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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905561/anti-hu-antibodies-activate-enteric-and-sensory-neurons
#1
Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707529/antineuronal-nuclear-autoantibody-type-1-anti-hu-associated-opsoclonus-myoclonus-and-epilepsia-partialis-continua-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Michael Sweeney, Matthew Sweney, M Mateo Paz Soldán, Stacey L Clardy
BACKGROUND: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare clinical condition that has been associated with neuroblastoma. There are few reported examples of ANNA-1/anti-Hu antibodies in children with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus, all in children aged less than three years of age. METHODS: We describe the new onset of focal seizures without alteration of consciousness and opsoclonus-myoclonus in an 11-year-old girl with ANNA-1/anti-Hu positivity and a paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma...
December 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686499/maternal-antineuronal-antibodies-and-risk-of-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-case-control-study
#3
Naael H Ali, Shukrya K Khalaf, Jasim N Al-Asadi, Alaa H Abed
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism is complex, and may involve the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested an association between maternal immune response and this disorder. METHODS: Forty-nine women with autistic children (cases) were studied in comparison with 73 women with normal children (controls). After interviewing for sociodemographic and clinical information, mothers' sera were tested for the presence of antineuronal antibodies...
September 26, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668114/bilateral-vocal-cord-paralysis-and-cervicolumbar-radiculopathy-as-the-presenting-paraneoplastic-manifestations-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Jeffrey C Yeung, C Elizabeth Pringle, Harmanjatinder S Sekhon, Shaun J Kilty, Kristian Macdonald
Introduction. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis (BVCP) is a potential medical emergency. The Otolaryngologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of BVCP and must consider a broad differential diagnosis. We present a rare case of BVCP secondary to anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old female presented to an Otolaryngology clinic with a history of progressive hoarseness and dysphagia. Flexible nasolaryngoscopy demonstrated BVCP. Cross-sectional imaging of the brain and vagus nerves was negative...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629954/paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-gastric-cancer-patient-treated-with-trastuzumab-combined-chemotherapy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Yu Uneno, Akira Yokoyama, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Taro Funakoshi, Yoshinao Ozaki, Ikuo Aoyama, Kiichiro Baba, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Shuko Morita, Yukiko Mori, Masashi Kanai, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takeshi Inoue, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare nervous system dysfunctions in cancer patients, which are primarily observed with small-cell lung cancer, gynecological cancer, and thymoma. We herein present an uncommon case of PNS in an anti-Hu antibody-positive patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive gastric cancer (GC), who developed limbic encephalitis and a worsening cognitive function. Trastuzumab-combined chemotherapy was initiated and appeared to be partially effective for controlling the neurological symptoms and tumor volume...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558994/pulvinar-sign-in-a-case-of-anti-hu-paraneoplastic-encephalitis
#6
Pierre-Luc Gamache, Maude-Marie Gagnon, Martin Savard, François Émond
This article reports the case of a 68-year-old patient with anti-HU antibodies paraneoplastic encephalitis. The clinical manifestations were atypical and the paraclinical work-up, notably the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing bilateral posterior thalamic hyperintensities (pulvinar sign), misleadingly pointed towards a variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. After presenting the case, the differential diagnosis of the pulvinar sign is discussed along with other important diagnostic considerations.
August 24, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515847/intrathecal-synthesis-of-anti-hu-antibodies-distinguishes-patients-with-paraneoplastic-peripheral-neuropathy-and-encephalitis
#7
Philipp Schwenkenbecher, Lisa Priya Chacko, Ulrich Wurster, Kaweh Pars, Refik Pul, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Martin Stangel, Thomas Skripuletz
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes are serious immune caused diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system associated with malignant neoplasm. Symptoms develop when antibodies against antigens expressed by tumor cells cross-react with neuronal proteins. Antineuronal antibodies are usually examined in patient's sera while examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often fails. Furthermore, the few previous reports describing CSF data summarized different antineuronal antibodies and/or regarded patients with different neurological symptoms as one group...
August 11, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329274/paraneoplastic-opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome-revealing-dual-malignancy
#8
A Nasri, I Kacem, F Jerdak, M Ben Djebara, N Mejri, Y Sidhom, A Gargouri, Riadh Gouider
Dual malignancy has been rarely associated to paraneoplastic syndromes. We describe an unusual case of metachronous small cell lung carcinoma revealed by opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome in a 69-year-old patient with known prostate adenocarcinoma, with positive anti-Hu and anti-Yo antibodies and good responsiveness to corticosteroids and chemotherapy.
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301520/brachial-diparesis-due-to-motor-neuronopathy-as-one-of-the-predominant-presenting-signs-of-occult-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#9
Sefik Evren Erdener, Atay Vural, Cagri Mesut Temucin, Sevim Erdem Ozdamar, Gulay Nurlu, Kubilay Varli, Nese Dericioglu
Sensory neuronopathy is a well-established presentation in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes that is mostly associated with small cell lung cancer and anti-Hu antibodies. Motor neuronopathy, on the other hand, is an extremely rare observation in this syndrome. A 56-year-old man presented with asymmetric brachial diparesis and sensory ataxia. Electrophysiological studies revealed sensory ganglionopathy and progressive anterior horn degeneration in cervical segments. Small cell lung carcinoma with associated anti-Hu antibodies was later diagnosed...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235344/screening-for-anti-titin-antibodies-in-patients-with-various-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#10
Benjamin Berger, Oliver Stich, Siegfried Labeit, Sebastian Rauer
Anti-titin antibodies indicate a paraneoplastic etiology pointing towards a thymoma in myasthenia gravis (MG), but their seroprevalence and potential diagnostic value in patients with other paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) is unknown. Therefore, we screened the sera of 44 PNS patients with well-characterized onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5, Ma1, Ma2/Ta, or amphiphysin) for anti-titin reactivity. Two patients (4.5%) were positive for anti-titin antibodies: both patients differed regarding the PNS (sensorimotor neuropathy and subacute cerebellar degeneration vs...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112689/autoimmune-autonomic-disorders
#11
Andrew Mckeon, Eduardo E Benarroch
Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112681/autoimmune-dementia-and-encephalopathy
#12
Eoin P Flanagan, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve
Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathies (ADE) are complex disorders that can cause immune-mediated cognitive deficits and have confusing nomenclature. Presentation varies from acute limbic encephalitis to subacute or chronic disorders of cognition mimicking neurodegenerative dementia. It may occur as a paraneoplastic phenomenon or an idiopathic autoimmune phenomenon. The presence of a personal/family history of autoimmunity, inflammatory spinal fluid, serologic evidence of autoimmunity (neural or nonorgan-specific), or mesial temporal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities are clues to diagnosis...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869529/screening-for-mog-igg-and-27-other-anti-glial-and-anti-neuronal-autoantibodies-in-pattern-ii-multiple-sclerosis-and-brain-biopsy-findings-in-a-mog-igg-positive-case
#13
Sven Jarius, Imke Metz, Fatima Barbara König, Klemens Ruprecht, Markus Reindl, Friedemann Paul, Wolfgang Brück, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Histopathological studies have revealed four different immunopathological patterns of lesion pathology in early multiple sclerosis (MS). Pattern II MS is characterised by immunoglobulin and complement deposition in addition to T-cell and macrophage infiltration and is more likely to respond to plasma exchange therapy, suggesting a contribution of autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), anti-M1-aquaporin-4 (AQP4), anti-M23-AQP4, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) and 25 other anti-neural antibodies in pattern II MS...
February 11, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26683964/small-cell-lung-cancer-accompanied-by-tonsillar-metastasis-and-anti-hu-antibody-associated-paraneoplastic-neuropathy-a-rare-case-report-with-long-term-survival
#14
Jianjiao Ni, Linqian Weng, Mingsheng Liu, Hua Yang, Yingyi Wang
Tonsillar metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is rare, while anti-Hu antibodies are frequently found in SCLC. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with painful dysesthesia and muscle weakness in the distal extremities for over 1 year, progressive dysphagia for over 1 month, and severe cough and dyspnea for over 1 week. He was diagnosed with SCLC accompanied by tonsillar metastasis and anti-Hu antibody-associated paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy (PSN). The patient tolerated 6 cycles of sequential chemoradiotherapy and gradually recovered...
December 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664526/breast-cancer-revealed-by-a-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-syndrome-about-one-case-and-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Dembélé Adama, Bambara Moussa, Macoumi Emmanuel, Ullmann Dennis
To describe a case of breast cancer manifested by cerebellar syndrome and to establish a relationship between breast cancer and Paraneoplastic syndromes through the presence of anti- yo antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient. Our patient was 52 years old, Multipara with 5 children alive. She had been 3 years post-menopausal under Hormonal Replacement Therapy. Weight: 46.7 Kg; Height: 1.60 m; Body Surface Area: 1.59 m(2). Nil history of alcohol or tobacco smoking. Nil history suggestive of malignancies or autoimmune diseases...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645247/changes-in-enteric-neurons-of-small-intestine-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#16
Shan Li, Guijun Fei, Xiucai Fang, Xilin Yang, Xiaohong Sun, Jiaming Qian, Jackie D Wood, Meiyun Ke
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. METHODS: The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS)...
April 30, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633089/generalized-pruritus-preceding-paraneoplastic-neuropathy
#17
Benjamin Hébant, Nicolas Miret, Lucile Berthelot, Mohamad Jaafar, David Maltête, Romain Lefaucheur
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of rare disorders involving non-metastatic systemic effects accompanying malignancies, and occur remotely from the tumor itself. Chronic pruritus lasting more than 6 weeks can be from paraneoplastic origin. A 65-year-old woman was admitted for generalized pruritus lasting for 1 month, despite treatment with prednisolone, levocetirizine and hydroxyzine. General examination was normal. Biological data and gastroscopy were normal. One month later, the patient was readmitted for worsening of her pruritus and walking impairment, revealing a severe sensory neuropathy...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26631892/anti-hu-antibody-associated-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-showing-peripheral-neuropathy-and-atypical-multifocal-brain-lesions
#18
Makoto Shibata, Megumi Uchida, Setsuki Tsukagoshi, Koichi Yamaguchi, Aya Yamaguchi, Natsumi Furuta, Kouki Makioka, Toshitaka Maeno, Yukio Fujita, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Yoshio Ikeda
A 64-year-old Japanese woman presented with a three-month history of progressive numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. A neurological examination and nerve conduction study indicated sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Since the serum anti-Hu antibody titer was remarkably elevated, paraneoplastic neurological syndrome was highly suspected. A thoracoscopic biopsy of the hilar lymph nodes, in which (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was obviously increased, revealed pathological findings for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)...
2015: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511029/-anti-hu-antibody-positive-paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-with-acute-motor-sensory-neuropathy-resembling-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-case-study
#19
Takeo Sakurai, Kenji Wakida, Akio Kimura, Takashi Inuzuka, Hiroshi Nishida
A 69-year-old man experienced general malaise, weight loss, amnesia, gait disturbance, and restlessness a month prior to admission. Brain MRI showed high intensity areas in the bilateral medial temporal lobes and insular cortices on FLAIR images, and therefore, he was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis. After admission, quadriplegia and respiratory failure progressed rapidly, and he needed ventilatory management. A nerve conduction study revealed low compound muscle action potential amplitude with loss of sensory nerve action potential, which indicated axonal sensorimotor neuropathy...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510631/histopathological-analysis-of-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-sublethal-doses-of-urea
#20
Simone Bettini, Maurizio Lazzari, Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Valeria Franceschini
Chronic renal disease is known to alter olfactory function, but the specific changes induced in olfactory organs during this process remain unclear. Of the uraemic toxins generated during renal disease, high levels of urea are known to induce hyposmic conditions. In this study, the effects of environmental exposure to elevated concentrations of urea (7, 13.5 and 20 g L(-1)) on the sensory mucosa of zebrafish in acute toxicity and chronic toxicity tests were described. It was observed that lamellae maintained structural integrity and epithelial thickness was slightly reduced, but only following exposure to the highest concentrations of urea...
January 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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