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Review guide

Amanpreet Kaur, Marie R Webster, Ashani T Weeraratna
Although the clinical landscape of melanoma is improving rapidly, metastatic melanoma remains a deadly disease. Age remains one of the greatest risk factors for melanoma, and patients older than 55 have a much poorer prognosis than younger individuals, even when the data are controlled for grade and stage. The reasons for this disparity have not been fully uncovered, but there is some recent evidence that Wnt signalling may have a role. Wnt signalling is known to have roles both in cancer progression as well as in organismal ageing...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Michael V Friedman, J Derek Stensby, Jeremiah R Long, Stephen A Currie, Travis J Hillen
PURPOSE: Review the MRI appearance of different bursae located throughout the pelvis, including the pertinent osseous and musculotendinous anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bursae are potential spaces that reduce friction between opposed moving components which can become inflamed, clinically mimicking internal derangement. RESULTS: This series illustrates the most common as well as lesser-known pelvic bursae. Common causes of bursitis including overuse, trauma, and infection are presented...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Jessica Gill, Andreas Jeromin, Cora Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostics
M J Lin, F Baky, B C Housley, N Kelly, E Pletcher, J D Balshi, S P Stawicki, D C Evans
INTRODUCTION: Clinical information continues to be limited regarding changes in the temporal risk profile for readmissions during the initial postoperative year in vascular surgery patients. We set out to describe the associations between demographics, clinical outcomes, comorbidity indices, and hospital readmissions in a sample of patients undergoing common extremity revascularization or dialysis access (ERDA) procedures. We hypothesized that factors independently associated with readmission will evolve from "short-term" to "long-term" determinants at 30-, 180-, and 360-day postoperative cutoff points...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Carrie B Hruska
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this review are to discuss the motivation for supplemental screening, to address molecular breast imaging (MBI) radiation dose concerns, and to provide an updated guide to current MBI technology, clinical protocols, and screening performance. Future directions of MBI are also discussed. CONCLUSION: MBI offers detection of mammographically occult cancers in women with dense breasts. Although MBI has been under investigation for nearly 15 years, it has yet to gain widespread adoption in breast screening...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Kanchi Muralidhar, Deepak Tempe, Yatin Mehta, Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Chirojit Mukherjee, Thomas Koshy, Prabhat Tewari, Naman Shastri, Satyajeet Misra, Kumar Belani
During current medical care, perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become a vital component of patient management, especially in cardiac operating rooms and in critical care medicine. Information derived from echocardiography has an important bearing on the patient's outcome. The Indian Association of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anaesthesiologists (IACTA) has promoted the use of TEE during routine clinical care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. An important mission of IACTA is to oversee training and certify anesthesiologists in the perioperative and intensive care use of TEE...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Onno W Akkerman, Richard Anthony, Simon Tiberi, Scott Heysell, M P Grobusch, Frank Cobelens, Dick van Soolingen
Success rates for treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are low due to limited treatment options, delayed diagnosis and inadequate health care infrastructure. Areas covered: This review analyses existing programmes of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of XDR-TB. Improved diagnostic procedures and rapid molecular tests help to select appropriate drugs and dosages. Drugs dosages can be further tailored to the specific conditions of the patient based on quantitative susceptibility testing of the M...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Stefano Avanzini, Maria Grazia Faticato, Alessandro Crocoli, Calogero Virgone, Camilla Viglio, Elisa Severi, Anna Maria Fagnani, Giovanni Cecchetto, Giovanna Riccipetitoni, Bruno Noccioli, Ernesto Leva, Angela Rita Sementa, Girolamo Mattioli, Alessandro Inserra
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuroblastic tumors are the most common extracranial solid neoplasms in children. Early and adequate tissue sampling may speed up the diagnostic process and ensure a prompt start of optimal treatment whenever needed. Different biopsy techniques have been described. The purpose of this multi-center study is to evaluate the accuracy and safety of the various examined techniques and to determine whether a preferential procedure exists. METHODS: All children who underwent a biopsy, from January 2010 to December 2014, as a result of being diagnosed with a peripheral neuroblastic tumor, were retrospectively reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Apeksha Chaturvedi, R A C Dilhani Ranasinghe, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
BACKGROUND: Lesions involving the outer cortical surface of the bone occur quite often among children. Broadly, these include benign cortical, juxtacortical and periarticular lesions, dysplasias affecting the cortical bone, regional and diffuse periosteal pathology and malignant tumours. Some of these lesions are unique to the paediatric population; others are more frequently seen among children than adults - yet others have an adult predilection but can occasionally be seen in children...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Jin Sun Lee, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, John W Park
Recent technological advancements in rare cell analysis have facilitated the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast and other types of cancers. Numerous clinical studies involving the enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer patients have unequivocally demonstrated the prognostic value of these cells. Evidence from recent molecular studies indicates that CTCs may be potential surrogate markers for systemic disease. As such, real-time assessment of therapeutic biomarkers in breast CTCs, such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may have a tremendous impact in guiding-targeted cancer therapy...
October 19, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Fabiana Policeni, Brittany Pakalniskis, Limin Yang
Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Rahul Pannala, Karyn M Hallberg-Wallace, Amber L Smith, Aziza Nassar, Jun Zhang, Matthew Zarka, Jordan P Reynolds, Longwen Chen
INTRODUCTION: The increasing use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology to examine pancreatic neoplasms has led to an increase in the diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common metastasis to the pancreas. Our study examines 33 cases of metastatic RCC to the pancreas sampled by EUS-FNA from four large tertiary care hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the cytopathology database for RCC metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed by EUS-FNA from January 2005 to January 2015...
2016: CytoJournal
Arunangshu Chakraborty, Rakhi Khemka, Taniya Datta
The practice of regional anaesthesia is rapidly changing with the introduction of ultrasound into the working domain of the anaesthesiologist. New techniques are being pioneered. Among the recent techniques, notable are the truncal blocks, for example, the transversus abdominis plane block, rectus sheath block, hernia block and quadratus lumborum block in the abdomen and the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block 1 and 2, serratus anterior plane block and intercostal nerve block. This narrative review covers the brief anatomical discourse along with technical description of the ultrasound-guided truncal blocks...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Barry Edwards, Beth Stickney, Andrew Milat, Danielle Campbell, Sarah Thackway
Issue addressed: An organisational culture that values and uses research and evaluation (R&E) evidence to inform policy and practice is fundamental to improving health outcomes. The 2016 NSW Government Program Evaluation Guidelines recommend investment in training and development to improve evaluation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the approaches taken by the NSW Ministry of Health to develop R&E capacity and assess these against existing models of practice.Method: The Ministry of Health's Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (CEE) takes an evidence-based approach to building R&E capacity in population health...
October 19, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Kirby Rickel, Fang Fang, Jianning Tao
Osteosarcoma is the predominant form of bone cancer, affecting mostly adolescents. Recent progress made in molecular genetic studies of osteosarcoma has changed our view on the cause of the disease and ongoing therapeutic approaches for patients. As we draw closer to gaining more complete catalogs of candidate cancer driver genes in common forms of cancer, the landscape of somatic mutations in osteosarcoma is emerging from its first phase. In this review, we summarize recent whole genome and/or whole exome genomic studies, and then put these findings in the context of genetic hallmarks of somatic mutations and mutational processes in human osteosarcoma...
October 16, 2016: Bone
Nathan Elie Frenk, Fernando Sebastianes, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Marcos Roberto de Menezes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for benign primary and secondary hyperfunctioning adrenal disorders. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated the long-term results of nine patients treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation: eight subjects who presented with primary adrenal disorders, such as pheochromocytoma, primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenoma, and one subject with Cushing disease refractory to conventional treatment...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Ademar Francisco de Oliveira, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results...
July 2016: Einstein
Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Adela Urisarri, Adolfo Bautista-Casasnovas, Maria-Luz Couce
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord hemangioma is very rare and may not be detected prenatally. However, it should be considered in differential diagnosis with other umbilical masses because it can cause significant morbidity. METHODS: We report the case of a newborn referred with suspected omphalitis and umbilical hernia. RESULTS: Physical examination showed an irreducible umbilical tumor, the size of olive, with dubious secretion. The initial suspected diagnosis was urachal or omphalomesenteric duct remnants...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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