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Floriana Fruscione, Pierluigi Valente, Bruno Sterlini, Alessandra Romei, Simona Baldassari, Manuela Fadda, Cosimo Prestigio, Giorgia Giansante, Jacopo Sartorelli, Pia Rossi, Alicia Rubio, Antonio Gambardella, Thierry Nieus, Vania Broccoli, Anna Fassio, Pietro Baldelli, Anna Corradi, Federico Zara, Fabio Benfenati
Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Emily Vaughan, Joseph Machta, Martin Walker, Christos Toumpanakis, Martyn Caplin, Shaunak Navalkissoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a repeat peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) course in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients who have progressed following previous PRRT and to identify factors contributing to retreatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 47 consecutive patients who had been treated with PRRT (PRRT1) and following disease progression were retreated with a second course of PRRT (PRRT2). We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment characteristics, time to progression after PRRT1 and PRRT2, overall survival and toxicity...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Yong-Li Jiang, Fang Yuan, Ying Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Lu Song, Wen Jiang
PURPOSE: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and epilepsy are thought to have a shared genetic etiology. PRRT2 has been identified as a causative gene of both disorders. In this study, we aim to explore the potential novel causative gene in a PRRT2-negative family with three individuals diagnosed with PKD or genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). METHODS: Clinical data were collected from all the affected and unaffected members of a PKD/GEFS+ family...
February 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jeff Coleman, Ouardane Jouannot, Sathish K Ramakrishnan, Maria N Zanetti, Jing Wang, Vincenzo Salpietro, Henry Houlden, James E Rothman, Shyam S Krishnakumar
Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) are associated with a range of paroxysmal neurological disorders. PRRT2 predominantly localizes to the pre-synaptic terminals and is believed to regulate neurotransmitter release. However, the mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we use reconstituted single vesicle and bulk fusion assays, combined with live cell imaging of single exocytotic events in PC12 cells and biophysical analysis, to delineate the physiological role of PRRT2. We report that PRRT2 selectively blocks the trans SNARE complex assembly and thus negatively regulates synaptic vesicle priming...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Guohua Zhao, Xiaomin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Kang Wang
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Though rare, children are susceptible to paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxDs) such as paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), and infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA, also termed PKD/IC). PKD is characterized by recurrent attacks of involuntary movements mostly starting around puberty, and PKD/IC also presents with clusters of non-febrile seizures at ages between 3 and 12 months in addition to symptoms of PKD. Recent studies showed that the cause of PKD or PKD/IC could be proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene mutations...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
Martin Paucar, Helena Malmgren, Per Svenningsson
Background: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare condition associated with heterozygous mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 ( PRRT2 ) gene. Phenomenology Shown: In this article we illustrate the phenomenology of PKD in a male previously misdiagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. Educational Value: Regardless of the underlying phenotype, PKD is highly responsive to some antiepileptic drugs.
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Qi Zeng, Xiaoling Yang, Jing Zhang, Aijie Liu, Zhixian Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Ye Wu, Xiru Wu, Liping Wei, Yuehua Zhang
Benign familial epilepsies that present themselves in the first year of life include benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE), benign familial neonatal-infantile epilepsy (BFNIE) and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). We used Sanger sequencing and targeted next-generation sequencing to detect gene mutations in a Chinese cohort of patients with these three disorders. A total of 79 families were collected, including 4 BFNE, 7 BFNIE, and 68 BFIE. Genetic testing led to the identification of gene mutations in 60 families (60 out of 79, 75...
January 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Jacqueline G Lu, Juliet Bishop, Sarah Cheyette, Igor B Zhulin, Su Guo, Nara Sobreira, Steven E Brenner
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of dyskinetic movements without alteration of consciousness that are often triggered by the initiation of voluntary movements. Whole-exome sequencing has revealed a cluster of pathogenic variants in PRRT2 (proline-rich transmembrane protein), a gene with a function in synaptic regulation that remains poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery of a novel PRRT2 pathogenic variant inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern in a family with PKD and benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS)...
February 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Lieke Kros, Chris I De Zeeuw
In an elegant publication in Cell Research, Tan and colleagues showed that ablation of PRRT2 in cerebellar granule cells is sufficient to induce paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. PRRT2 turns out to downregulate the presynaptic SNARE complex in granule cell axons, which in turn controls the activity patterns of Purkinje cells, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex.
November 17, 2017: Cell Research
Xiao-Ming Zhu, Yu-Hong Gong, Si Lu, Shou-Chao Cheng, Bao-Zhen Yao
The clinical manifestations of five children with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) were retrospectively analyzed and their gene mutations were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and chromosome microarray. The 5 patients consisted of 4 males and 1 female and the age of onset was 6-9 years. Dyskinesia was induced by sudden turn movement, scare, mental stress, or other factors. These patients were conscious and had abnormal posture of unilateral or bilateral extremities, athetosis, facial muscle twitching, and abnormal body posture...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Guo-He Tan, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Lu Wang, Kui Li, Ze-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Fu Li, Zhong-Fei Yang, Yang Li, Dan Li, Ming-Yue Wu, Chun-Lei Yu, Juan-Juan Long, Ren-Chao Chen, Li-Xi Li, Lu-Ping Yin, Ji-Wei Liu, Xue-Wen Cheng, Qi Shen, You-Sheng Shu, Kenji Sakimura, Lu-Jian Liao, Zhi-Ying Wu, Zhi-Qi Xiong
Mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) are associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and several other paroxysmal neurological diseases, but the PRRT2 function and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely obscure. Here we show that PRRT2 is a presynaptic protein that interacts with components of the SNARE complex and downregulates its formation. Loss-of-function mutant mice showed PKD-like phenotypes triggered by generalized seizures, hyperthermia, or optogenetic stimulation of the cerebellum...
October 20, 2017: Cell Research
Caterina Michetti, Anna Corradi, Fabio Benfenati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
M Mathot, D Lederer, S Gerard, E Gueulette, M Deprez
New genetic techniques have made it possible to better understand the implications of the PRRT2 gene (proline rich transmembrane protein 2) in various neurological disorders. Mutations within this gene are responsible for kinesigenic paroxysmal dyskinesias (PKD) as well as for benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), a disease associating infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA), a form of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM type 4), paroxysmal benign torticollis of childhood, and episodic ataxia. We describe the case of an infant, carrying a mutation of the PRRT2 gene, with a classical presentation...
September 1, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jing-Qiong Kang
Seizure disorders are very common and affect 3% of the general population. The recurrent unprovoked seizures that are also called epilepsies are highly diverse as to both underlying genetic basis and clinic presentations. Recent genetic advances and sequencing technologies indicate that many epilepsies previously thought to be without known causes, or idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs), are virtually genetic epilepsy as they are caused by genetic variations. IGEs are estimated to account for ∼15-20% of all epilepsies...
November 2017: Epilepsy Research
Tian Chen, Mohan Giri, Zhenyi Xia, Yadu Nanda Subedi, Yan Li
Epilepsy is a common episodic neurological disorder or condition characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures, and genetics seems to play a key role in its etiology. Early linkage studies have localized multiple loci that may harbor susceptibility genes to epilepsy, and mutational analyses have detected a number of mutations involved in both ion channel and nonion channel genes in patients with idiopathic epilepsy. Genome-wide studies of epilepsy have found copy number variants at 2q24.2-q24.3, 7q11.22, 15q11...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Caterina Michetti, Anna Corradi, Fabio Benfenati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Matthew C Weston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Epilepsy Currents
Erwei Zuo, Yi-Jun Cai, Kui Li, Yu Wei, Bang-An Wang, Yidi Sun, Zhen Liu, Jiwei Liu, Xinde Hu, Wei Wei, Xiaona Huo, Linyu Shi, Cheng Tang, Dan Liang, Yan Wang, Yan-Hong Nie, Chen-Chen Zhang, Xuan Yao, Xing Wang, Changyang Zhou, Wenqin Ying, Qifang Wang, Ren-Chao Chen, Qi Shen, Guo-Liang Xu, Jinsong Li, Qiang Sun, Zhi-Qi Xiong, Hui Yang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient gene-editing method, but the majority of gene-edited animals showed mosaicism, with editing occurring only in a portion of cells. Here we show that single gene or multiple genes can be completely knocked out in mouse and monkey embryos by zygotic injection of Cas9 mRNA and multiple adjacent single-guide RNAs (spaced 10-200 bp apart) that target only a single key exon of each gene. Phenotypic analysis of F0 mice following targeted deletion of eight genes on the Y chromosome individually demonstrated the robustness of this approach in generating knockout mice...
July 2017: Cell Research
Roberta Milone, Angelo Valetto, Veronica Bertini, Federico Sicca
Benign infantile seizures (BIS) are usually a self-limiting condition, which may be associated with heterozygous mutations in the PRRT2 gene at chromosome 16p11.2. Here, we report a boy with a deletion in 16p11.2, presenting with BIS and typical neurodevelopment in the first year of life, unexpectedly followed by severe autistic regression. 16p11.2 deletions are typically associated with intellectual disability, autism, and language disorders, and only rarely with BIS. This clinical report shows that the neurodevelopmental prognosis in BIS patients may not always be benign, and suggests that array CGH screening should be considered for affected infants in order to rule out deletions at 16p11...
June 2, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Sunay Usluer, Melek Aslı Kayserili, Aslı Gündoğdu Eken, Uluc Yiş, Costin Leu, Janine Altmüller, Holger Thiele, Peter Nürnberg, Thomas Sander, S Hande Çağlayan
Benign Familial Infantile Epilepsy (BFIE) is clinically characterized by clusters of brief partial seizures progressing to secondarily generalized seizures with onset at the age of 3-7 months and with favorable outcome. PRRT2 mutations are the most common cause of BFIE, and found in about 80% of BFIE families. In this study, we analyzed a large multiplex BFIE family by linkage and whole exome sequencing (WES) analyses. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed significant evidence for linkage in the chromosomal region 19p12-q13 (LOD score 3...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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