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Legal Amphetamine

Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Marta Concheiro, Elena Lendoiro, Ana de Castro, Eva Gónzalez-Colmenero, Ana Concheiro-Guisan, Patricia Peñas-Silva, Manuel Macias-Cortiña, Angelines Cruz-Landeira, Manuel López-Rivadulla
Drug exposure during pregnancy constitutes a major legal issue and a public health concern. Drug and metabolite determination in biological matrices from mother and newborn is an objective indication of prenatal drug exposure. However, limited data are available regarding the interpretation of these analytical results in terms of window of detection and degree of exposure. We collected paired maternal hair, meconium, placenta, and umbilical cord from 727 mother-newborn dyads. We analyzed these specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of cocaine, opioids, methadone, and amphetamines, and compared the analytical results from the four different matrices...
September 5, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Timothy Fassette, Afton Martinez
The popularity of designer drugs has increased over the past few years as users seek new, cheap and sometimes "legal" ways to get high. This case report focuses on a case that happened in the City of Henderson, Nevada, which involved the designer drug methoxetamine. Methoxetamine is a psychoactive compound that is structurally related to ketamine and reported to have similar effects. These effects include analgesia, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and enhanced skeletal muscle tone. Presented here is a case of a 33-year-old female who was pulled over after almost colliding with a marked police motorcycle, causing the police officer to avoid the collision by running onto a pedestrian sidewalk...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Glen P Davis, Andrew Tomita, Joy Noel Baumgartner, Sisanda Mtshemla, Siphumelele Nene, Howard King, Ezra Susser, Jonathan K Burns
BACKGROUND: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) can negatively affect treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with severe mental illness receiving services at a regional psychiatric hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). We describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime substance use and examine the association between substance use and DUP...
2016: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Janelle H P van Wel, Johan F Rosiers, Guido Van Hal
BACKGROUND: Most drug users initiate illicit drug use during adolescence and young adulthood. Although in the general population a trend towards a decrease in drug use can be seen, patterns of drug use among students are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to look at drug use patterns among students in higher education in Belgium. METHODS: A survey study in Antwerp (Belgium) was conducted on three occasions (2005, 2009, and 2013) at several institutes for higher education...
July 28, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Simone Cappelletti, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Marco Straccamore, Federica Umani Ronchi, Guido Maria De Mari, Costantino Ciallella
Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole...
May 2016: Legal Medicine
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Samir Qammaz, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Fenethylline is a theophylline derivative of amphetamine having stimulant effects similar to those of other amphetamine-type derivatives. Fenethylline was used as medicament for hyperactivity disorders in children, narcolepsy and depression, but it has also been used as a drug of abuse under the common name of 'captagon'. Unlike other drugs of abuse, the clandestine synthesis of fenethylline is simple, using inexpensive laboratory instrumentation and raw materials legal to obtain. A review of all the existing knowledge of fenethylline is reported, concerning its chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and toxicology, legislation, its prevalence and use as drug of abuse, as well as its analysis in biological or seized samples...
August 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Cláudia Margalho, Alice Castanheira, Francisco Corte Real, Eugenia Gallardo, Manuel López-Rivadulla
Despite worldwide efforts aiming to ban the marketing and subsequent abuse of psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines, there has been an alarming growth of both in recent years. Different compounds similar to those already existing are continuously appearing in the market in order to circumvent the legislation. An analytical methodology has been validated for qualitative and quantitative determinations of D-cathine (D-norpseudoehedrine), ephedrine, methcathinone, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propan-2-amine (PMA), mephedrone, methedrone, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-H), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-I), 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4) and 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-7), in low volumes of vitreous humor (100 μL), pericardial fluid (250 μL) and whole blood (250 μL), using deutered amphetamine, ephedrine and mephedrone as internal standards...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Emily Stockings, Wayne D Hall, Michael Lynskey, Katherine I Morley, Nicola Reavley, John Strang, George Patton, Louisa Degenhardt
We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision-which is ineffective...
March 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
María José Burgueño, Amaya Alonso, Sergio Sánchez
This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
Olaf H Drummer, Suwan Yap
Coroners files and toxicological records of fatally-injured drivers in Victoria from 2000 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed in separate studies to establish the role of prescribed drugs on crash risk. 2638 driver fatalities were included in the study, which represented over 97% of all driver fatalities in this period. The detection limits of the drugs were at the low end of those seen with common illicit drugs or prescribed drugs. Drugs of any type were found in 34.4% of the study group, medicinal drugs 21...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
Graham McIlroy, Loretta Ford, Jawad M Khan
BACKGROUND: "Legal highs" are novel psychoactive substances that have evaded statutory control. Synthetic cannabinoid compounds with adamantane moieties have recently been identified, which have high potency at target receptors and are undetectable on conventional toxicology testing. However, little is known about any harmful effects, and their potential to cause serious ill health. We describe a case of myocardial infarction following the use of this class of drug. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 39-year-old man admitted after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in whom ECG and elevated cardiac enzymes confirmed ST-elevation myocardial infarction...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (NOIDS) are novel psychotropic drugs (NPS) currently freely sold in the United Kingdom as 'research chemicals'. Detection of NOIDS use is not available in current routine methods. Here we describe a marker which helps determine which patients have used these substances. METHODS: In a test case ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-Tof) was used to screen the legal high Herbal Haze II, the contents of hand-rolled cigarettes and five patient samples for NOIDS and their metabolites...
January 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Maria João Valente, Ana Margarida Araújo, Renata Silva, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
Synthetic cathinones have emerged in recreational drug markets as legal alternatives for classical amphetamines. Though currently banned in several countries, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one of the most commonly abused cathinone derivatives worldwide. We have recently reported the potential of MDPV to induce hepatocellular damage, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxicity remain to be elucidated. Similar to amphetamines, a prominent toxic effect of acute intoxications by MDPV is hyperthermia...
August 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Ryan Abbott, David E Smith
This article reviews clinical, toxicological, and legal issues related to designer drug abuse, with a focus on synthetic cathinones (bath salts). Synthetic cathinones are amphetamine-type central nervous system (CNS) stimulants that produce similar effects to amphetamine. Like amphetamine, synthetic cathinones can also result in neurological and cardiovascular side-effects consistent with sympathomimetic toxicity. The differential for a patient presenting with the signs and symptoms of synthetic cathinone toxicity is broad, and laboratory testing for synthetic cathinones is of limited value in acute management...
November 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Fifa Rahman, Priya Lall, Sarah Iqbal, B Vicknasingam
BACKGROUND: Out of 20,887 persons who use drugs that came into contact with the National Anti-Drugs Agency (NADA) officials in the year 2013, 3.2% were women. Because women who use drugs (WWUD) are often a hidden population, this may be an underestimate. International literature shows that women who use drugs face increased risk of HIV, intimate partner violence, and mental health issues. Similar literature in Malaysia is lacking, and thus, the objective of our study was exploratory in nature...
2015: Harm Reduction Journal
Krystyna Gołembiowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska
New psychoactive "designer drugs" are synthetic compounds developed to provide similar effects to illicit drugs of abuse, but not subjected to legal control. The rapidly changing legal status of novel psychoactive drugs triggers the development of new compounds, analogs of well-known amphetamine or mescaline. New designer drugs used as substitutes in ecstasy pills are the least investigated and can cause life-threatening effects on users. The aim of our research was to examine the effects of acute administration of 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA, 5 and 10 mg/kg), 4-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA, 5 and 10 mg/kg), and mephedrone (MEPH, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) on extracellular and tissue level of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in rat brain, by microdialysis method in freely moving animals and HPLC...
April 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Bjørnar den Hollander, Mira Sundström, Anna Pelander, Antti Siltanen, Ilkka Ojanperä, Eero Mervaala, Esa R Korpi, Esko Kankuri
The increased use of cathinone-type designer drugs, known as legal highs, has led to concerns about their potential neurotoxicity due to their similarity to methamphetamine (METH). Therefore, closer investigations of their toxic effects are needed. We investigated the effects of the cathinones 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (MDMC) and the amphetamine METH on cytotoxicity and mitochondrial respiration in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We also investigated the contribution of reactive species, dopamine, Bcl-2 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on toxicity...
2015: Scientific Reports
Monica Bawor, Brittany B Dennis, Anuja Bhalerao, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, David C Marsh, Dipika Desai, Meir Steiner, Rebecca Anglin, Guillaume Pare, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is a serious international concern with limited treatment success. Men and women differ in their susceptibility to opioid use disorder and response to methadone treatment and can therefore benefit from sex-specific treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature on outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder in men and women related to drug use, health status and social functioning. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL for observational or randomized controlled studies involving adults 18 years of age or older undergoing methadone treatment for opioid use disorder...
July 2015: CMAJ Open
Joshua Caballero, Raymond L Ownby, Jose A Rey, Kevin A Clauson
Use of neuroenhancers has been studied in groups ranging from students to surgeons; however, use of cognitive and performance enhancing medications (CPEMs) to improve performance in poker has remained largely overlooked. To assess the use of CPEMs to improve poker performance, a survey of poker players was conducted. Participants were recruited via Internet poker forums; 198 completed the online survey. Approximately 28 % of respondents used prescription CPEMs, with the most commonly used including: amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (62 %), benzodiazepines (20 %), and methylphenidate (20 %)...
September 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
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