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SOD AND tempol

Mohammad Saleem, Indira Pokkunuri, Mohammad Asghar
The redox-sensitive Sp family transcription factor has been linked to the regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). However, the exact mechanism of AT1R regulation in renal cells is poorly understood. We tested the specificity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide vs. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the specific role of Sp3 transcription factor, if any, in the regulation of AT1R in human kidney cells (HK2 cells). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), but not H2O2 treatment, increased fluorescence levels of superoxide probe dihydroethidium (DHE)...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Cassandra L Brinkman, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Melissa J Karau, Kerryl Greenwood-Quaintance, Daniel J Hassett, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Bacterial biofilms may form on indwelling medical devices such as prosthetic joints, heart valves and catheters, causing challenging-to-treat infections. We have previously described the 'electricidal effect', in which bacterial biofilms are decreased following exposure to direct electrical current. Herein, we sought to determine if the decreased bacterial quantities are due to detachment of biofilms or cell death and to investigate the role that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play in the observed effect. Using confocal and electron microscopy and flow cytometry, we found that direct current (DC) leads to cell death and changes in the architecture of biofilms formed by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2016: PloS One
Ahmad F Ahmeda, Mark G Rae, Mohammed F Al Otaibi, Lamyia M Anweigi, Edward J Johns
Vasoconstriction within the renal medulla contributes to the development of hypertension. This study investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured using a laser-Doppler flow meter before and after intra-renal infusion of tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic or tempol plus catalase, the hydrogen peroxide-degrading enzyme...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tatsiana Suvorava, Stephanie Pick, Georg Kojda
OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are associated with hypertension but whether endothelial superoxide may play a role in the early development of essential hypertension remains uncertain. We investigated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived endothelial oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of SBP. METHODS: Wild-type eNOS [mice with endothelium-specific overexpression of bovine endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS-Tg)] or a novel dimer-destabilized eNOS-mutant harboring a partially disrupted zinc-finger [mice with endothelium-specific overexpression of destabilized bovine eNOS destabilized by replacement of Cys 101 to Ala (C101A-eNOS-Tg)] was introduced in C57BL/6 in an endothelial-specific manner...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Glaucia Vilar-Pereira, Vitor C Carneiro, Hilton Mata-Santos, Amanda R R Vicentino, Isalira P Ramos, Naira L L Giarola, Daniel F Feijó, José R Meyer-Fernandes, Heitor A Paula-Neto, Emiliano Medei, Marcelo T Bozza, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Claudia N Paiva
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) develops years after acute infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and does not improve after trypanocidal therapy, despite reduction of parasite burden. During disease, the heart undergoes oxidative stress, a potential causative factor for arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Here we tested whether antioxidants/ cardioprotective drugs could improve cardiac function in established Chagas heart disease. We chose a model that resembles B1-B2 stage of human CCC, treated mice with resveratrol and performed electrocardiography and echocardiography studies...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kathleen M Lukaszewicz, Mahesh P Paudyal, John R Falck, Julian H Lombard
OBJECTIVE: The potential contribution of CYP4A enzymes to endothelial dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats was determined by comparison to SS-5(BN) consomic rats having chromosome 5 carrying CYP4A alleles from the BN rat introgressed into the SS genetic background. METHODS: The following experiments were performed in cerebral arteries from HS-fed SS and SS-5(BN) rats ± the SOD inhibitor DETC and/or the superoxide scavenger Tempol: (i) endothelial function was determined via video microscopy ± acute addition of the CYP4A inhibitor DDMS or Tempol; (ii) vascular oxidative stress was assessed with DHE fluorescence ± acute addition of DDMS, l-NAME, or PEG-SOD; and (iii) CYP4A protein levels were compared by western blotting...
October 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Yan Sun, Jiao Fan, Dong Chai, Minghua Zhang
The hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to renal dysfunction in sinoaortically denervated (SAD) rats was investigated. Rats were sinoaortically denervated and received treatment with tempol (0.5 mmol/L in drinking water) for 8 weeks. Although the tempol treatment of the SAD rats had no significant effect on blood pressure or blood pressure viability, it significantly ameliorated the renal dysfunction as indicated by increases in renal blood flow (RBF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reductions in plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAE), and the glomerular sclerosis score (GSS)...
October 1, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Akram Ranjbar, Hassan Ghasemi, Mahdi Hatami, Farahanaz Dadras, Tavakol Heidary Shayesteh, Farhad Khoshjou
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of the chronic kidney disease in the world. Oxidative stress on the other hand has a major and well known role in its pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to figure out if tempol, a synthetic antioxidant agent, modifies DN and to determine its relevance to changes of serum oxidative biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups (7 rats for each group)...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Peng Jin, Tao Li, Xueqi Li, Xinghua Shen, Yanru Zhao
Myocardial infarction is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in diabetes, which is characterized by inadequate angiogenesis and consequent poor blood reperfusion in the diabetic ischemic heart. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect that oxidative stress in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has on cardiac angiogenesis in diabetic mice. EPCs derived from diabetic mice revealed reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression levels and activity compared with those from normal mice...
June 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yusi Wang, Paramita Pati, Yiming Xu, Feng Chen, David W Stepp, Yuqing Huo, R Daniel Rudic, David J R Fulton
The circadian clock is a transcriptional network that functions to regulate the expression of genes important in the anticipation of changes in cellular and organ function. Recent studies have revealed that the recognition of pathogens and subsequent initiation of inflammatory responses are strongly regulated by a macrophage-intrinsic circadian clock. We hypothesized that the circadian pattern of gene expression might be influenced by inflammatory stimuli and that loss of circadian function in immune cells can promote pro-inflammatory behavior...
2016: PloS One
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Eisha Khan, Mohammad Asghar, Samina Salim
Using a simulated oxidative stress model of hippocampus-derived immortalized cell line (HT22), we report that prooxidant buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 1 mM, 14 h), without adversely affecting cell viability or morphology, induced oxidative stress by inhibiting glutathione synthesis. BSO treatment also significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p < 0.05) and significantly lowered total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001) in HT22 cells when compared to vehicle treated control cells. Antioxidant tempol, a piperidine nitroxide considered a SOD mimetic, reversed BSO-induced decline in SOD activity (p < 0...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Alessandra A Gallina, Anna Palumbo, Raffaella Casotti
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) have recently been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and possibly reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g., peroxynitrite) in the diatom Skeletonema marinoi (S. marinoi), which produces high amounts of PUA. We now are attempting to acquire better understanding of which reactive molecular species are involved in the oxidative response of S. marinoi to PUA. We used flow cytometry, the dye dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) as the main indicator of ROS (but which is also known to partially detect RNS), and different scavengers and inhibitors of both nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD)...
August 2016: Journal of Phycology
Anita Cosic, Ivana Jukic, Ana Stupin, Martina Mihalj, Zrinka Mihaljevic, Sanja Novak, Rosemary Vukovic, Ines Drenjancevic
KEY POINTS: Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake leads to endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in different vascular beds in both animal and human models, due to increased oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to assess vascular response to flow-induced dilatation (FID) and to elucidate the role of vascular oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of HS-fed rats in vitro. The novelty of this study is in demonstrating impaired flow-induced dilatation of MCAs and down-regulation of vascular antioxidant genes with HS intake, leading to increased levels of oxidative stress in blood vessels and peripheral lymph organs, which together contribute to impaired FID...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Mohammed Ragab Abdel-Aziz Ali, Amira Morad Hussein Abo-Youssef, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Mahmoud Mohamed Khattab
We aim to evaluate the protective role of the central angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril, compared with the standard reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis in a simulation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mice were allocated into a control group, an LPS control group (0.8 mg/kg, i.p., once), a tempol (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment group, and two perindopril (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment groups...
June 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Jingwen Yu, Yanqing Wu, Peixin Yang
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures...
May 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Nicholas G Moss, Tayler K Gentle, William J Arendshorst
Renal blood flow autoregulation was investigated in anesthetized C57Bl6 mice using time- and frequency-domain analyses. Autoregulation was reestablished by 15 s in two stages after a 25-mmHg step increase in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). The renal vascular resistance (RVR) response did not include a contribution from the macula densa tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] reduced the time for complete autoregulation to 2 s and induced 0...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xiaolin Zhu, Qinqin Gao, Qing Tu, Yuan Zhong, Di Zhu, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Toxic factors could cause in utero hypoxia, and prenatal hypoxia (PH) increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in late life. It is unclear whether/how PH causes vascular injury during fetal life. This study found that PH significantly increased angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated vessel contractions in fetal thoracic aortas, which was blocked by losartan, not PD123319, indicating that AT1 receptors played a dominant role in the enhanced fetal vasoconstriction following hypoxia. Prenatal hypoxia increased superoxide production and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, associated with the enhanced NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4, but not Nox1 or Nox2 in fetal aortas...
April 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Hariane Côco, Larissa Pernomian, Katia C Marchi, Mayara S Gomes, Cláudia R de Andrade, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Carlos R Tirapelli, Ana M de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) on contractile response mediated by α1-adrenoceptors in the rat corpus cavernosum. METHODS: Concentration-response curves for phenylephrine (PE) were obtained in strips of corpus cavernosum, in absence or after incubation with tiron, tempol or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase combined or not with tempol. We also measured the superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity and α-actin expression in rat corpus cavernosum from both groups...
January 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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