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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#1
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
April 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#2
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614333/pharmacological-validation-of-individual-animal-locomotion-temperature-and-behavioural-analysis-in-group-housed-rats-using-a-novel-automated-home-cage-analysis-system-a-comparison-with-the-modified-irwin-test
#3
Karen Tse, Rowland Sillito, Amy Keerie, Rachel Collier, Claire Grant, Natasha A Karp, Cathy Vickers, Kathryn Chapman, J Douglas Armstrong, William S Redfern
BACKGROUND: The ActualHCA™ system continuously monitors the activity, temperature and behaviour of group-housed rats without invasive surgery. The system was validated to detect the contrasting effects of sedative and stimulant test agents (chlorpromazine, clonidine and amphetamine), and compared with the modified Irwin test (mIT) with rectal temperature measurements. METHODS: Six male Han Wistar rats per group were used to assess each test agent and vehicle controls in separate ActualHCA™ recordings and mIT...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571824/dose-dependent-reduction-in-cocaine-induced-locomotion-by-clozapine-n-oxide-in-rats-with-a-history-of-cocaine-self-administration
#4
Yasmin Padovan-Hernandez, Lori A Knackstedt
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are novel tools for the dissection of circuitry mediating behavior and neural function. Designer receptors based on the muscarinic M3 and M4 subtypes were designed to be activated by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a ligand previously shown to be an inert metabolite of clozapine. However, recent work in rats has shown that CNO is reverse metabolized to its parent compound. Furthermore, CNO administration (5 mg/kg IP) attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion and the evoked dopamine response that accompanies it...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564126/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rat-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yunxia Zhang, Meiling Ge, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
The effects of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been evaluated in multiple studies. However, the results evaluating the effectiveness of iPSCs in animal models of PD are mixed, primarily due to their low statistical power. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to describe the treatment effect of unsorted iPSCs on behavioral testing in experimental rat models of PD. Databases searched included PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2017...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#6
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429705/synthesis-of-novel-sonocatalyst-er3-yalo3-nb2o5-and-its-application-for-sonocatalytic-degradation-of-methamphetamine-hydrochloride
#7
Chunsheng Wei, Kuiyu Yi, Guangsheng Sun, Jun Wang
The composited sonocatalyst Er3+:YAlO3/Nb2O5 was prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and high temperature calcinations method. The microstructure of Er3+:YAlO3 was prepared via sol-gel method and Nb2O5 was prepared by hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The sonocatalytic decomposition activity of composite sonocatalyst Er3+:YAlO3/Nb2O5 was investigated by using ultrasound as sound source and methamphetamine hydrochloride as the target degradation product...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413521/phosphorylation-of-the-amino-terminus-of-the-dopamine-transporter-regulatory-mechanisms-and-implications-for-amphetamine-action
#8
Caline S Karam, Jonathan A Javitch
Amphetamines (AMPHs) are potent psychostimulants that are widely used and abused, with profound medical and societal impact. Their actions at dopaminergic neurons are thought to mediate their therapeutic efficacy as well as their liability for abuse and dependence. AMPHs target the dopamine transporter (DAT), the plasmalemmal membrane protein that mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake. AMPHs act as substrates for DAT and are known to cause mobilization of dopamine (DA) to the cell exterior via DAT-mediated reverse transport (efflux)...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398218/a-perceptual-inference-mechanism-for-hallucinations-linked-to-striatal-dopamine
#9
Clifford M Cassidy, Peter D Balsam, Jodi J Weinstein, Rachel J Rosengard, Mark Slifstein, Nathaniel D Daw, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine...
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355511/low-dose-d-amphetamine-induced-regression-of-liver-fat-deposits-in-dercum-disease
#10
Sehem Ghazala, Jawad Bilal, Elle Ross, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Bobby Kalb, Karen L Herbst
BACKGROUND: Dercum disease is a rare disorder of painful subcutaneous adipose tissue masses typically presenting as a constellation of signs and symptoms affecting most organs, including slow lymphatic flow and fatty liver. METHOD: The University of Arizona Institutional Review Board considered this report exempt after patient consent. Multislice, multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed prior to and after d-amphetamine, with and without intravenous gadolinium...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knock-out-rats
#11
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Mariia Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia V Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Giovanni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats in which the gene encoding DAT knockout Rats (DAT-KO) has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338486/rewarding-effects-of-physical-activity-predict-sensitivity-to-the-acute-subjective-effects-of-d-amphetamine-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Mollie S Pester, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Bree A Geary, Adam M Leventhal
While individual differences in reward sensitivity are believed to generalize across drugs and alternative rewards, this notion has received little empirical attention in human research. Here, we tested whether individual differences in the subjective rewarding effects of physical activity were associated with the subjective response to d-amphetamine administration. Healthy volunteers ( n=95; age 18-35 years) completed questionnaires measuring the self-reported pleasurable effects of physical activity and other covariates, and this was followed by two double-blind counterbalanced sessions during which they received either 20 mg oral d-amphetamine or placebo...
March 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#13
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Methods: We recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 methylazoxymethanol acetate rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326171/abdominal-vagal-afferents-modulate-the-brain-transcriptome-and-behaviors-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#14
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324402/c-fscv-compressive-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-for-brain-dopamine-recording
#15
Hossein Zamani, Hamid Reza Bahrami, Preeti Chalwadi, Paul A Garris, Pedram Mohseni
This paper presents a novel compressive sensing framework for recording brain dopamine levels with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode. Termed compressive FSCV (C-FSCV), this approach compressively samples the measured total current in each FSCV scan and performs basic FSCV processing steps, e.g., background current averaging and subtraction, directly with compressed measurements. The resulting background-subtracted faradaic currents, which are shown to have a block-sparse representation in the discrete cosine transform domain, are next reconstructed from their compressively sampled counterparts with the block sparse Bayesian learning algorithm...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315692/comprehensive-review-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-drugs-and-related-agents
#16
REVIEW
Přemysl Mladěnka, Lenka Applová, Jiří Patočka, Vera Marisa Costa, Fernando Remiao, Jana Pourová, Aleš Mladěnka, Jana Karlíčková, Luděk Jahodář, Marie Vopršalová, Kurt J Varner, Martin Štěrba
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed countries of the world. Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and toxins can significantly contribute to the overall cardiovascular burden and thus deserve attention. The present article is a systematic overview of drugs that may induce distinct cardiovascular toxicity. The compounds are classified into agents that have significant effects on the heart, blood vessels, or both. The mechanism(s) of toxic action are discussed and treatment modalities are briefly mentioned in relevant cases...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281965/is-dopamine-transporter-mediated-dopaminergic-signaling-in-the-retina-a-noninvasive-biomarker-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-study-in-a-novel-dopamine-transporter-variant-val559-transgenic-mouse-model
#17
Heng Dai, Chad R Jackson, Gwynne L Davis, Randy D Blakely, Douglas G McMahon
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a critical neuromodulator in the retina. Disruption of retinal DA synthesis and signaling significantly attenuates light-adapted, electroretinogram (ERG) responses, as well as contrast sensitivity and acuity. As these measures can be detected noninvasively, they may provide opportunities to detect disease processes linked to perturbed DA signaling. Recently, we identified a rare, functional DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding substitution, Ala559Val, in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), demonstrating that DAT Val559 imparts anomalous DA efflux (ADE) with attendant physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral phenotypes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225566/cdk5-is-essential-for-amphetamine-to-increase-dendritic-spine-density-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Soledad Ferreras, Guillermo Fernández, Víctor Danelon, María V Pisano, Luján Masseroni, Christopher A Chapleau, Favio A Krapacher, Estela C Mlewski, Daniel H Mascó, Carlos Arias, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, María G Paglini
Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant's effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194289/lack-of-detection-of-new-amphetamine-like-drugs-using-conventional-urinary-immunoassays
#19
Anja Begeman, Eric J F Franssen
BACKGROUND: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam, an on-site drug test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semiquantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse (DOA). The antibodies in these immunoassays are designed to detect classic DOA and its urinary metabolites...
February 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193459/neuropeptide-cart-prevents-memory-loss-attributed-to-withdrawal-of-nicotine-following-chronic-treatment-in-mice
#20
Chandrashekhar D Borkar, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although chronic nicotine administration does not affect memory, its withdrawal causes massive cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been understood. We test the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), a neuropeptide known for its procognitive properties, in this process. The mice on chronic nicotine treatment/withdrawal were subjected to novel object recognition task. The capability of the animal to discriminate between the novel and familiar objects was tested and represented as discrimination index (DI); reduction in the index suggested amnesia...
November 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
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