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Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320712/efficacy-of-telavancin-alone-and-in-combination-with-ampicillin-in-a-rat-model-of-enterococcus-faecalis-endocarditis
#1
Truc T Tran, Vincent H Tam, Barbara E Murray, Cesar A Arias, Kavindra V Singh
We first assessed telavancin (TLV) pharmacokinetics after a single subcutaneous dose of 35 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic data were used to predict a TLV dose that simulates human exposure and the efficacy of TLV was then evaluated using TLV 21 mg/kg Q 12 h against Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF (TLV MIC of 0.06 μg/ml) in a rat endocarditis model with an indwelling catheter. Therapy was given for 3 days with TLV, daptomycin (DAP) or ampicillin (AMP) monotherapy and with combinations of TLV plus AMP, AMP plus gentamicin (GEN), and AMP plus ceftriaxone (CRO); rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293958/successful-salvage-treatment-of-native-valve-enterococcus-faecalis-infective-endocarditis-with-telavancin-two-case-reports
#2
Mickala M Thompson, Ali Hassoun
Infective endocarditis (IE) one-year mortality rates approach 40%. Here, we report two native valve Enterococcus faecalis IE cases in patients successfully treated with telavancin. An 88-year-old with mitral valve endocarditis and a penicillin allergy, initially treated with intravenous vancomycin, was switched to telavancin. A 69-year-old, who previously received amoxicillin and intravenous vancomycin for presumed enterococcal bacteraemia, was diagnosed with dual valve endocarditis for which he received telavancin...
March 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204495/early-in-vitro-development-of-daptomycin-non-susceptibility-in-high-level-aminoglycoside-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-predicts-the-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-high-dose-daptomycin-plus-ampicillin-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-experimental-endocarditis
#3
J M Pericàs, C García-de-la-Mària, M Brunet, Y Armero, J García-González, G Casals, M Almela, E Quintana, C Falces, S Ninot, D Fuster, J Llopis, F Marco, A Moreno, J M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166656/combination-of-ceftriaxone-and-ampicillin-for-the-treatment-of-enterococcal-endocarditis
#4
Shaylee C Peterson, Tim T Y Lau, Mary H H Ensom
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to review all human trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946-), EMBASE (1974-), CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched through January 2017 using the search terms ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalosporin, enterococ*, and endocarditis...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108098/comparative-efficacies-of-daptomycin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-in-experimental-enterococcal-peritonitis
#5
Toshiki Kajihara, Shigeki Nakamura, Naoki Iwanaga, Kazuhiro Oshima, Katsuji Hirano, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae
Enterococci have become increasingly important pathogens for nosocomial infection (e.g. bacteremia, intra-abdominal infection, endocarditis, etc.), related to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Although the in vitro susceptibility of daptomycin (DAP) against Enterococci is well established, the Food and Drug Administration has only approved its use for complicated skin and skin structure infections induced by Enterococcus faecalis. In this study we evaluated the potential therapeutic application of DAP in a murine model of enterococcal experimental peritonitis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#6
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096164/pharmacodynamics-of-ceftaroline-plus-ampicillin-against-enterococcus-faecalis-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-of-simulated-endocardial-vegetations
#7
Brian J Werth, Laura M Shireman
The combination of ampicillin plus ceftaroline has been suggested to be more reliably synergistic against E. faecalis than ampicillin plus ceftriaxone using time-kill methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if this trend persists in a two-compartment-model of simulated endocardial vegetations(SEV) using clinically relevant pharmacokinetic exposures of these antimicrobials. Three clinically-derived E. faecalis strains were included in the study. The MICs of study antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989071/broad-range-16s-rdna-pcr-on-heart-valves-in-infective-endocarditis
#8
Manica Müller Premru, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Tomislav Klokočovnik, Eva Ruzić Sabljić, Tjaša Cerar
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is diagnosed by blood and/or resected valve cultivation and echocardiographic findings, as defined by the Duke criteria. Unfortunately, cultures may be negative due to prior antibiotic therapy or fastidious or slow-growing microorganisms. The study aim was to investigate the value of the broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in addition to blood and valve culture for the detection of causative microorganisms. METHODS: Between February 2012 and March 2015, valve samples from 36 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed; of these patients, 26 had a preoperative diagnosis of IE and 10 served as controls...
March 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979420/procalcitonin-levels-in-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-different-sources-and-species-of-bacteria
#9
Sheng Tao Yan, Li Chao Sun, Hong Bing Jia, Wen Gao, Jian Ping Yang, Guo Qiang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) diagnostic accuracy in discriminating gram-negative (GN) from gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections and determining the relationship between PCT levels, infection sites, and pathogen types. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients with blood culture (BC)-positive sepsis between January 2014 and December 2015. PCT levels at different infection sites were compared, as was the presence of GN and GP bloodstream infection...
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916708/relationship-between-enterococcus-faecalis-infective-endocarditis-and-colorectal-neoplasm-preliminary-results-from-a-cohort-of-154-patients
#10
Juan M Pericàs, Juan Corredoira, Asunción Moreno, M José García-País, Carlos Falces, Ramón Rabuñal, Carlos A Mestres, M Pilar Alonso, Francesc Marco, Eduard Quintana, Manel Almela, Juan C Paré, Jaume Llopis, Antoni Castells, José M Miró
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The association between Streptococcus bovis group infective endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) is well-known. However, no studies have assessed the association between Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and CRN. We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of CRN is higher in patients with EFIE and an unclear source of infection than in patients with EFIE and a known source of infection or in the general population. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 154 patients with definite EFIE (109 with an unclear source of infection and 45 with an identified source) from 2 Spanish teaching hospitals to determine the prevalence of CRN and other colorectal diseases...
March 8, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914083/antibody-guided-molecular-imaging-of-infective-endocarditis
#11
Kenneth L Pinkston, Peng Gao, Kavindra V Singh, Ali Azhdarinia, Barbara E Murray, Eva M Sevick-Muraca, Barrett R Harvey
In this protocol, we describe the application of using a high affinity monoclonal antibody generated against the major pilin protein component of the pilin structure of Enterococcus faecalis as a PET imaging agent for enterococcal endocarditis detection. The anti-pilin -mAb 64Cu conjugate was able to specifically label enterococcal endocarditis vegetation in vivo in a rodent endocarditis model. By targeting pili, a covalently linked surface antigen extending from the bacterial surface, we provided evidence that gram-positive pilin represent a logical surface antigen to define or target an infectious agent for molecularly guided imaging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797843/endocarditis-and-monocular-blindness
#12
Jack Andrews, Shyamanga Borooah
A man aged 77 years with postrenal transplant lymphoproliferative disease was admitted with high fever, elevated inflammatory markers and a heart murmur. Blood cultures grew Enterococcus faecalis and he was found to have mitral valve endocarditis on echocardiogram and subsequently started on appropriate antibiotics. 5 days into treatment, he developed ocular symptoms and 3 days later, he had irreversible monocular visual loss. He was seen by the ophthalmology team who diagnosed endogenous endopthalmitis secondary to bacteraemic spread from his endocarditis...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617012/dispersion-of-the-vancomycin-resistance-genes-vana-and-vanc-of-enterococcus-isolated-from-nile-tilapia-on-retail-sale-a-public-health-hazard
#13
Kamelia M Osman, Mohamed N Ali, Ismail Radwan, Fatma ElHofy, Ahmed H Abed, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500132/prosthetic-aortic-valve-endocarditis-with-left-main-coronary-artery-embolism-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Faisal Inayat, Salman Farooq, Ali Raza Ghani, Ghazi A Mirrani, Muhammed Waqas Athar
CONTEXT: Coronary embolization is potentially a fatal sequela of endocarditis. Although the primary cause of acute coronary syndrome is atherosclerotic disease, it is imperative to consider septic embolism as an etiological factor. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a case of ventricular fibrillation and ST-segment depression myocardial infarction occurring in a patient who initially presented with fever and increased urinary frequency. Coronary angiography revealed new 99% occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA)...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464216/colorectal-adenomas
#15
LETTER
Ester Castellsagué, Barbara Rivera, William D Foulkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464215/colorectal-adenomas
#16
LETTER
Steven H Itzkowitz, David A Ahlquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464214/colorectal-adenomas
#17
LETTER
Juan M Pericàs, Juan Corredoira, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464213/colorectal-adenomas
#18
LETTER
Williamson B Strum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391962/bacteraemia-during-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-what-are-the-risk-factors-and-is-it-more-common-than-we-think
#19
Amar Raj Mohee, Deborah Gascoyne-Binzi, Robert West, Selina Bhattarai, Ian Eardley, Jonathan A T Sandoe
The aim of this work was to investigate the microbial causes, incidence, duration, risk factors and clinical implications of bacteraemia occurring during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to better inform prophylaxis strategies. An ethically approved, prospective, cohort study of patients undergoing TURP was conducted. Clinical information and follow-up details were collected using standardized data collection sheets. Blood was obtained for culture at 6 different time points peri-procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374863/a-case-of-infective-endocarditis-and-pyogenic-spondylitis-after-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy
#20
Yoshiki Hiyama, Satoshi Takahashi, Teruhisa Uehara, Koji Ichihara, Jiro Hashimoto, Naoya Masumori
We report a patient with infective endocarditis and pyrogenic spondylitis occurring simultaneously. The patient was a 59-year-old man. He was suspected of having prostate cancer due to a high prostate-specific antigen concentration noted in a checkup. He then underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy with cefotiam as antimicrobial prophylaxis. He had a fever higher than 38 °C and lumbar pain for a few days after the biopsy. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from 2 sets of blood culture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an abnormal image at C7/Th1 with a signal decrease in T1-weighted sequences and signal increase in T2-weighted sequences that were suspected to be due to bone destruction...
November 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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