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Legal Highs

Flavia Westphal, Suzete Maria Fustinoni, Vânia Lopes Pinto, Patrícia de Souza Melo, Anelise Riedel Abrahão
Objective: To identify the profile of women seen in a Fetal Medicine unit, diagnosed with fetal abnormality incompatible with neonatal survival in their current pregnancy, and to check the association of gestational age upon diagnosis with the option of pregnancy termination. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Outpatients Clinic of a university hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, using medical records of pregnant women with fetus presenting abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival...
July 2016: Einstein
Julian Schenten, Martin Führ
The purpose of the REACH Regulation is to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment as well as the free circulation of substances on the internal market while enhancing competitiveness and innovation. To this end, REACH introduces, among other instruments, the authorisation regime for substances of very high concern (SVHC) that are listed on Annex XIV of the regulation. After expiration of the transitional period for each Annex XIV-SVHC, articles, such as most products of daily use, produced in the European Economic Area (EEA) may not contain such substances unless an authorisation was granted for the specific use or this use falls within the scope of an exemption from the authorisation requirement...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
M C Carrera Gómez, M C Estrada Blan
High breast density and its relationship to the risk of breast cancer has become a hot topic in the medical literature and in the lay press, especially in the United States, where it has brought about changes in the legal framework that require radiologists to inform clinicians and patients about breast density. Radiologists, who are mainly responsible for this information, need to know the scientific evidence and controversies regarding this subject. The discussion is centered on the real importance of the risk, the limitation that not having standardized methods of measurement represents, and the possible application of complementary screening techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or tomosynthesis) for which clear recommendations have yet to be established...
October 14, 2016: Radiología
Katherine M Keyes, Joanne E Brady, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs by adolescents and young adults. The question of whether these two drugs are substitutes or complements has important implications for public policy and prevention strategies, especially as laws regarding the use of marijuana are rapidly changing. METHODS: Data were drawn from fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 who died within 1 h of the crash in nine states with high rates of toxicology testing based from 1999 to 2011 on the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (N = 7,191)...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sarah E Velasquez, Enrique Chaves-Carballo, Eve-Lynn Nelson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.7 million individuals in the United States are affected by epilepsy. It is the fourth most common neurological disorder and affects people of all ages, races, and economic backgrounds. In many rural states, the few pediatric neurologists commonly practice in the metropolitan areas. The inadequate resources present challenges for families residing in rural areas or with limited transportation resources. One remedy for this situation is to deliver pediatric neurology services to rural areas through videoconferencing...
August 10, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Gudrun Høiseth, Linn Engeset Austdal, Elisabeth Wiik, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Jørg Mørland
Objective Elderly drivers are somewhat more likely to be involved in car crashes than middle aged drivers, but less likely to be involved than the younger drivers. This study aimed to assess the extent of drug use in elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers, with respect to which drugs were detected and at which concentrations. Methods Blood samples from elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers from February 1(st) 2012 to May 22(th) 2013 were identified from the database at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and were retrospectively analyzed for a broad repertoire of drugs relevant for impairment...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Damir S Utržan, Andrea K Northwood
Nearly 65 million people around the world have been displaced by war, conflict, and persecution since 2014 (UNHCR; United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2015). This yields an average of 42,000 people refugees, asylum seekers, or internally displaced every day. Displacement has adverse and disruptive consequences, including mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, depression), impaired interpersonal relationships, and heightened conflict. These consequences are compounded by profound ambiguity associated with navigating asylum in the United States...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jaclyn Yoong, Aleece MacPhail, Gael Trytel, Prashanti Yalini Rajendram, Margaret Winbolt, Joseph E Ibrahim
Objective Limitation of Medical Treatment (LMT) forms are an essential element of end-of-life care. Decision making around LMT is complex and often involves patients with dementia. Despite the complexity, junior doctors frequently play a central role in completing LMT forms. The present study sought perspectives from a range of stakeholders (hospital clinicians, medical education personnel, legal and advocacy staff) about junior doctors' roles in completing LMT forms in general and for patients with dementia...
October 14, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
N Laventhal, A A E Verhagen, T W R Hansen, E Dempsey, P G Davis, G A Musante, A Wiles, W Meadow, A Janvier
OBJECTIVE: Ethically and legally, assertions that resuscitation is in a patient's best interest should be inversely correlated with willingness to forego intensive care (and accept comfort care) at the surrogate's request. Previous single country studies have demonstrated a relative devaluation of neonates when compared with other critically ill patients. STUDY DESIGN: In this international study, physicians in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway and the United States were presented with eight hypothetical vignettes of incompetent critically ill patients of different ages...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Elizabeth R Schotter, Mallorie Leinenger
Current theories of eye movement control in reading posit that processing of an upcoming parafoveal preview word is used to facilitate processing of that word once it is fixated (i.e., as a foveal target word). This preview benefit is demonstrated by shorter fixation durations in the case of valid (i.e., identical or linguistically similar) compared with invalid (i.e., dissimilar) preview conditions. However, we suggest that processing of the preview can directly influence fixation behavior on the target, independent of similarity between them...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
J Michael Bailey, Kevin J Hsu, Paula A Bernhard
To our knowledge, this is the first large study of the attractions of child-attracted men recruited in any manner other than their being charged with legal offenses. We recruited 1,189 men from websites for adults attracted to children. Men in our sample were highly attracted to children, and they were much less attracted to adults, especially to adult men. However, men varied with respect to which combination of gender and age they found most attractive. Men in our sample were especially attracted to pubescent boys and prepubescent girls...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
James Conniff
A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Pierre Kopp, Marysia Ogrodnik
The social cost of drugs is the monetary cost of both the consequences of their trade and their consumption. In this paper, drugs considered are tobacco and alcohol, which are legal, plus those that are illegal. The social cost is the sum of the external cost: value of loss in quality of life, value of years of life lost and value of loss in productivity, plus public expenditure. Public expenditure consists of public spending on medical care, prevention, and law enforcement, minus savings from unpaid pensions and taxes levied on tobacco and alcohol...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Michael Lauerer, Katharina Kaiser, Eckhard Nagel
BACKGROUND: Transplantation medicine is associated with several ethical issues related to the lack of organs. Major questions concern the regulations for giving permission for organ removal, informing the public about organ donation, setting of organ allocation priorities, waiting list access, and strategies to counteract scarcity. METHODS: This contribution is based on analyses of legal regulations, guidelines of self-regulatory bodies, administrative data, and literature from medical, normative, and empiric disciplines...
August 2016: Visc Med
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Beatriz Del Rio, Begoña Redruello, Daniel M Linares, Victor Ladero, Maria Fernandez, Maria Cruz Martin, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel A Alvarez
Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Robin M Murray, Harriet Quigley, Diego Quattrone, Amir Englund, Marta Di Forti
Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
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