of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in vascular cells and the possible cross talk between their pathways, mainly in hypertension, since the imbalance of these two systems has been attributed to development of some cardiovascular diseases. It also deals with the modulation of vasodilation induced by NO donors. NO is a well-known second messenger involved in many cellular functions. CONCLUSION: In the vascular system, the NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) or released by NO donors acts in vascular smooth muscle cells, the binding of NO to Fe2+-heme of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC) activates sGC and the production of cyclic guanosine-3-5-monophosphate (cGMP)...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027007/multiple-roles-of-nitric-oxide-in-root-development-and-nitrogen-uptake
#13
Huwei Sun, Jinyuan Tao, Quanzhi Zhao, Guohua Xu, Yali Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is widely recognized for its role as a signaling molecule in regulating plant developmental processes. We summarize recent work on NO generation via nitrate reductase (NR) or/and NO synthase (NOS) pathway in response to nutrient fluctuation and its regulation of plant root growth and N metabolism. The promotion or inhibition of root development most likely depends on NO concentrations and/or experimental conditions. NO plays an important role in regulating plant NR activity at posttranslational level probably via a direct interaction mechanism, thus contributing largely to N assimilation...
December 27, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025796/ifn-%C3%AE-regulates-xanthine-oxidase-mediated-inos-independent-oxidative-stress-in-maneb-and-paraquat-treated-rat-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#14
Deepali Singh, Vinod Kumar, Chetna Singh
Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) provoke oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. Role of xanthine oxidase (XO) in oxidative stress and its association with nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) have been widely reported. While inducible NOS (iNOS) is implicated in MB+PQ-induced toxicity in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), role of XO and its alliance with iNOS have not yet been established. The study investigated the role of XO in MB+PQ-induced oxidative stress in rat PMNs and its regulation by iNOS and inflammatory cytokines...
December 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013386/potentiation-of-the-no-cgmp-pathway-and-blood-flow-responses-during-dynamic-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#15
Jacqueline K Limberg, Katherine R Malterer, J Mikhail Kellawan, William G Schrage, Brad W Wilkins, Wayne T Nicholson, John H Eisenach, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
PURPOSE: Previous work has shown nitric oxide (NO) contributes to ~15% of the hyperemic response to dynamic exercise in healthy humans. This NO-mediated vasodilation occurs, in part, via increases in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is catabolized by phosphodiesterase. We sought to examine the effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibition on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to dynamic handgrip exercise in healthy humans and the role of NO. We hypothesized exercise hyperemia would be augmented by sildenafil citrate (SDF, PDE-5 inhibitor)...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012927/role-of-scoparia-dulcis-linn-on-noise-induced-nitric-oxide-synthase-nos-expression-and-neurotransmitter-assessment-on-motor-function-in-wistar-albino-rats
#16
Wankupar Wankhar, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Loganathan Sundareswaran, Dapkupar Wankhar, Ravindran Rajan, Rathinasamy Sheeladevi
Noise pollution is one of the most widespread and fast growing environmental and occupational menaces in the modern era. Exposure to noise above 100dB is not adaptable through the brain homeostatic mechanism. Yet, the detrimental effects of noise have often been ignored. Developing reliable animal models to understand the neurobiology of noise stress and advance our research in the field of medicine to impede this growing stressor is needed. In this study experimental animals were divided into four groups, (i) Control and (ii) S...
December 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008669/r-type-ca-2-channels-couple-to-inhibitory-neurotransmission-to-the-longitudinal-muscle-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#17
Eileen S Rodriguez-Tapia, Vinogran Naidoo, Matthew DeVries, Alberto Perez-Medina, James J Galligan
There is evidence that R-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to synaptic transmission in the myenteric plexus. It is unknown if R-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to neuromuscular transmission. We measured the effects of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro L-arginine (NLA), Ca(2+) channel blockers and apamin (SK channel blocker) on neurogenic relaxations and contractions of the guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) in vitro. We used intracellular recordings to measure inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs)...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006762/h2s-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-nitrative-stress-and-inflammation
#18
Hong-Xia Zhang, Shu-Juan Liu, Xiao-Lu Tang, Guo-Li Duan, Xin Ni, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yu-Jian Liu, Chang-Nan Wang
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, has received increasing attention because of its diverse effects, including angiogenesis, vascular relaxation and myocardial protection.We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by endotoxemia. METHODS: Male ICR mice were divided in six groups: (1) Control group; (2) GYY4137treatment group; (3) L-NAME treatment group; (4) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment group; (5) LPS with GYY4137 treatment group; and (6) LPS with L-NAME treatment group...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998008/antihypertensive-methyldopa-labetalol-hydralazine-and-clonidine-reversed-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibited-enos-expression-in-endothelial-trophoblast-cellular-networks
#19
Bei Xu, Gabriele Bobek, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy
Medications used to control hypertension in pregnancy also improve trophoblast and endothelial cellular interaction in vitro. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibits trophoblast and endothelial cellular interactions and simultaneously decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. This study investigated whether antihypertensive medications improved these cellular interactions by modulating eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Human uterine myometrial microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) were pre-incubated with (or without) low dose TNF-α (0...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994632/calycosin-and-formononetin-induce-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-by-the-activation-of-large-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-bkca
#20
Hisa Hui Ling Tseng, Chi Teng Vong, George Pak-Heng Leung, Sai Wang Seto, Yiu Wa Kwan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Maggie Pui Man Hoi
Calycosin and formononetin are two structurally similar isoflavonoids that have been shown to induce vasodilation in aorta and conduit arteries, but study of their actions on endothelial functions is lacking. Here, we demonstrated that both isoflavonoids relaxed rat mesenteric resistance arteries in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced by endothelial disruption and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, indicating the involvement of both endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. In addition, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not the endothelium-independent vasodilation, was blocked by BKCa inhibitor iberiotoxin (IbTX)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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