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End of life legislation united states

Isabelle Aujoulat, Séverine Henrard, Anne Charon, Anne-Britt Johansson, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Anne Mostaert, Danièle Vermeylen, Gaston Verellen
BACKGROUND: Very preterm birth (24 to < 32 week's gestation) is a major public health issue due to its prevalence, the clinical and ethical questions it raises and the associated costs. It raises two major clinical and ethical dilemma: (i) during the perinatal period, whether or not to actively manage a baby born very prematurely and (ii) during the postnatal period, whether or not to continue a curative treatment plan initiated at birth. The Wallonia-Brussels Federation in Belgium counts 11 neonatal intensive care units...
June 26, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
James Gerhart, Elaine Chen, Sean O'Mahony, John Burns, Michael Hoerger
CONTEXT: Physician aid in dying is a controversial topic in the U.S., and legislation exists in some states. Personality traits are associated with preferences for end-of-life care and also tend to cluster systematically across states and other geographic regions. Such clustering of personality traits could relate to legislation including physician aid in dying. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether average levels of personality traits in each U.S. state differ between states with and without physician aid in dying legislation...
September 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Dana M Zive, Jennifer Cook, Charissa Yang, David Sibell, Susan W Tolle, Michael Lieberman
In April 2015, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) deployed a web-based, electronic medical record-embedded application created by third party vendor Vynca Inc. to allow real-time education, and completion of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST). Forms are automatically linked to the Epic Systems™ electronic health record (EHR) patient header and submitted to a state Registry, improving efficiency, accuracy, and rapid access to and retrieval of these important medical orders. POLST Forms, implemented in Oregon in 1992, are standardized portable medical orders used to document patient treatment goals for end-of-life care...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Janet Sopcheck
For many decades, Americans showed a preference for delaying death through a technological imperative that often created challenges for nurses in caring for dying patients and their families. Because of their vast knowledge of health and healing, and their proximity to patients' bedsides, nurses are often well positioned to advocate for healthcare reform and legislation to improve end-of-life care. This article provides an overview of the social, economic, and political factors that are shaping end-of-life care in the United States...
February 2016: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
Erica C Kaye, Jared Rubenstein, Deena Levine, Justin N Baker, Devon Dabbs, Sarah E Friebert
Early integration of pediatric palliative care (PPC) for children with life-threatening conditions and their families enhances the provision of holistic care, addressing psychological, social, spiritual, and physical concerns, without precluding treatment with the goal of cure. PPC involvement ideally extends throughout the illness trajectory to improve continuity of care for patients and families. Although current PPC models focus primarily on the hospital setting, community-based PPC (CBPPC) programs are increasingly integral to the coordination, continuity, and provision of quality care...
July 2015: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Nicola Rae, Malcolm H Johnson, Phillipa J Malpas
OBJECTIVES: Physician-assisted dying (PAD) is legal in several countries in Europe and some states of the United States. Despite regular societal debate in New Zealand about assisted dying, little is known about what the New Zealand public think about this issue. The present study was the first to examine New Zealanders' attitudes toward assisted dying in the context of various parameters of patient suffering, and as a public policy issue. METHODS: Stratified random sampling techniques were used to elicit 677 participants from the electoral roll...
March 2015: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Supriya Bavisetty, Wayne W Grody, Shahram Yazdani
In this article we discuss the steps taken by the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) to meet the health care needs of children with rare diseases and suggest possible directions for future endeavors for further improvement. We reviewed 23 reports and nine legislative documents related to pediatric rare diseases and public policy. We assessed the outcome measures of access and satisfaction with medical services by utilizing the surveys done by the European Organization for Rare Diseases -Eurordis (n = 5,963)...
2013: Rare Diseases
Louise W Seiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2012: Issue Brief of the Health Policy Tracking Service
Christine T Kovner, Edward Lusk, Nellie M Selander
An eight-point action plan is proposed for lowering costs associated with end-of-life health care in the United States, as well as improving the quality of life experienced by patients and their families. This action plan was derived from an analysis of the six articles presented in this special issue of Nursing Economic$. The two major features of this action plan are: (a) expansion of hospice and palliative care, as well as (b) increased use of advance directives. Additionally, as pre-conditions for the effective operation of this action plan, the political, cultural, and legislative contexts that merit attention are discussed...
May 2012: Nursing Economic$
Ronald H Dallas, Megan L Wilkins, Jichuan Wang, Ana Garcia, Maureen E Lyon
As life expectancy increases for adolescents ever diagnosed with AIDS due to treatment advances, the optimum timing of advance care planning is unclear. Left unprepared for end-of-life (EOL) decisions, families may encounter miscommunication and disagreements, resulting in families being charged with neglect, court battles and even legislative intervention. Advanced care planning (ACP) is a valuable tool rarely used with adolescents. The Longitudinal Pediatric Palliative Care: Quality of Life & Spiritual Struggle study is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a disease specific FAmily CEntered (FACE) advanced care planning intervention model among adolescents diagnosed with AIDS, aimed at relieving psychological, spiritual, and physical suffering, while maximizing quality of life through facilitated conversations about ACP...
September 2012: Contemporary Clinical Trials
John Harrington
This paper considers the importance of temporal categories in medical law argumentation. Proceeding from a view of time as plural, rhetorical, and socially produced, it argues that decision making in areas such as the access of minors to contraception, abortion law, end of life care, and emergency caesarian sections can be usefully read as struggles over appropriate time frames. Judges, legislators, and commentators seek to establish the plausibility of a given legal development with reference to the common sense understanding of time which it embodies...
2012: Medical Law Review
Robert S Olick
In the > 30 years since the New Jersey Supreme Court's seminal opinion in the case of Karen Ann Quinlan, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation to recognize the legal right of competent adults to write advance directives. The purpose of advance directives is to provide direction for health-care decisions near the end of life, when the ravages of illness, disease, or injury have taken the ability to decide for one's self. This article reviews the defining features of advance directives and the governing law, discusses some common practical concerns regarding the use and effectiveness of advance directives, and identifies several significant ethical-legal challenges for honoring advance directives at the bedside...
January 2012: Chest
Kathy L Cerminara
The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations...
September 2011: Chest
Meltem Zeytinoglu
Although dying is an inevitable part of the life cycle, there has been extensive political debate over end-of-life care. Participating in end-of-life care conversations can be emotionally challenging for everyone involved. Messages about serious or terminal illnesses can be very hard for patients and their families to hear, and physicians frequently struggle with the burden of delivering these messages. Still, evidence shows that conversations about end-of-life care options between physicians and patients can improve the quality of life of dying patients and help to relieve the emotional burden on surviving loved ones...
June 21, 2011: Annals of Internal Medicine
Debora Gaudencio, Octavio Messeder
The objective of this research was to investigate the knowledge, opinion and practice of critical care physician concerning end-of-life decisions. In this descriptive and cross-sectional study a questionnaire was applied to the physicians working in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Semi-ICU of 5 Hospitals in Salvador, Bahia State. Currently the physicians dealing with terminal patients are indeed concerned about providing comfort to their patients, and at times even avoiding the use of life support measures. Nevertheless, many of the participants admitted that they have omitted information regarding these decisions in the medical records, as they fear consequences with the Medical Council or civil actions against them...
2011: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Thaddeus Mason Pope
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services...
2010: Journal of Clinical Ethics
James H Ruble
Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis...
September 2010: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Neil M Ellison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2010: Journal of Palliative Medicine
G Adam Campbell, Scott Sanoff, Mitchell H Rosner
The growth of the undocumented immigrant population in the United States has been explosive. The absence of a uniform policy regarding health care for this population has created a unique problem for nephrologists. How should provision of care for undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease be delivered and compensated? This problem is exacerbated by the multiple complex laws that govern delivery of and payment for care, as well as that state regulations vary widely and are not easily understood. Furthermore, the ethical and moral commitments of providers to ensure adequate and appropriate care for any patient whose life is at stake, irrespective of his or her immigration status, place nephrologists in a difficult position...
January 2010: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Deborah Viola, David C Leven, Jean C LePere
The Institute of Medicine has described the "death-denying character of American society'' and surely, there is an opportunity to change this character. Despite our understandable concern with costs, end-of-life care options must be variously considered from economic, ethical, and legislative perspectives. We consider these multiple perspectives of end-of-life care in an attempt to inform current thinking on the part of legislators, policy makers, providers, patients, families/ caregivers, and insurers on the issue of end-of-life care...
April 2009: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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