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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#1
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073157/comparison-of-parent-peer-psychiatric-and-cannabis-use-influences-across-stages-of-offspring-alcohol-involvement-evidence-from-the-coga-prospective-study
#2
Kathleen K Bucholz, Vivia V McCutcheon, Arpana Agrawal, Danielle M Dick, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Jessica E Salvatore, Marc A Schuckit, Laura J Bierut, Tatiana M Foroud, Grace Chan, Michie Hesselbrock, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Howard J Edenberg, Bernice Porjesz
BACKGROUND: All stages of development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have not been equally studied. While initiation of drinking has been given considerable attention, other stages have not been as thoroughly investigated. It is not clear whether the same factors are associated consistently across early and late transitions in AUD involvement. High-risk family samples that are enriched for AUD vulnerability and transitions in AUD development offer an opportunity to examine influences across multiple stages of AUD development...
January 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072812/is-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#3
George C Chang-Chien, Charles A Odonkor, Prin Amorapanth
Kratom is an unscheduled opioid receptor agonist that comes in the form of dietary supplements currently being abused by chronic pain patients on prescription opioids. Active alkaloids isolated from kratom such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are thought to act on mu- and delta-opioid receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors. Animal studies suggest that kratom may be more potent than morphine. Consequently, kratom consumption produces analgesic and euphoric feelings among users. In particular, some chronic pain patients on opioids take kratom to counteract the effects of opioid withdrawal...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065469/expanding-access-to-large-scale-genomic-data-while-promoting-privacy-a-game-theoretic-approach
#4
Zhiyu Wan, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik, Weiyi Xia, Ellen Wright Clayton, Murat Kantarcioglu, Bradley Malin
Emerging scientific endeavors are creating big data repositories of data from millions of individuals. Sharing data in a privacy-respecting manner could lead to important discoveries, but high-profile demonstrations show that links between de-identified genomic data and named persons can sometimes be reestablished. Such re-identification attacks have focused on worst-case scenarios and spurred the adoption of data-sharing practices that unnecessarily impede research. To mitigate concerns, organizations have traditionally relied upon legal deterrents, like data use agreements, and are considering suppressing or adding noise to genomic variants...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064241/associations-between-racial-discrimination-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-low-birthweight-among-roma
#5
Teresa Janevic, Theresa Osypuk, Kristefer Stojanovski, Janko Jankovic, Daniel Gundersen, Maggie Rogers
BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination may increase the risk of low birthweight (LBW), but has not been studied among Roma, the largest minority population in Europe. Moreover, few studies test both institutional and interpersonal forms of racial discrimination on health. Our objective was to examine associations between institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination with LBW, and to test potential mediation by smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: In 2012-2013, Romani women interviewers surveyed 410 Romani women in Serbia and Macedonia...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063756/-synthetic-cannabinoids-a-new-addiction-matrix
#6
Amandine Scocard, Amine Benyamina, Sarah Coscas, Laurent Karila
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) belong to the emergent market of new psychoactive substances, sold on the Internet or specialized shops. Since the 1970s, more than 160 new SC have invaded the drug market. These substances imitate the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Underestimated for too long, SC's market growth and consequences are no longer to be ignored, first of all in terms of public health. SC were first synthesized during researches on the endocannabinoid system. Though they are agonists of the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis, they can also have a really high affinity with these receptors, rising up their potency...
January 4, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063635/determination-of-cocaine-and-its-derivatives-in-hair-samples-by-liquid-phase-microextraction-lpme-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms
#7
A M F Pego, F L Roveri, R Y Kuninari, V Leyton, I D Miziara, M Yonamine
Hair testing is a recognized approach when it comes to accessing historical drug use. According to the World Drug Report of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2015, Brazil is the largest cocaine (COC) market in South America. New analytical methodologies to detect crack/cocaine analytes in hair samples are highly desirable. Here, a method consisting of a liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a clean-up step, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has been proposed. The new validated method consisted of a washing step; an overnight incubation with methanol and a quick derivatization with butylchloroformate...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#8
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061867/lower-abdominal-gossypiboma-mimics-ovarian-teratoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Hao Zhang, Yanyong Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: Gossypiboma is a serious and potentially dangerous medico-legal problem. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of lower abdominal gossypiboma that presented as an abdominal cystic mass mimicking ovarian teratoma. The mass and the adhesive intestine loop were en blocly resected. The cut section confirmed gossypiboma diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The present experience and related literature results indicate that gossypiboma should always be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of cystic soft-tissue mass detected in patients with a prior operation history despite its rarity and diagnosis difficulty...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060974/-socio-demographic-profile-and-factors-associated-with-emergency-contraception-consultations
#10
Sebastián Lavanderos, Camilo Riquelme, Juan Haase, Andrea Morales
BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception refers to contraceptive methods that can be used after a sexual intercourse Aim: To analyze the evolution of emergency contraception (EC) consultations on the Chilean public health system, at a communal level, in relation to the legal changes that recently took place, aimed to ease the delivery of the benefit. To analyze its association with socioeconomic, demographic and municipal healthcare system characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data bases of the Ministry of Health to study EC consultation rates on Chilean communes, including consultations on emergency departments and by rape, from 2008 to 2013...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060817/high-levels-of-post-abortion-complication-in-a-setting-where-abortion-service-is-not-legalized
#11
Tadele Melese, Dereje Habte, Billy M Tsima, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Kesegofetse Chabaesele, Goabaone Rankgoane, Tshiamo R Keakabetse, Mabole Masweu, Mosidi Mokotedi, Mpho Motana, Badani Moreri-Ntshabele
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. METHODS: A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059698/uk-national-data-guardian-for-health-and-care-s-review-of-data-security-trust-better-security-and-opt-outs
#12
Tom Chan, Concetta Tania Di Iorio, Simon De Lusignan, Daniel Lo Russo, Craig Kuziemsky, Siaw-Teng Liaw
Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058244/occurrence-of-harmful-algal-species-and-shellfish-toxicity-in-sardinia-italy
#13
Anna Maria Bazzoni, Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Antonella Lugliè, Barbara Vivaldi, Valentina Cicotelli, Giovanna Sanna, Giuseppe Tedde, Salvatore Ledda, Enrico Alesso, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
Sardinia (Italy, north-western Mediterranean) is a commercially important producer of edible bivalve molluscs. Since the early 2000s, it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algal poison. Here, we present the studies on toxin concentrations and the associated potentially toxic phytoplankton distribution and abundances carried out by a regular monitoring programme in Sardinian shellfish areas, from January to May 2015. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in several bivalve molluscs samples, while paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were present just once, without exceeding the legal limits...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056726/community-mapping-of-sex-work-criminalization-and-violence-impacts-on-hiv-treatment-interruptions-among-marginalized-women-living-with-hiv-in-vancouver-canada
#14
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053076/opportunities-to-apply-the-3rs-in-safety-assessment-programs
#15
Fiona Sewell, Joanna Edwards, Helen Prior, Sally Robinson
Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050742/sexting-by-high-school-students
#16
Donald S Strassberg, Deanna Cann, Valerie Velarde
In the last 8 years, several studies have documented that many adolescents acknowledge having exchanged sexually explicit cell phone pictures of themselves, a behavior termed sexting. Differences across studies in how sexting was defined, recruitment strategies, and cohort have resulted in sometimes significant differences in as basic a metric as what percentage of adolescents have sent, received, or forwarded such sexts. The psychosocial and even legal risks associated with sexting by minors are significantly serious that accurate estimates of its prevalence, including over time, are important to ascertain...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044343/computer-aided-detection-of-retained-surgical-needles-from-postoperative-radiographs
#17
Aunnasha Sengupta, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Heang-Ping Chan, Kenny Cha, Nikolaos Chronis, Theodore C Marentis
PURPOSE: Foreign objects, such as surgical sponges, needles, sutures, and other surgical instruments, retained in the patient's body can have dire consequences in terms of patient mortality as well as legal and financial penalties. We propose computer-aided detection (CAD) on postoperative radiographs as a potential solution to reduce the chance of retained foreign objects (RFOs) after surgery, thus alleviating one of the major concerns for patient safety in the operation room. A CAD system can function as a second pair of eyes or a prescreener for the surgeon and radiologist, depending on the CAD system design and the workflow...
November 21, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039684/patients-bill-of-rights-and-effective-factors-of-workplace-violence-against-female-nurses-on-duty-at-ilam-teaching-hospitals
#18
Ali-Ashraf Aivazi, Waleyeh Menati, Hamed Tavan, Sasan Navkhasi, Abuzar Mehrdadi
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence against female nurses is an increasing problem. In addition, recognition the rights of patients can reduce such violence against female nurses. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate workplace violence against female nurses in respect with patients' bill of rights at two public hospitals of Ilam in 2012. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional research, workplace violence against female nurses was studied. Data were gathered employing a researcher made questionnaire filled out by 106 female nurses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038921/community-treatment-order-identifying-the-need-for-more-evidence-based-justification-of-its-use-in-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#19
Stéphane Morandi, Philippe Golay, Martin Lambert, Benno G Schimmelmann, Patrick D McGorry, Sue M Cotton, Philippe Conus
OBJECTIVES: Community Treatment Order (CTO) is a legal regime that obliges patients suffering mental disorder to adhere to treatment in the community and allows for a swift admission to hospital if necessary. Study aims were to: (i) determine CTO frequency in a large representative sample of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients; (ii) compare the characteristics of patients with or without CTO before entry, during treatment and at discharge from an early psychosis program. METHODS: Information on 660 patients treated at the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) between 1998 and 2000 was collected from medical files...
December 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033530/mini-snapshot-multiplex-assays-authenticate-elephant-ivory-and-simultaneously-identify-the-species-origin
#20
Thitika Kitpipit, Kantima Thongjued, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
Illegal trading of ivory is mainly responsible for the dramatic decline in elephant populations. Thailand is one of the largest laundering hotspots for African ivory, as the domestic Asian elephant ivory can be legally traded. So, to help combat ivory poaching and smuggling, an efficient method is needed to identify the elephant species from its ivory and ivory products. In this study, a mini-SNaPshot(®) multiplex assay was developed and fully validated for the identification of confiscated ivory and low DNA template ivory products...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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