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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908232/the-association-of-spinophilin-with-disks-large-associated-protein-3-sapap3-is-regulated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mglur-5
#1
Cameron W Morris, Darryl S Watkins, Asma B Salek, Michael C Edler, Anthony J Baucum
Spinophilin is the most abundant protein phosphatase 1 targeting protein in the postsynaptic density of dendritic spines. Spinophilin associates with myriad synaptic proteins to regulate normal synaptic communication; however, the full complement of spinophilin interacting proteins and mechanisms regulating spinophilin interactions are unclear. Here we validate an association between spinophilin and the scaffolding protein, disks large-associated protein 3 (SAP90/PSD-95 associated protein 3; SAPAP3). Loss of SAPAP3 leads to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behaviors due to alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875447/exposure-to-conditions-of-uncertainty-promotes-the-pursuit-of-amphetamine
#2
Paola Mascia, Nichole M Neugebauer, Jason Brown, Nancy Bubula, Kathryn M Nesbitt, Robert T Kennedy, Paul Vezina
Prior exposure to abused drugs leads to long-lasting neuroadaptations culminating in excessive drug intake. Given the comorbidity between substance use and gambling disorders, surprisingly little is known about the effects of exposure to reinforcement contingencies experienced during games of chance. As it is a central feature of these games, we characterized the effects of exposure to uncertainty on biochemical and behavioral effects normally observed in rats exposed to amphetamine. Rats in different groups were trained to nose-poke for saccharin under certain [fixed-ratio (FR)] or uncertain conditions [variable-ratio (VR)] for 55 1-h sessions...
May 22, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864032/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-d-amphetamine-in-an-attention-task-in-rodents
#3
Jonathan M Slezak, Melanie Mueller, George A Ricaurte, Jonathan L Katz
Amphetamine is a common therapeutic agent for alleviating the core symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. The current study used a translational model of attention, the five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure with rats, to examine the time-course effects of d-amphetamine. Effects of different dosages of d-amphetamine were related to drug-plasma concentrations, fashioned after comprehensive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments that have been employed in clinical investigations...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852449/hypocretin-orexin-antagonists-decrease-cocaine-self-administration-by-female-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
BACKGROUND: The hypocretin/orexin system is involved in regulating arousal, and much recent work demonstrates that decreasing hypocretin receptor-1 (HCRTr1) activity using antagonists decreases appetitive behavior, including stimulant drug self-administration and reinstatement. METHODS: The present study determined the effects of hypocretin-1 and HCRTr1 antagonists on responding reinforced by intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration (0.0125 - 0.05 mg/kg/infusion) in 5 female rhesus monkeys...
May 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801602/rapid-and-accurate-quantification-of-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-in-human-urine-by-antibody-decorated-magnetite-nanoparticles-coupled-with-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometer-analysis
#5
Kun-Ru Wu, He-Hsuan Hsiao
In this study, a novel method for the simultaneous determination and accurate quantification of abused drugs in human urine was developed. Antibody conjugated boronic acid modified magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 , MNPs) were prepared for the selectively purification of illicit drugs in combination with high resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Illicit drugs, amphetamine (AM) and methamphetamine (MA), were used as model analytes to demonstrate the feasibility of our strategy...
September 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800544/cooperative-and-dissociable-involvement-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-and-shell-in-the-promotion-and-inhibition-of-actions-during-active-and-inhibitory-avoidance
#6
Patrick T Piantadosi, Dylan C M Yeates, Stan B Floresco
The flexible implementation of active and passive strategies to avoid danger is critical to survival. Conversely, the inappropriate allocation of these behaviors may underlie pathological avoidance in neuropsychiatric illnesses. The present study investigated whether these two poles of avoidance may be differentially regulated by subdivsions of the nucleus accumbens, the core (NAcC) and shell (NAcS), which are known to bi-directionally control flexible action selection during reward-seeking. In so doing, we developed a novel cued active/inhibitory avoidance task conducted in operant chambers that entailed presentations of two distinct, 15 s auditory cues...
May 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761343/role-of-exogenous-progesterone-in-the-treatment-of-men-and-women-with-substance-use-disorders-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
MacKenzie R Peltier, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Substance use disorders (SUDs) remain problematic as many individuals are untreated or do not benefit from the currently available interventions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel pharmacological interventions to treat SUDs. Evidence suggests that the female sex hormone, progesterone, attenuates the craving for and the euphoric effects of drugs of abuse. Research to date has demonstrated that progesterone may modulate responses to drugs of abuse and may have utility as a novel treatment for SUDs...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#8
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729322/methamphetamine-augment-hiv-1-tat-mediated-memory-deficits-by-altering-the-expression-of-synaptic-proteins-and-neurotrophic-factors
#9
Anantha Ram Nookala, Daniel C Schwartz, Nitish S Chaudhari, Alexy Glazyrin, Edward B Stephens, Nancy E J Berman, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is common among individuals infected with HIV-1 and has been shown to affect HIV replication and pathogenesis. These HIV-1 infected individuals also exhibit greater neuronal injury and higher cognitive decline. HIV-1 proteins, specifically gp120 and HIV-1 Tat, have been earlier shown to affect neurocognition. HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein released early during HIV-1 replication, contributes to HIV-associated neurotoxicity through various mechanisms including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and dysregulation of neuroplasticity...
May 2, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718282/suspected-driving-under-the-influence-case-involving-mitragynine
#10
Trista H Wright
Mitragynine is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that has emerged as a designer opioid being distributed on the street. Mitragynine, also known as kratom, has dose-dependent pharmacological effects and possesses both stimulant-like and sedative effects due to dual-binding of α-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. This herbal remedy readily available online has caused adverse effects including tachycardia, agitation, tremors, hallucination and death; however, this is the first reported suspected driving under the influence case involving mitragynine...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#11
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and circulating CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
April 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#12
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614333/pharmacological-validation-of-individual-animal-locomotion-temperature-and-behavioural-analysis-in-group-housed-rats-using-a-novel-automated-home-cage-analysis-system-a-comparison-with-the-modified-irwin-test
#13
Karen Tse, Rowland Sillito, Amy Keerie, Rachel Collier, Claire Grant, Natasha A Karp, Cathy Vickers, Kathryn Chapman, J Douglas Armstrong, William S Redfern
BACKGROUND: The ActualHCA™ system continuously monitors the activity, temperature and behavior of group-housed rats without invasive surgery. The system was validated to detect the contrasting effects of sedative and stimulant test agents (chlorpromazine, clonidine and amphetamine), and compared with the modified Irwin test (mIT) with rectal temperature measurements. METHODS: Six male Han Wistar rats per group were used to assess each test agent and vehicle controls in separate ActualHCA™ recordings and mIT...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571824/dose-dependent-reduction-in-cocaine-induced-locomotion-by-clozapine-n-oxide-in-rats-with-a-history-of-cocaine-self-administration
#14
Yasmin Padovan-Hernandez, Lori A Knackstedt
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are novel tools for the dissection of circuitry mediating behavior and neural function. Designer receptors based on the muscarinic M3 and M4 subtypes were designed to be activated by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a ligand previously shown to be an inert metabolite of clozapine. However, recent work in rats has shown that CNO is reverse metabolized to its parent compound. Furthermore, CNO administration (5 mg/kg IP) attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion and the evoked dopamine response that accompanies it...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564126/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rat-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Yunxia Zhang, Meiling Ge, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
The effects of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been evaluated in multiple studies. However, the results evaluating the effectiveness of iPSCs in animal models of PD are mixed, primarily due to their low statistical power. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to describe the treatment effect of unsorted iPSCs on behavioral testing in experimental rat models of PD. Databases searched included PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2017...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#16
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429705/synthesis-of-novel-sonocatalyst-er-3-yalo-3-nb-2-o-5-and-its-application-for-sonocatalytic-degradation-of-methamphetamine-hydrochloride
#17
Chunsheng Wei, Kuiyu Yi, Guangsheng Sun, Jun Wang
The composited sonocatalyst Er3+ :YAlO3 /Nb2 O5 was prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and high temperature calcinations method. The microstructure of Er3+ :YAlO3 was prepared via sol-gel method and Nb2 O5 was prepared by hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The sonocatalytic decomposition activity of composite sonocatalyst Er3+ :YAlO3 /Nb2 O5 was investigated by using ultrasound as sound source and methamphetamine hydrochloride as the target degradation product...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413521/phosphorylation-of-the-amino-terminus-of-the-dopamine-transporter-regulatory-mechanisms-and-implications-for-amphetamine-action
#18
Caline S Karam, Jonathan A Javitch
Amphetamines (AMPHs) are potent psychostimulants that are widely used and abused, with profound medical and societal impact. Their actions at dopaminergic neurons are thought to mediate their therapeutic efficacy as well as their liability for abuse and dependence. AMPHs target the dopamine transporter (DAT), the plasmalemmal membrane protein that mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake. AMPHs act as substrates for DAT and are known to cause mobilization of dopamine (DA) to the cell exterior via DAT-mediated reverse transport (efflux)...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398218/a-perceptual-inference-mechanism-for-hallucinations-linked-to-striatal-dopamine
#19
Clifford M Cassidy, Peter D Balsam, Jodi J Weinstein, Rachel J Rosengard, Mark Slifstein, Nathaniel D Daw, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine...
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355511/low-dose-d-amphetamine-induced-regression-of-liver-fat-deposits-in-dercum-disease
#20
Sehem Ghazala, Jawad Bilal, Elle Ross, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Bobby Kalb, Karen L Herbst
BACKGROUND: Dercum disease is a rare disorder of painful subcutaneous adipose tissue masses typically presenting as a constellation of signs and symptoms affecting most organs, including slow lymphatic flow and fatty liver. METHOD: The University of Arizona Institutional Review Board considered this report exempt after patient consent. Multislice, multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed prior to and after d-amphetamine, with and without intravenous gadolinium...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
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