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(NOS)and(nitric oxide synthase)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918509/effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-phosphate-on-pancreatic-islet-microcirculation-in-sd-rats
#1
X Xu, L Wu, Z Q Lu, P Xia, X P Zhu, X Gao
PURPOSES: Abnormal islet microcirculation impetus the insulin production and accelerates progression of Type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP), a vasoactive substance, could regulate the islet microcirculation and insulin concentration and improve glycaemia in SD rats. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control and TMPP groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the intravenous injection of either saline, 15 or 30% glucose...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915539/astaxanthin-alleviated-acute-lung-injury-by-inhibiting-oxidative-nitrative-stress-and-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice
#2
Jianbin Bi, Ruixia Cui, Zeyu Li, Chang Liu, Jingyao Zhang
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of astaxanthin (ASX) treatment on the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Mice were randomly allocated into the following groups: (1) the saline control group, in which mice were given saline before sham operation; (2) the ASX control group, in which mice received ASX before sham operation; (3) the ALI group, in which mice were given saline before CLP operation; and (4) the ALI+ASX group, in which mice received ASX before CLP operation...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914438/antihypercholesterolemic-antioxidant-and-renal-protective-effects-of-mengkudu-rubiaceae-fruit-in-nephropathy-induced-albino-rats
#3
U S Mahadeva Rao, C Shanmuga Sundaram
OBJECTIVE: To assess the modulatory impact of alcoholic extract of fruit of Mengkudu (AEFM, Morinda citrifolia L., Rubiaceae) on renal oxido-lipidemic stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups with six rats in each group: group I as control, group II fed with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 days (4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid), Group III rats fed with HCD for 45 days + AEFM (300 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for last 30 days and group IV normal rats fed AEFM alone...
September 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914193/chalcone-derivatives-anti-inflammatory-potential-and-molecular-targets-perspectives
#4
Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Sanjay Kumar Bharti, Vivek Asati
Chalcone or (E)-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one scaffold has gained considerable scientific interest in medicinal chemistry owing to its simple chemistry, ease in synthesizing a variety of derivatives and exhibiting a broad range of promising pharmacological activities by modulating several molecular targets. A number of natural and (semi-) synthetic chalcone derivatives have demonstrated admirable anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibitory potential against various therapeutic targets like cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), interleukins (IL), prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leukotriene D4 (LTD4), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TLR4/MD-2, etc...
September 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901858/expression-of-a-nitric-oxide-synthesizing-protein-in-arterial-endothelial-cells-in-response-to-different-anti-anginal-agents-used-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#5
Sarbashri Bank, Pradipta Jana, G V Girish, Asru Sinha, Smarajit Maiti
Organic "nitro" compounds such as nitroglycerine, isosorbate nitrate are useful in the control of chest pain in acute coronary syndrome. But the mechanism of it in pain regulation remains speculative. Here, increase of NO production was investigated by the possible regulation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) function from goat arterial endothelial cells. This protein was purified and sequence wise characterized as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in response to different nitro compounds. The NO generating protein was isolated from arterial endothelial cells and prepared to homogeneity...
September 11, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899912/do-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-contribute-to-sweating-response-during-passive-heating-in-endurance-trained-athletes
#6
Tatsuro Amano, Naoto Fujii, Glen P Kenny, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Narihiko Kondo
The aim of our study was to determine if habitual endurance training can influence the relative contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the regulation of sweating during a passive heat stress in young adults. Ten trained athletes and nine untrained counterparts were passively heated until oral temperature (as estimated by sublingual temperature, Tor) increased by 1.5°C above baseline resting. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) was measured at three skin sites continuously perfused with either lactated Ringer's solution (Control), 10 mmol/L N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, non-selective NOS inhibitor), or 10 mmol/L ketorolac (Ketorolac, non-selective COX inhibitor) via intradermal microdialysis...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893594/nitric-oxide-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-place-preference-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus
#7
Hironori Kamii, Naofumi Taoka, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous neurotransmitter, is involved in a variety of brain functions, including drug addiction. Although previous studies have suggested that NO plays an important role in the development of cocaine addiction, the brain region(s) in which NO acts and how it contributes to cocaine addiction remain unclear. In this study, we examined these issues using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings in rats. Specifically, we focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), brain regions associated with cocaine CPP development and cocaine-induced plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893433/effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-patients-with-concentric-myocardial-hypertrophy-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-molecular-insights
#8
Young Song, Jong Wook Song, Sak Lee, Ji-Hae Jun, Young-Lan Kwak, Jae-Kwang Shim
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) for cardioprotection in cardiac surgery is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and molecular effects of RIPC on the concentrically hypertrophied myocardium. METHODS: Seventy-two aortic stenosis patients receiving aortic valve replacement (AVR) under sevoflurane anesthesia were randomly allocated to RIPC (3cycles of 5-min inflation [300mmHg] and deflation on the left arm) or control (deflated cuff placement) group...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882669/real-time-visualization-of-distinct-nitric-oxide-generation-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-single-cells
#9
Emrah Eroglu, Seth Hallström, Helmut Bischof, Marissa Opelt, Kurt Schmidt, Bernd Mayer, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Wolfgang F Graier, Roland Malli
The members of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS, are well-characterized enzymes. However, due to the lack of suitable direct NO sensors, little is known about the kinetic properties of cellular NO generation by the different nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes. Very recently, we developed a novel class of fluorescent protein-based NO-probes, the geNOps, which allow real-time measurement of cellular NO generation and fluctuation. By applying these genetic NO biosensors to nNOS-, eNOS- and iNOS-expressing HEK293 cells we were able to characterize the respective NO dynamics in single cells that exhibited identical Ca(2+) signaling as comparable activator of nNOS and eNOS...
September 4, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882485/zinc-chloride-rapidly-stimulates-efflux-transporters-in-renal-proximal-tubules-of-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#10
Alexander Zaremba, David S Miller, Gert Fricker
Multidrug resistance-related protein 2 (Mrp2) is an ATP-driven efflux pump at the luminal membrane in renal proximal tubules. It acts as detoxification mechanism by transporting xenobiotics and metabolic products into urine. The trace element zinc is essential for cellular growth, differentiation and survival. It modulates immune response and is used as dietary supplement. Here, we found that 0.1-10μM ZnCl2 rapidly stimulated transport of the Mrp2 probe substrate Texas Red (TR) in isolated killifish renal proximal tubules, which provide an established model system to measure efflux transporter activity by using fluorescent probe substrates, confocal microscopy and image analysis...
September 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880927/scf-kit-signaling-induces-endothelin-3-synthesis-and-secretion-thereby-activates-and-regulates-endothelin-b-receptor-for-generating-temporally-and-spatially-precise-nitric-oxide-to-modulate-scf-and-or-kit-expressing-cell-functions
#11
Lei L Chen, Jing Zhu, Jonathan Schumacher, Chongjuan Wei, Latha Ramdas, Victor G Prieto, Arnie Jimenez, Marco A Velasco, Sheryl R Tripp, Robert H I Andtbacka, Launce Gouw, George M Rodgers, Liansheng Zhang, Benjamin K Chan, Pamela B Cassidy, Robert S Benjamin, Sancy A Leachman, Marsha L Frazier
We demonstrate that SCF-KIT signaling induces synthesis and secretion of endothelin-3 (ET3) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and melanoma cells in vitro, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, human sun-exposed skin, and myenteric plexus of human colon post-fasting in vivo. This is the first report of a physiological mechanism of ET3 induction. Integrating our finding with supporting data from literature leads us to discover a previously unreported pathway of nitric oxide (NO) generation derived from physiological endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) activation (referred to as the KIT-ET3-NO pathway)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878687/no-sgc-pathway-modulates-ca-2-release-and-muscle-contraction-in-zebrafish-skeletal-muscle
#12
Zhou Xiyuan, Rainer H A Fink, Matias Mosqueira
Vertebrate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation is a complex process that depends on Ca(2+) ions to promote the interaction of actin and myosin. This process can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO), a gas molecule synthesized endogenously by (nitric oxide synthase) NOS isoforms. At nanomolar concentrations NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which in turn activates protein kinase G via conversion of GTP into cyclic GMP. Alternatively, NO post-translationally modifies proteins via S-nitrosylation of the thiol group of cysteine...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877508/the-no-heme-signaling-hypothesis
#13
Andrei L Kleschyov
While the biological role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) is appreciated, several fundamental aspects of the NOS/NO-related signaling pathway(s) remain incompletely understood. Canonically, the NOS-derived NO diffuses through the (inter)cellular milieu to bind the prosthetic ferro(Fe(2+))-heme group of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). The formation of ternary NO-ferroheme-sGC complex results in the enzyme activation and accelerated production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. This paper argues that cells dynamically generate mobile/exchangeable NO-ferroheme species, which activate sGC and regulate the function of some other biomolecules...
September 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875323/evodiamine-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-rat-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy
#14
Na He, Qi-Hai Gong, Feng Zhang, Jing-Yi Zhang, Shu-Xian Lin, Hua-Hua Hou, Qin Wu, An-Sheng Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867536/nitric-oxide-and-camkii-critical-steps-in-the-cardiac-contractile-response-to-igf-1-and-swim-training
#15
Juan I Burgos, Alejandra M Yeves, Jorge P Barrena, Enrique L Portiansky, Martín G Vila-Petroff, Irene L Ennis
Cardiac adaptation to endurance training includes improved contractility by a non-yet clarified mechanism. Since IGF-1 is the main mediator of the physiological response to exercise, we explored its effect on cardiac contractility and the putative involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and CaMKII in control and swim-trained mice. IGF-1 increased cardiomyocyte shortening (128.1±4.6% vs. basal; p˂0.05) and accelerated relaxation (time to 50% relengthening: 49.2±2.0% vs. basal; p˂0.05), effects abrogated by inhibition of: AKT with MK-2206, NO production with the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME and the specific NOS1 inhibitor nitroguanidine (NG), and CaMKII with KN-93...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861423/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-the-clinical-significance-of-myocardial-redox
#16
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Michael Spartalis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Georgia-Sofia Karachaliou, Georgios I Karaolanis, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Eleni Tzatzaki, Stamatios Theocharis
Acute and chronic excessive intracellular increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. ROS are by-products of various oxidative physiological and biochemical processes. Sources of ROS are mitochondrial respiration, NADH/NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase or the uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in vascular cells. ROS mediate various signaling pathways that underlie cardiovascular pathophysiology. The delicate equilibrium between free-radical generation and antioxidant defense is altered in favor of the former, thus leading to redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and increased cellular injury...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860173/single-passive-leg-movement-assessment-of-vascular-function-the-contribution-of-nitric-oxide
#17
Ryan M Broxterman, Joel D Trinity, Jayson R Gifford, Oh Sung Kwon, Andrew C Kithas, Jay R Hydren, Ashley D Nelson, David E Morgan, Jacob E Jessop, Amber D Bledsoe, Russell S Richardson
The assessment of passive leg movement (PLM)-induced leg blood flow (LBF) and vascular conductance (LVC) is a novel approach to assess vascular function, which has recently been simplified to only a single PLM (sPLM), thereby increasing the clinical utility of this technique. As the physiological mechanisms mediating the robust increase in LBF and LVC with sPLM are currently unknown, we tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a major contributor to the sPLM-induced LBF and LVC response. In nine healthy men, sPLM was performed with and without the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via intra-arterial infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856719/oligodendrocyte-rasg12v-expressed-in-its-endogenous-locus-disrupts-myelin-structure-through-increased-mapk-nitric-oxide-and-notch-signaling
#18
Haley E Titus, Alejandro López-Juárez, Sadiq H Silbak, Tilat A Rizvi, Madeleine Bogard, Nancy Ratner
Costello syndrome (CS) is a gain of function Rasopathy caused by heterozygous activating mutations in the HRAS gene. Patients show brain dysfunction that can include abnormal brain white matter. Transgenic activation of HRas in the entire mouse oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in myelin defects and behavioral abnormalities, suggesting roles for disrupted myelin in CS brain dysfunction. Here, we studied a mouse model in which the endogenous HRas gene is conditionally replaced by mutant HRasG12V in mature oligodendrocytes, to separate effects in mature myelinating cells from developmental events...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837867/the-inhibition-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-oxidative-stress-by-agmatine-attenuates-vascular-dysfunction-in-rat-acute-endotoxemic-model
#19
Mohammed S El-Awady, Manar A Nader, Maha H Sharawy
Vascular dysfunction leading to hypotension is a major complication in patients with septic shock. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) together with oxidative stress play an important role in development of vascular dysfunction in sepsis. Searching for an endogenous, safe and yet effective remedy was the chief goal for this study. The current study investigated the effect of agmatine (AGM), an endogenous metabolite of l-arginine, on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837238/increase-of-n-nos-and-i-nos-in-rat-colon-after-sacral-neuromodulation
#20
Roberto Ghiselli, Guendalina Lucarini, Fiorenza Orlando, Monica Ortenzi, Luca Cardinali, Mauro Provinciali, Roberto Di Primio, Mario Guerrieri
OBJECTIVE: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is proposed to treat different anorectal dysfunctions but its mechanism of action is not yet known. Our previous study demonstrated how SNM can significantly increase neuronal nitric oxide synthase NOS (n-NOS) and inducible NOS (i-NOS) expression in the anus and rectum of rats. There are no reports regarding the relation between SNM and NOS in colonic cells: our aim was to assess NOS expression in colonic rat model after SNM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six female Sprangue-Dawley rats were considered: group I, normal control rats; group II, sham treatment rats, in whom electrodes for electrical stimulation were placed in S1 foramen bilaterally and left in place, without performing neuromodulation; group III, rats in whom SNM was performed...
August 24, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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