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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667842/the-role-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Roshni S Patel, Emily M Scopelliti, Oludamilola Olugbile
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and describe its place in therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed from January 2012 to March 2018 to identify literature pertaining to PCSK9 inhibitors using pre-specified search terms. Additional references were identified from citations of the literature...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667719/occupational-health-hazards-in-the-interventional-laboratory-time-for-a-safer-environment
#2
Lloyd W Klein, Donald L Miller, Stephen Balter, Warren Laskey, Neil Naito, David Haines, Allan Ross, Matthew A Mauro, James A Goldstein
Over the past 30 years, the advent of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures has resulted in dramatic increments in both X-ray exposure and physical demands that predispose interventionists to distinct occupational health hazards. The hazards of accumulated radiation exposure have been known for years, but until recently the other potential risks have been ill-defined and under-appreciated. The physical stresses inherent in this career choice appear to be associated with a predilection to orthopedic injuries, attributable in great part to the cumulative adverse effects of bearing the weight and design of personal protective apparel worn to reduce radiation risk and to the poor ergonomic design of interventional suites...
January 4, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667624/converting-percutaneous-gallbladder-drainage-to-internal-drainage-using-eus-guided-therapy-a-review-of-current-practices-and-procedures
#3
Theodore W James, Todd H Baron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667615/vitamin-d-in-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Donald L Trump, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching
Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies...
April 13, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667332/fertility-preservation-in-testicular-cancer-predictors-of-spermatogenesis
#6
Jemma A Moody, Kamran Ahmed, Catherine Horsfield, Malene R V Pedersen, Tet Yap, Majid Shabbir
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of spermatogenesis in patients with testicular cancer and to assess for any predictors of spermatogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 103 testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) in men who underwent radical orchidectomy conducted at Guy's Hospital, London, between 2011 and 2015. Primary outcome measures included: the presence and characteristics of spermatogenesis (widespread/focal/proximity to tumour). Secondary outcome measures included: the presence of testicular microlithiasis, tumour characteristics (size, stage, and type), and tumour markers...
April 17, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667115/biopsy-feasibility-trial-for-breast-cancer-pathologic-complete-response-detection-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-imaging-assessment-and-correlation-endpoints
#7
Gaiane M Rauch, Henry M Kuerer, Beatriz Adrada, Lumarie Santiago, Tanya Moseley, Rosalind P Candelaria, Elsa Arribas, Jia Sun, Jessica W T Leung, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Wei T Yang
PURPOSE: This study was designed to present the secondary imaging endpoints of the trial for evaluating mammogram (MMG), ultrasound (US) and image guided biopsy (IGBx) assessment of pathologic complete response (pCR) in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Patients with T1-3, N0-3, M0 triple-negative or HER2-positive BC who received NAC were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, clinical trial...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666818/the-role-of-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-staging-and-response-assessment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sara Volpi, Jason M Ali, Angela Tasker, Adam Peryt, Giuseppe Aresu, Aman S Coonar
Lung cancer is a common disease and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for the majority of cases. Following diagnosis of lung cancer, accurate staging is essential to guide clinical management and inform prognosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography (CT)-as PET-CT has developed as an important tool in the multi-disciplinary management of lung cancer. This article will review the current evidence for the role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT in NSCLC diagnosis, staging, response assessment and follow up...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666807/quality-of-life-assessment-in-esophagectomy-patients
#9
REVIEW
Alla Alghamedi, Gordon Buduhan, Lawrence Tan, Sadeesh Kumar Srinathan, Joanne Sulman, Gail Darling, Biniam Kidane
Esophagectomy is the mainstay of curative therapy for esophageal cancer; however, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with subsequent major impact on quality of life. This paper reviews the evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in esophageal cancer patients undergoing curative intent therapy, the relationship between postoperative HRQOL and survival as well the potential utility of pre-treatment HRQOL as a prognostic tool. HRQOL assessment is valuable in helping clinicians understand the impact on patients of esophageal cancer and the various treatments thereof...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666785/risk-evaluation-of-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-related-contrast-media-allergic-like-reaction-a-single-centre-experience
#10
Félix Trottier-Tellier, Laurence Harvey, Jean-Daniel Baillargeon
Background and Aims. Few cases of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography- (ERCP-) related contrast media (CM) adverse reactions have been reported in the current literature. There is a lack of standardisation in practice regarding premedication prophylaxis for at-risk patients undergoing ERCP and there are few data to guide the practitioners. Our goal is to evaluate the risk of CM adverse reaction in a group of patients with a past history of allergic-like reaction to iodine product undergoing ERCP...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666441/using-biology-to-guide-the-treatment-of-sarcomas-and-aggressive-connective-tissue-tumours
#11
REVIEW
Armelle Dufresne, Mehdi Brahmi, Marie Karanian, Jean-Yves Blay
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from cells of a mesenchymal origin. Surgery forms the mainstay of the treatment of most patients with localized sarcoma and might be followed or preceded by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In the metastatic setting, systemic treatments tend to improve survival and control symptoms. However, the adverse events and sometimes disappointing outcomes associated with these empirical approaches to treatment indicate a need for new approaches. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled more targeted treatment of many malignancies based on the presence of specific alterations...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666310/role-of-patient-and-public-involvement-in-implementation-research-a-consensus-study
#12
Kara Gray-Burrows, Thomas Willis, Robbie Foy, Martin Rathfelder, Pauline Bland, Allison Chin, Susan Hodgson, Gus Ibegbuna, Graham Prestwich, Kirsty Samuel, Laurence Wood, Farhat Yaqoob, Rosemary R C McEachan
BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is often an essential requirement for research funding. Distinctions can be drawn between clinical research, which generally focuses on patients, and implementation research, which generally focuses on health professional behaviour. There is uncertainty about the role of PPI in this latter field. We explored and defined the roles of PPI in implementation research to inform relevant good practice guidance. METHODS: We used a structured consensus process using a convenience sample panel of nine experienced PPI and two researcher members...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666115/genetics-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#13
Laura Pasqualucci, Riccardo Dalla-Favera
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent subtype of lymphoid malignancy, remains a significant clinical challenge, as approximately 30% of patients are not cured. Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, spurred by the implementation of powerful genomic technologies that enabled the definition of its genetic and epigenetic landscape. These studies have uncovered a multitude of genomic alterations that contribute to the initiation and maintenance of the tumor clone by disrupting biological functions known to be critical for the normal biology of its cells of origin, germinal center B cells...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665819/examination-of-the-roles-and-capacities-of-duty-bearers-responsible-for-protecting-the-human-rights-to-adequate-food-nutritional-health-and-wellbeing-in-ugandan-children-s-homes
#14
Monica Olafsen, Archangel Byaruhanga Rukooko, Per Ole Iversen, Bård A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem...
April 17, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665448/all-pure-flat-atypical-atypia-lesions-of-the-breast-diagnosed-using-percutaneous-vacuum-assisted-breast-biopsy-do-not-need-surgical-excision
#15
Lobna Ouldamer, Elodie Poisson, Flavie Arbion, Carole Bonneau, Anne Vildé, Gilles Body, Patrick Michenet
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the outcome of women with pure flat atypical atypia (FEA) diagnosed at vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) targeting microcalcifications and to determine whether clinical, radiological and pathologic parameters are able to predict which lesions will be upgraded to malignancy. MATERIALS: 2414 cases of consecutive VABB for microcalcifications using VA 8-, 10- or 11-Gauge stereotactically guided core biopsy performed between January 2005 and December 2011 from two french breast cancer centers were evaluated...
April 14, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665140/review-functional-and-hybrid-imaging-of-bone-metastases
#16
Gary J R Cook, Vicky Goh
Bone metastases are common, cause significant morbidity and impact on healthcare resources. While radiographs, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy have frequently been used for staging the skeleton, it is recognized that these methods are insensitive and non-specific for monitoring treatment response in a clinically relevant time frame. We summarize several recent reports on new functional and hybrid imaging methods including single photon emission CT / CT, positron emission tomography / CT and whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665109/improving-the-performance-time-and-accuracy-of-ultrasound-guided-interventions-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-of-the-line-of-sight-approach-and-the-apples-mnemonic
#17
John W Norbury, Natalie C Karr, Vivek Sindhi, Kimberly M Rathbun, Stephen C Charles, Michael B McIver, Eric J Morrison
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the line-of-sight approach improved the performance time and accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided needle placement targeting the subdeltoid bursa in a cadaver among novice operators compared to the side approach. A secondary objective was to determine whether participants thought the APPLES (angle, position, perpendicular, line up, entry, sweep) mnemonic was a helpful guide for performing the procedure. METHODS: Medical students and residents were randomized into either a line-of-sight or side approach group and then crossed over to the other group...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664530/-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation
#18
María Paz Corvalán B, Leonardo Véjar M, Claudia Bambs S, Juana Pavié G, Mónica Zagolin B, Jaime Cerda L
Considering that a high proportion of the Chilean general population smokes, the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases in collaboration with the Chilean Societies of Cardiology and, Endocrinology and Diabetes, formed an interdisciplinary group, who issued a set of recommendations for the treatment of the smoker, methodologically advised by experts. These interventions should be prioritized in high-risk groups. Methods The panel elaborated and graded the recommendations following the GRADE methodology. To assess the effect of each intervention, systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were identified...
November 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664026/prenatal-screening-for-genetic-disorders-suggested-guidelines-for-the-indian-scenario
#19
REVIEW
Shubha R Phadke, Ratna D Puri, Prajnya Ranganath
Prenatal testing is the best strategy for reducing the burden of genetic disorders and congenital disabilities that cause significant postnatal functional impairment. Universal prenatal screening is advisable for common genetic disorders and congenital anomalies such as Down syndrome, beta-thalassaemia and neural tube defects. Several prenatal-screening tests are now available for Down syndrome, but knowledge about the appropriate timing of the test and the need for pre- and post-test counselling may not be updated among the primary care physicians...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663125/arthroscopic-transtibial-pcl-reconstruction-surgical-technique-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Shin, Travis G Maak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively uncommon injuries. As such, there is a dearth of high-quality studies in the literature examining the operative management of PCL injuries and a lack of clear consensus on what the optimal method should be. The goal of this review was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of recent literature and provide an evidence-based algorithm to optimize surgical decision-making and outcomes for PCL reconstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature confirms that transtibial PCL reconstruction is a reliable and reproducible method to manage PCL injuries and results in satisfactory patient outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
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