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Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

Yamaan S Saadeh, Luis E Savastano, Julian L Gendreau, Aditya S Pandey
Optimal management of patients with stroke due to symptomatic carotid artery disease coexistent with bacterial endocarditis is still not well established. We report the case of a patient who presented with multifocal left middle cerebral artery stroke in the setting of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and was found to have near-occlusive ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis in stroke workup. Carotid artery endarterectomy was performed, and atheroma material demonstrated complicated plaque with cultures positive for E...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Lara Thieme, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Anita Hartung, Claudia Stein, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz
Background: Enterococci frequently cause severe biofilm-associated infections such as endocarditis. The combination of ampicillin/ceftriaxone has recently been clinically evaluated as non-inferior compared with the standard therapy of ampicillin/gentamicin for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Objectives: To compare the in vitro effectiveness of the ceftaroline/ampicillin combination with those of gentamicin/ampicillin and ceftriaxone/ampicillin in planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical E...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Juan M Pericàs, Carlos Cervera, Asunción Moreno, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Mària, Manel Almela, Carles Falces, Eduard Quintana, Bàrbara Vidal, Jaume Llopis, David Fuster, Carlos A Mestres, Francesc Marco, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend 4 weeks of treatment with ampicillin plus gentamicin (A+G) for uncomplicated native valve Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and 6 weeks in the remaining cases. Ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C) is always recommended for at least 6w, with no available studies assessing its suitability for 4w. We aimed to investigate differences in the outcome of EFIE according to the duration (4 versus 6 weeks) of antibiotic treatment (A+G or A+C)...
2018: PloS One
F Ruggiero, D Carbone, R Mugavero, A Palmieri, D Lauritano, L Baggi, M Nardone, F Carinci, M Martinelli
Endocarditis is a cardiovascular disease caused by the inflammation of the inner tissues of the heart, the endocardium, usually of the valves. Bacteraemia is essential in the development of endocarditis, and there are some findings that the main pathogens of endocarditis are viridans group streptococci: Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. There is strong evidence that endocarditis bacteria are present in the tonsillar microbiota, so that tonsillar infection is associated with an increased risk of endocarditis...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Kathleen M Ross, Jason S Mehr, Rebecca D Greeley, Lindsay A Montoya, Prathit A Kulkarni, Sonya Frontin, Trevor J Weigle, Helen Giles, Barbara E Montana
BACKGROUND: In October and November 2014, the New Jersey Department of Health received reports of 3 patients who developed Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis after undergoing surgical procedures at the same oral surgery practice in New Jersey. Bacterial endocarditis is an uncommon but life-threatening condition; 3 patients with enterococcal endocarditis associated with a single oral surgery practice is unusual. An investigation was initiated because of the potential ongoing public health risk...
March 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Jacopo Monticelli, Anna Knezevich, Roberto Luzzati, Stefano Di Bella
Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens are enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin belonging to the E. gallinarum group. They are responsible mainly for healthcare-associated infections, in particular bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical wound infections. Diseases due to these bacteria are significantly increasing worldwide, as they are prone to cause infection in patients with concurrent hepatobiliary or oncohematological disorders. Along with their distinguishing vancomycin resistance, due to a chromosomally-encoded VanC operon, their additional intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics other than glycopeptides limits the therapeutic choices...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Maya Beganovic, Megan K Luther, Louis B Rice, Cesar A Arias, Michael J Rybak, Kerry L LaPlante
Enterococci, one of the most common causes of hospital-associated infections, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Enterococcus faecalis, the more common and virulent species, cause serious high-inoculum infections, namely infective endocarditis, that are associated with cardiac surgery and mortality rates that remained unchanged for the last 30 years. The best cure for these infections are observed with combination antibiotic therapy; however, optimal treatment has not been fully elucidated...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Francisco Arnaiz de Las Revillas, Marta Fernandez-Sampedro, Ana María Arnaiz-García, Manuel Gutierrez-Cuadra, Carlos Armiñanzas, Ivana Pulitani, Alejandro Ponton, Valentin Tascon, Ivan García, María Carmen Fariñas
BACKGROUND: Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and right-side endocarditis. However, there is a lack of published data outlining its usefulness in vascular graft infections (VGI). The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience of daptomycin use in the treatment of VGI caused by Gram-positive bacteria. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with VGI receiving daptomycin at a tertiary care hospital during the period January 2010 to December 2012...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Roya Ahmadrajabi, Mohammad Sadegh Dalfardi, Alireza Farsinejad, Fereshteh Saffari
Although Enterococcus faecalis is known as normal flora in colon, it is also amongst the most common causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Platelet activation resulting from adherence to platelets is an essential step in the pathogenesis of IE. One of the factors proposed in adhesion is endocarditis- and biofilm- associated pili encoded by ebp operon. The aim of this study was to investigate ebp in isolates from different origins and analyze the potential of isolates to activate human platelets of different donors...
January 25, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
Miku Tamura, Mitsutaka Shoji, Ken Fujita, Shohei Nakamura, Yurika Takahashi, Yurika Suzuki, Mika Asakura, Shun Kimizuka, Makiko Sasaki, Katsuya Sugawara
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis include the presence of predisposing cardiac disease, a history of illegal drug use, and high morbidity in the elderly. Only a few cases of the disease after delivery have been reported in the literature. We describe here a first case of enterococcal postpartum infective endocarditis without underlying disease in Japan. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 31-year-old Japanese woman with postpartum infective endocarditis by Enterococcus faecalis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mohsen Heidary, Azar Dohkt Khosravi, Saeed Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Saleh Soleimani, Mehdi Goudarzi
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of Gram-positive infections including complicated skin and skin structure infections, right-sided infective endocarditis, bacteraemia, meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Daptomycin has distinct mechanisms of action, disrupting multiple aspects of cell membrane function and inhibiting protein, DNA and RNA synthesis. Although daptomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria is uncommon, there are increasing reports of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
S Pichard, G Gibault-Genty, A Vienet-Legue, N Baron, R Convers-Domart, J L Georges, B Livarek
A 80-year-old man was admitted to catheterization room for an acute infero-lateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Coronary angiography showed a thrombotic occlusion of the second left marginal branch, and normal other coronary arteries. The thrombo-embolic mechanism of the STEMI, and the infectious context in this patient who had had a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) two months earlier, led us to suspect a bioprosthesis endocarditis. It was confirmed by transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography, which showed an aortic-mitral curtain abscess and aortic bioprosthesis vegetations, associated to Enterococcus faecalis bacteriemia...
November 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Andrea Cervi, Dylan Kelly, Iakovina Alexopoulou, Nader Khalidi
PURPOSE: We report the case of a 59-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and C infection presenting with acute kidney injury and enterococcus faecalis-infective endocarditis (IE). An elevated proteinase-3 (PR3)-ANCA and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) on renal biopsy were discovered, corresponding to ANCA-mediated GN. We conducted a literature review to assess the role of ANCA in IE and treatment implications. METHODS: On systematic review of the literature, we found five previous cases whereby IE caused by streptococcus and bartonella species were related to ANCA vasculitis-associated GN...
2017: Clinical Nephrology. Case Studies
M V Gil-Navarro, L E Lopez-Cortes, R Luque-Marquez, J Galvez-Acebal, A de Alarcon-Gonzalez
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Enterococcus faecalis is the third most common causal agent of infective endocarditis. Currently, the treatment recommended is a combination of ampicillin (2 g/4 h) plus ceftriaxone (2 g/12 h), so patients must remain hospitalized for almost 6 weeks to receive the treatment. They are not generally included in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy programs because 2 different electronic pumps are required to administer these 2 antibiotics. To enable the treatment of patients with E...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Lei Wei, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo, Moutong Chen, Liang Xue, Juan Wang, Lianying Ma
Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3%) were contaminated E. faecalis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
Kasper Kyhl, Peter Bomholt Hansen, Elin Holm, Torkil Á Steig, Rudi Kollslíð, Shahin Gaïni
An 86-year-old man underwent cataract surgery on the left eye, but suddenly he lost his vision three days after surgery. Topical treatments for panophthalmitis were started according to international guidelines. Later, a broad-range polymerase chain reaction showed Enterococcus faecalis in corpus vitreum, and IV antiobiotic treatment was initiated. To exclude endocarditis an echocardiography was performed, and this showed mitral regurgitation with a small mobile vegetation. Uncertainty concerning a possible causality between panophthalmitis and mitral valve endocarditis remains...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Kristian T Madsen, Marianne N Skov, Sabine Gill, Michael Kemp
INTRODUCTION: The enterococci are accountable for up to 20% of all cases of infective endocarditis, with Enterococcus faecalis being the primary causative isolate. Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the endocardium that results in the formation of vegetations. Based on a literature review, this paper provides an overview of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Furthermore, it reports the effects of active or passive immunization against some of these involved factors...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
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