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cerebral infraction

Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Xiaoyun Chen, Min Lu, Xiju He, Le Ma, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yanhong Liao
Ischemia contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality associated with many common neurological diseases. Calcium overload is an important mechanism of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Despite decades of intense research, an effective beneficial treatment of stroke remains limited; few therapeutic strategies exist to combat the consequences of cerebral ischemia. Traditionally, a "neurocentric" view has dominated research in this field. Evidence is now accumulating that glial cells, especially astrocytes, play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiao Qiang Xie, Pei Zhang, Bo Tian, Xiao Qian Chen
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a member of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes including myocardial injury, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, the direct implication of SIRT2 in ischemic stroke is still unclear. In the present study, we observed that SIRT2 protein was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of neurons, but not in astrocyte and microglia. SIRT2 was upregulated in ischemic neurons in the oxygen-glucose deprivation cell model and in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) mouse model...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Fazhong He, Mouze Liu, Zhangren Chen, Guojing Liu, Zhenmin Wang, Rong Liu, Jianquan Luo, Jie Tang, Xingyu Wang, Xin Liu, Honghao Zhou, Xiaoping Chen, Zhaoqian Liu, Wei Zhang
Effects of human tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) genetic variation (c.251 A>G, Gln84Arg, rs2295490) on the clinical outcomes of vascular events has not been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes after blood pressure lowering and glucose controlling treatment. We did an analysis of a 2×2 factorial (glucose control axis and blood pressure lowering axis) randomized controlled clinical trial at 61 centers in China, with a follow-up period of 5years. The major vascular endpoints were the composites of death from cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, non-fatal stroke and myocardial infraction, new or worsening renal and diabetic eye disease...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
Haiyun Chen, Guolian Tan, Jie Cao, Gaoxiao Zhang, Peng Yi, Pei Yu, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang, Yuqiang Wang
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neurological diseases, resulting in excessive production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) derivatives and investigated their abilities for scavenging free radicals and preventing against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage in vitro. Among them, compound 22a, consisted of TMP, caffeic acid and a nitrone group, showed potent radical-scavenging activity...
January 1, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xinxin Gao, Fen Ma, Qi Zhao, Yi Zhang, Yuzheng Du
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects of acupuncture method of "Huoxue Sanfeng, Shugan Jianpi" (activating blood and eliminating wind, soothing liver and strengthening spleen) on morning blood pressure in patients with cerebral infraction combined with essential hypertension. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 34 cases in each one. The patients in the two groups were treated with acupuncture method of "Xingnao Kaiqiao" (consciousness-restoring resuscitation) and oral administration of nifedipine...
May 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Ozge Altintas, Mehmet Ozgen Altintas, Mehmet Serif Aydin, Oguz Baran, Veysel Antar, Mukaddes Esrefoglu, Talip Asil
AIM: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) α regulates lipid homeostasis and is a target of fibrates, which have a neuroprotective function by various mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, in the modulation of cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity and at the final infarct volume in an experimental ischemia/reperfusion rat model by induced transient proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 65 male Spraque Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups; sham (n = 5), experiment 1 (n = 20), experiment 2 (n = 20), experiment 3 (n = 20)...
February 5, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Wojciech Wanha, Damian Kawecki, Tomasz Roleder, Aleksandra Pluta, Kamil Marcinkiewicz, Beata Morawiec, Mariusz Kret, Tomasz Pawlowski, Grzegorz Smolka, Andrzej Ochala, Wojciech Wojakowski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the long-term clinical outcomes and safety of patients treated with first- and second generation DES. METHODS: The Katowice-Zabrze Registry included 1916 consecutive patients treated with either first or second generation DES. We evaluated major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) [composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and target vessel revascularization (TVR)] at 12-month follow-up...
February 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Weilin Liu, Xian Wang, Shanli Yang, Jia Huang, Xiehua Xue, Yi Zheng, Guanhao Shang, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
AIMS: Electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the safety and effective therapies for improving neurological and sensorimotor impairment via blockade of inappropriate inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammation involved is far from been fully elucidated. MAIN METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was administered by the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery. The MCAO/R rats were accepted EA treatment at the LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints for consecutive 3days...
April 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Shotaro Otsuka, Harutoshi Sakakima, Megumi Sumizono, Seiya Takada, Takuto Terashi, Yoshihiro Yoshida
Preconditioning exercise can exert neuroprotective effects after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these neuroprotective effects by preconditioning exercise remains unclear. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and the expression levels of the midkine (MK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia. Animals were assigned to one of 4 groups: exercise and ischemia (Ex), no exercise and ischemia (No-Ex), exercise and no ischemia (Ex-only), and no exercise and intact (Control)...
April 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Min Cai, Zhonghai Yu, Lili Wang, Xiaoling Song, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Wen Zhang, Wenwei Li, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved multiple therapeutic effects in cerebral ischemic infraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of TXL on the brain edema and post-ischemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat was used as the ischemia model. Rats were treated with TXL. In the first stage, the best dosage was chosen based on functional assessment and infarct size...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Toru Yamashita, Koji Abe
Possible strategies for treating stroke include neuroprotection in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia and stem cell therapy in the chronic phase of cerebral ischemia. Previously, we have studied the temporal and spatial expression patterns of c-fos, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and annexin V after 90 min of transient middle cerebral occlusion in rats and concluded that there is a time window for neuroprotection from 12 to 48 h after ischemia. In addition, we have estimated the neuroprotective effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) by injecting Sendai viral vector containing the GDNF gene into the postischemic brain...
2016: Cell Transplantation
Carlo Caltagirone, Carlo Cisari, Carlo Schievano, Rosanna Di Paola, Marika Cordaro, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Acute ischemic stroke, the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide, results from transient or permanent reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite the success of experimental animal models of stroke in identifying anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective compounds, translation of these putative neuroprotectants to human clinical trials has failed to produce a positive outcome. Tissue injury and stress activate endogenous mechanisms which function to restore homeostatic balance and prevent further damage by upregulating the synthesis of lipid signaling molecules, including N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA or palmitoylethanolamide)...
February 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Guang-Xia Shi, Xue-Rui Wang, Chao-Qun Yan, Tian He, Jing-Wen Yang, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Qian Xu, Wen Zhu, Si-Qi Du, Cun-Zhi Liu
In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether NADPH oxidase, a major ROS-producing enzyme, was involved in the antioxidant effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment after cerebral ischaemia. The cognitive function, infract size, neuron cell loss, level of superoxide anion and expression of NADPH oxidase subunit in hippocampus of two-vessel occlusion (2VO) rats were determined after 2-week acupuncture. Furthermore, the cognitive function and production of O2(-) were determined in the presence and absence of NADPH oxidase agonist (TBCA) and antagonist (Apocynin)...
December 10, 2015: Scientific Reports
Hyo Suk Nam, Il Kwon, Bo Hyung Lee, Haejin Kim, Jayoung Kim, Sunho An, Ok-Hee Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Hyun Ok Kim, Hyun Namgoong, Young Dae Kim, Ji Hoe Heo
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in ischemic stroke might depend on the timing of administration. We investigated the optimal time point of MSC transplantation. After MSC treatment, we also investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in vascular and tissue remodeling. METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (2 × 10(6), passage 5) were administrated intravenously after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2015: PloS One
Jing Tao, Yi Zheng, Weilin Liu, Shanli Yang, Jia Huang, Xiehua Xue, Guanhao Shang, Xian Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Reactive astrogliosis is a common phenomenon in central nervous system (CNS) injuries such as ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to deeply investigate the relationships between the neuroprotective effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) and reactive astrocytes following cerebral ischemia. EA treatment at the Quchi (LI11) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints at Day 3 attenuated neurological deficits and cerebral infarct volume in ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injured rats. Animal behavior assessments found that the speed of Catwalk gait, equilibrium and coordination of Rotarod test were improved...
January 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Motohide Hori, Junko Shibato, Tomoya Nakamachi, Randeep Rakwal, Tetsuo Ogawa, Seiji Shioda, Satoshi Numazawa
Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38...
March 2015: Genomics Data
Bing Zhao, Yong Cao, Xianxi Tan, Yuanli Zhao, Jun Wu, Ming Zhong, Shuo Wang
INTRODUCTION: Early surgical treatment has been proposed to improve outcomes of selected patients with poor-grade ruptured intracranial aneurysms. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis to identify complications and outcomes after early surgery. METHODS: We analyzed data from the two cohorts of patients with poor-grade ruptured aneurysms. Poor-grade aneurysm was defined as a World Federation of Neurosurgical Society (WFNS) grade of IV or V after resuscitation...
November 2015: International Journal of Surgery
Nisarat Songprasert, Thitiporn Sukaew, Khanitta Kusreesakul, Witaya Swaddiwudhipong, Chantana Padungtod, Kanitta Bundhamcharoen
The cadmium (Cd) contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in urine (as an internal exposure dose) and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose). Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%-86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level...
August 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chhuttan L Meena, Avinash Thakur, Prajwal P Nandekar, Abhay T Sangamwar, Shyam S Sharma, Rahul Jain
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptides were synthesized by replacing critical histidine and pGlu residues in the native peptide. The peptides were evaluated in vitro for receptor binding activity assay and in the cell functional assay; the peptides exhibit selective basal signaling agonist behavior toward TRH-R2. For example, peptides 8a, 8b, 8c, 8 f, 8 h, 8 l and 12 d activated TRH-R2 with potency (EC50) of 0.53 μM, 0.048 μM, 0.05 μM, 0.006 μM, 0.31 μM, 0.034 μM and 0.004 μM, respectively...
September 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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