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Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

Kamelia M Osman, Mohamed N Ali, Ismail Radwan, Fatma ElHofy, Ahmed H Abed, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Faisal Inayat, Salman Farooq, Ali Raza Ghani, Ghazi A Mirrani, Muhammed Waqas Athar
CONTEXT: Coronary embolization is potentially a fatal sequela of endocarditis. Although the primary cause of acute coronary syndrome is atherosclerotic disease, it is imperative to consider septic embolism as an etiological factor. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a case of ventricular fibrillation and ST-segment depression myocardial infarction occurring in a patient who initially presented with fever and increased urinary frequency. Coronary angiography revealed new 99% occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA)...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Ester Castellsagué, Barbara Rivera, William D Foulkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Steven H Itzkowitz, David A Ahlquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Juan M Pericàs, Juan Corredoira, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Williamson B Strum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Amar Raj Mohee, Deborah Gascoyne-Binzi, Robert West, Selina Bhattarai, Ian Eardley, Jonathan A T Sandoe
The aim of this work was to investigate the microbial causes, incidence, duration, risk factors and clinical implications of bacteraemia occurring during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to better inform prophylaxis strategies. An ethically approved, prospective, cohort study of patients undergoing TURP was conducted. Clinical information and follow-up details were collected using standardized data collection sheets. Blood was obtained for culture at 6 different time points peri-procedure...
2016: PloS One
Yoshiki Hiyama, Satoshi Takahashi, Teruhisa Uehara, Koji Ichihara, Jiro Hashimoto, Naoya Masumori
We report a patient with infective endocarditis and pyrogenic spondylitis occurring simultaneously. The patient was a 59-year-old man. He was suspected of having prostate cancer due to a high prostate-specific antigen concentration noted in a checkup. He then underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy with cefotiam as antimicrobial prophylaxis. He had a fever higher than 38 °C and lumbar pain for a few days after the biopsy. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from 2 sets of blood culture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an abnormal image at C7/Th1 with a signal decrease in T1-weighted sequences and signal increase in T2-weighted sequences that were suspected to be due to bone destruction...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Anders Dahl, Trine K Lauridsen, Magnus Arpi, Lars L Sørensen, Christian Østergaard, Peter Sogaard, Niels E Bruun
BACKGROUND: The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool used to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia. We aimed to validate the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE. METHODS: From 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2013, we included 647 consecutive patients with E. faecalis bacteremia. The NOVA score was used in a slightly adapted form; 2/2 positive blood cultures resulted in 5 points, unknown origin of infection in 4 points, prior valve disease in 2 points, and heart murmur in 1 point...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rajesh Janardhanan, Muhammad Umar Kamal, Irbaz Bin Riaz, M Cristy Smith
UNLABELLED: SummaryIn intravenous drug abusers, infective endocarditis usually involves right-sided valves, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common etiologic agent. We present a patient who is an intravenous drug abuser with left-sided (aortic valve) endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis who subsequently developed an anterior mitral valve aneurysm, which is an exceedingly rare complication. A systematic literature search was conducted which identified only five reported cases in the literature of mitral valve aneurysmal rupture in the setting of E...
March 2016: Echo Research and Practice
Sean I Tracy, Sherry-Ann Brown, John T Ratelle, Anjali Bhagra
A 59-year-old man was admitted with a 3-month history of daily fevers as well as bilateral knee pain and swelling. Medical history was significant for bilateral knee arthroplasties 4 years prior to admission. Two sets of peripheral blood cultures as well as bilateral knee synovial fluid grew Enterococcus faecalis within 10 hours. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic and mitral valve vegetations suggestive of infectious endocarditis, with severe regurgitation secondary to large size. The patient's hospitalisation was complicated by acute heart failure, necessitating emergent mitral valve repair and aortic valve replacement, followed shortly thereafter by bilateral total knee arthroplasty resection with placement of antibiotic spacers...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Shinji Ogihara, Ryoichi Saito, Etsuko Sawabe, Michio Hagihara, Shuji Tohda
A male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. He had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. Gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-Streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. However, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the culture was a small-colony variant of Enterococcus faecalis...
October 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Maria Camila Montealegre, Kavindra V Singh, Barbara E Murray
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. We previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) of E. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. In this study, derivatives of E. faecalis strain OG1 were engineered to further characterize functions of Ebp pili. Loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of closely associated cells when OG1RFΔebpABC was mixed with OG1SSpΔebpABC, compared with mixing the Ebp+ parental strains...
May 2016: Microbiology
Megan K Luther, Louis B Rice, Kerry L LaPlante
Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E...
May 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
S Hernández Egido, M Siller Ruiz, S Inés Revuelta, I García García, J L Muñoz Bellido
Small colony variants (SCV) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.
January 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Tanya Strateva, Daniela Atanasova, Encho Savov, Guergana Petrova, Ivan Mitov
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients). METHODS: Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA), collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm)); invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE)); cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA) in E...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Oda Bratland Østerdal, Pirjo-Riitta Salminen, Stina Jordal, Haakon Sjursen, Øystein Wendelbo, Rune Haaverstad
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous drug users have a high risk of infective endocarditis and reduced survival. Cardiac surgery may be recommended for these patients, but redo surgery is controversial. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of intravenous drug users accepted for surgery during a 12-year period. METHODS: This retrospective study included 29 injecting drug users treated with valve surgery for endocarditis between January 2001 and December 2013 at a tertiary academic centre...
May 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Chidozie Charles Agu, Divya Salhan, Ahmed Bakhit, Hiba Basheer, Md Basunia, Bikash Bhattarai, Vikram Oke, Marie Frances Schmidt, Alix Dufresne
We present a case of a middle-aged male who manifested with low-grade fever and lower back pain. MRI and bone scan of the spine were suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis. Blood cultures were persistently positive for Enterococcus faecalis and echocardiogram revealed tricuspid valve endocarditis. There was no history of IV drug use and urine toxicology was negative. EKG showed Mobitz type II AV block and a transesophageal echocardiogram revealed no valve ring or septal abscesses. The heart block persisted despite antibiotic therapy and an epicardial pacemaker was placed...
2015: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
William R Miranda, Heidi M Connolly, Daniel C DeSimone, Sabrina D Phillips, Walter R Wilson, Muhammad R Sohail, James M Steckelberg, Larry M Baddour
Pulmonary valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare entity, accounting for 1.5% to 2% of cases of IE. Published data are limited to a few case series and reports. We sought to review the Mayo Clinic experience and describe clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiologic features. We included all patients aged ≥18 years seen from 2000 to 2014 who had a diagnosis of native PV IE and unequivocal echocardiographic involvement of the PV. Nine patients with PV IE were identified. Isolated PV IE was present in 7 (78%) of 9 cases...
December 15, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
Kavindra V Singh, Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Sudha R Somarajan, Jung Hyeob Roh, Barbara E Murray
EfbA is a PavA-like fibronectin adhesin of Enterococcus faecalis previously shown to be important in experimental urinary tract infection. Here, we expressed and purified the E. faecalis OG1RF EfbA and confirmed that this protein binds with high affinity to immobilized fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen V. We constructed an efbA deletion mutant and demonstrated that its virulence was significantly attenuated (P < 0.0006) versus the wild type in a mixed inoculum rat endocarditis model. Furthermore, efbA deletion resulted in diminished ability to bind fibronectin (P < 0...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
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