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Diabetic macula

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911427/-modern-approach-to-early-diagnosis-and-pathogenetic-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
I V Vorob'eva
AIM: To improve the approach to pathogenetic treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) through early diagnosis and a new method for predicting disease progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 330 type 2 diabetes patients with DR (660 eyes), of whom women constituted 64.6%, men - 35.4%. The mean patient age was 62.3±2.3 years. Three groups were formed: the controls - 30 healthy volunteers (60 eyes) and 30 type 2 diabetes patients without ocular involvement (DR 0, 60 eyes); group 1 - 30 type 2 diabetes patients with DR I but no diabetic macular edema (DR I without DME, 60 eyes) that were treated with calcium dobesilate; group 2 - 240 type 2 diabetes patients, who had diabetic retinopathy of different stages (DR I, II, or III with DME, 480 eyes) and received laser retinal photocoagulation (LRP)...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#2
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853021/efficacy-of-reduced-dose-of-intravitreal-triamcinolone-acetonide-in-a-case-of-active-serpiginous-choroiditis
#3
Avirupa Ghose, Promod S Bhende, Jyotirmoy Biswas
Active serpiginous choroiditis (SC) is a vision-threatening condition which requires intensive treatment using corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressives, especially if the lesions are involving or encroaching on the macula. Use of oral and intravenous high-dose steroids are contraindicated in uncontrolled diabetics. Intravitreal steroid delivers a localized dose in such situations. This case report highlights the efficacy of reduced dose of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (2 mg) in the treatment of active SC...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834464/are-there-any-changes-in-posterior-ocular-structure-parameters-in-pediatric-migraine-patients
#4
Pinar Nalcacioglu, Ayse G Taslipinar Uzel, Mehmet M Uzel, Nurullah Cagil, Aysegul N Citak Kurt
PURPOSE: To evaluate the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), total macula, macular ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and choroid in pediatric migraine patients and compare the values with healthy subjects. METHODS: This observational and cross-sectional study included 40 patients in the migraine group and 40 healthy control subjects. The thickness of the peripapillary RNFL, total macula, GCL, and IPL was analyzed with spectral-domain optic coherence tomography, while choroidal thickness was analyzed with the enhanced depth imaging protocol...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801522/prophylactic-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-the-prevention-of-macular-oedema-after-cataract-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Blanche X Lim, Chris Hl Lim, Dawn K Lim, Jennifer R Evans, Catey Bunce, Richard Wormald
BACKGROUND: Macular oedema (MO) is the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the central retina (the macula). It may occur after cataract surgery and may give rise to poor visual outcome, with reduced visual acuity and distortion of the central vision. MO is often self-limiting with spontaneous resolution, but a small proportion of people with chronic persistent MO may be difficult to treat. Chronic oedema may lead to the formation of cystic spaces in the retina termed 'cystoid macular oedema' (CMO)...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799737/intravitreal-bevacizumab-injections-for-diabetic-macular-edema-predictors-of-response-a-retrospective-study
#6
Lavnish Joshi, Asaf Bar, Oren Tomkins-Netzer, Satish Yaganti, Jiten Morarji, Panayiotis Vouzounis, Sophie Seguin-Greenstein, Simon R Taylor, Sue Lightman
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections are variable among patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). The aim of this study was to determine the ocular and systemic predictors of DME response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). METHODS: Retrospective review over 2 years of 78 eyes from 54 patients. An anatomical response to IVB was defined as a 20% reduction in central macula thickness after the first course (three injections) of IVB...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780174/clinical-spectrum-of-macular-foveal-capillaries-evaluated-with-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#7
Maria V Cicinelli, Adriano Carnevali, Alessandro Rabiolo, Lea Querques, Ilaria Zucchiatti, Vincenzo Scorcia, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: To describe macular-foveal capillaries (MFC) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography and to identify the clinical spectrum of this angiographic feature. METHODS: Patients with MFC presenting at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan were recruited. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)...
July 12, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777811/a-review-on-recent-developments-for-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Javeria Amin, Muhammad Sharif, Mussarat Yasmin
Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766583/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-diabetes
#9
Jessica Lee, Richard Rosen
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747815/automatic-screening-and-classification-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-maculopathy-using-fuzzy-image-processing
#10
Sarni Suhaila Rahim, Vasile Palade, James Shuttleworth, Chrisina Jayne
Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods...
December 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736817/macular-choroidal-thickness-in-myopic-eyes-with-and-without-a-dome-shaped-macula-a-case-control-study
#11
Guillaume Soudier, Alain Gaudric, Vincent Gualino, Pascale Massin, Mathieu Nardin, Ramin Tadayoni, Claude Speeg-Schatz, David Gaucher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. METHODS: A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas...
2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715375/changes-in-the-macular-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness-and-central-macular-thickness-after-argon-laser-panretinal-photocoagulation
#12
Gülizar Demirok, Mehmet Fatih Kocamaz, Yasemin Topalak, Yeşim Altay, Burcu Tabakci, Ahmet Şengün
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and central macular thickness (CMT) as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) post-argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). METHODS: The medical records of 25 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who underwent PRP, 29 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 29 patients with diabetes but without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were analyzed...
August 10, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707550/twenty-four-month-outcomes-of-the-ranibizumab-for-edema-of-the-macula-in-diabetes-protocol-3-with-high-dose-read-3-study
#13
Yasir J Sepah, Mohammad Ali Sadiq, David Boyer, David Callanan, Ron Gallemore, Michael Bennett, Dennis Marcus, Lawrence Halperin, Muhammad Hassan, Peter A Campochiaro, Quan Dong Nguyen, Diana V Do
PURPOSE: To compare 2.0 mg ranibizumab (RBZ) injections with 0.5 mg RBZ for eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked (to the dose), interventional, multicenter clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 152 patients (152 eyes) with DME. METHODS: Eligible eyes were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 0.5 mg (n = 77) or 2.0 mg (n = 75) RBZ. Study eyes received 6 monthly mandatory injections followed by as-needed injections until month 24...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660803/automated-and-simultaneous-fovea-center-localization-and-macula-segmentation-using-the-new-dynamic-identification-and-classification-of-edges-model
#14
Sinan Onal, Xin Chen, Veeresh Satamraju, Maduka Balasooriya, Humeyra Dabil-Karacal
Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617536/the-effect-of-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-on-idiopathic-epiretinal-membrane-surgery-with-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Sidney A Schechet, Eva DeVience, John T Thompson
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) removal on epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery by comparing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography central macular thickness (CMT) changes, ERM recurrence, and need for repeat surgery. METHODS: Retrospective study of 251 consecutive patients (251 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for idiopathic ERM by a single surgeon with over 1 year of follow-up data. Data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, and at the last visit...
September 9, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616879/the-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-vitrectomy-in-chronic-diabetic-traction-macular-detachment
#16
Muneera A Abunajma, Hassan Al-Dhibi, Emad B Abboud, Yahya Al Zahrani, Essam Alharthi, Abdullah Alkharashi, Nicola G Ghazi
PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for chronic diabetic traction macular detachment (CTMD). METHODS: Ninety-six eyes that underwent PPV for CTMD of at least 6 months duration were retrospectively analyzed. Retinal reattachment rate, final vision, and prognostic factors for poor visual outcome were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: All eyes had long-standing TMD (median 12, range: 6-70 months). The median postoperative follow-up was 15 (range: 3-65) months...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570711/volume-averaging-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-impacts-retinal-segmentation-in-children
#17
Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Kelly Vogt, Robert A Avery
PURPOSE: To determine the influence of volume averaging on retinal layer thickness measures acquired with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in children. METHODS: Macular SD-OCT images were acquired using three different volume settings (i.e., 1, 3, and 9 volumes) in children enrolled in a prospective OCT study. Total retinal thickness and five inner layers were measured around an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Scale (ETDRS) grid using beta version automated segmentation software for the Spectralis...
August 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557086/changes-in-choroidal-thickness-in-and-outside-the-macula-after-hemodialysis-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#18
In Boem Chang, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jae Suk Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in choroidal thickness in and outside the macula as a result of hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: Patients with end-stage renal disease treated with maintenance HD in the Dialysis Unit of Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, South Korea, were included in this study. The choroidal thickness was measured in and outside the macula before and after HD (paired t-test). Choroidal thickness in the macula was measured at the foveal center and 1...
August 23, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555707/lack-of-correlation-between-diabetic-macular-edema-and-thickness-of-the-peripapillary-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer
#19
Hisham S Alkuraya, Saeed M Al-Gehedan, Abdulrahman M Alsharif, Tariq Alasbali, Nancy M Lotfy, Rajiv Khandekar
INTRODUCTION: We compared the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and/against the thickness in the normal population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared the RNFL thickness in patients with DME (DME group) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to a comparable group of healthy (nondiabetic) patients (control group). Measurements were performed in different/the four peripapillary quadrants and in the macula region for the fovea, parafoveal, and perifoveal areas...
July 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545332/viewing-the-choroid-where-we-stand-challenges-and-contradictions-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-diabetic-macular-oedema
#20
António Campos, Elisa J Campos, João Martins, António Francisco Ambrósio, Rufino Silva
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is the leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy (DR), mainly at the level of the retinal vessels, has long been related with leakage and fluid accumulation, leading to macular oedema. However, the nourishment of the macula is provided by the choroid and a diabetic choroidopathy has been described. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in studying the role of the choroid in the pathophysiology of DR and DMO, mainly by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
August 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
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