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Inês Teles Alves, David Cano, René Böttcher, Hetty van der Korput, Winand Dinjens, Guido Jenster, Jan Trapman
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR associated mutations in prostate cancer we have performed whole genome sequencing of the MMR deficient PC346C prostate cancer cell line. We detected a total of 1196 mutations in PC346C which was 1.5-fold higher compared to a MMR proficient prostate cancer sample (G089)...
November 19, 2016: Oncotarget
E Martínez, R Moreno, L López-Mesonero, I Vidriales, M Ruiz, A L Guerrero, J J Tellería
Introduction. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare disorder characterized by migraine attacks with motor weakness during the aura phase. Mutations in CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and PRRT2 genes have been described. Methods. To describe a mutation in ATP1A2 gene in a FHM case with especially severe and prolonged symptomatology. Results. 22-year-old woman was admitted due to migraine-type headache and sudden onset of right-sided weakness and aphasia; she had similar episodes in her childhood. Her mother was diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine without genetic confirmation...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Flavia Valtorta, Fabio Benfenati, Federico Zara, Jacopo Meldolesi
In the past few years, proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT)2 has been identified as the causative gene for several paroxysmal neurological disorders. Recently, an important role of PRRT2 in synapse development and function has emerged. Knock down of the protein strongly impairs the formation of synaptic contacts and neurotransmitter release. At the nerve terminal, PRRT2 endows synaptic vesicle exocytosis with Ca(2+) sensitivity by interacting with proteins of the fusion complex and with the Ca(2+) sensors synaptotagmins (Syts)...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
A Méneret, E Roze
Paroxysmal movement disorders comprise both paroxysmal dyskinesia, characterized by attacks of dystonic and/or choreic movements, and episodic ataxia, defined by attacks of cerebellar ataxia. They may be primary (familial or sporadic) or secondary to an underlying cause. They can be classified according to their phenomenology (kinesigenic, non-kinesigenic or exercise-induced) or their genetic cause. The main genes involved in primary paroxysmal movement disorders include PRRT2, PNKD, SLC2A1, ATP1A3, GCH1, PARK2, ADCY5, CACNA1A and KCNA1...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Chun Li, Yu Ma, Kunshan Zhang, Junjie Gu, Fan Tang, Shengdi Chen, Li Cao, Siguang Li, Ying Jin
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and marked variability in clinical manifestations.Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as a causative gene of PKD, but the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PKD still remains a mystery. The phenotypes and transcriptional patterns of the PKD disease need further clarification. Here, we report the generation and neural differentiation of iPSC lines from two familial PKD patients with c...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Thomas Friedrich, Neslihan N Tavraz, Cornelia Junghans
Mutations in four genes have been identified in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), from which CACNA1A (FHM type 1) and SCN1A (FHM type 3) code for neuronal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channels, respectively, while ATP1A2 (FHM type 2) encodes the α2 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase's catalytic subunit, thus classifying FHM primarily as an ion channel/ion transporter pathology. FHM type 4 is attributed to mutations in the PRRT2 gene, which encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of as yet unknown function...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Claudia F Gasparini, Robert A Smith, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is a complex polygenic disorder that continues to be a great source of morbidity in the developed world with a prevalence of 12% in the Caucasian population. Genetic and pharmacological studies have implicated the glutamate pathway in migraine pathophysiology. Glutamate profoundly impacts brain circuits that regulate core symptom domains in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions and thus remains a "hot" target for drug discovery. Glutamate has been implicated in cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon responsible for migraine with aura and in animal models carrying FHM mutations...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ding Liu, Yumiao Zhang, Yu Wang, Chanjuan Chen, Xin Li, Jinxia Zhou, Zhi Song, Bo Xiao, Kevin Rasco, Feng Zhang, Shu Wen, Guoliang Li
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by recurrent and brief attacks of dystonia or chorea precipitated by sudden movements. It can be sporadic or familial. Proline-Rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2) has been shown to be a common causative gene of PKD. However, less than 50% of patients with primary PKD harbor mutations in PRRT2. The aim of this study is to use eight families with PKD to identify the pathogenic PRRT2 mutations, or possible novel genetic cause of PKD phenotypes. After extensive clinical investigation, direct sequencing and mutation analysis of PRRT2 were performed on patients from eight PKD families...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yo-Tsen Liu, Fang-Shin Nian, Wan-Ju Chou, Chin-Yin Tai, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Chien Chen, Pei-Wen Kuo, Po-Hsi Lin, Chin-Yi Chen, Chia-Wei Huang, Yi-Chung Lee, Bing-Wen Soong, Jin-Wu Tsai
Mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene cause a wide spectrum of neurological diseases, ranging from paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) to mental retardation and epilepsy. Previously, seven PKD-related PRRT2 heterozygous mutations were identified in the Taiwanese population: P91QfsX, E199X, S202HfsX, R217PfsX, R217EfsX, R240X and R308C. This study aimed to investigate the disease-causing mechanisms of these PRRT2 mutations. We first documented that Prrt2 was localized at the pre- and post-synaptic membranes with a close spatial association with SNAP25 by synaptic membrane fractionation and immunostaining of the rat neurons...
May 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiao-Rong Liu, Dan Huang, Jie Wang, Yi-Fan Wang, Hui Sun, Bin Tang, Wen Li, Jin-Xing Lai, Na He, Mei Wu, Tao Su, Heng Meng, Yi-Wu Shi, Bing-Mei Li, Bei-Sha Tang, Wei-Ping Liao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential causative genes of paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), which was initially considered a subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesia and has been recently considered a form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). METHODS: Eleven patients with PHD were recruited. Mutations in proline-rich region transmembrane protein-2 (PRRT2), myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR-1), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (SLC2A1), calcium-activated potassium channel alpha subunit (KCNMA1), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (CHRNA4), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (CHRNB2), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (CHRNA2), and potassium channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) were screened by direct sequencing...
April 2016: Neurol Genet
Hong-Xia Wang, Hong-Fu Li, Gong-Lu Liu, Xiao-Dan Wen, Zhi-Ying Wu
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is the most common subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesias and is caused by mutations in PRRT2 gene. The majority of familial PKD was identified to harbor PRRT2 mutations. However, over two-third of sporadic PKD patients did not carry anyPRRT2 mutation, suggesting an existence of additional genetic mutations or possible misdiagnosis due to clinical overlap. METHODS: A cohort of 28 Chinese patients clinically diagnosed with sporadic PKD and excluded PRRT2 mutations were recruited...
May 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Pierluigi Valente, Enrico Castroflorio, Pia Rossi, Manuela Fadda, Bruno Sterlini, Romina Ines Cervigni, Cosimo Prestigio, Silvia Giovedì, Franco Onofri, Elisa Mura, Fabrizia C Guarnieri, Antonella Marte, Marta Orlando, Federico Zara, Anna Fassio, Flavia Valtorta, Pietro Baldelli, Anna Corradi, Fabio Benfenati
Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca(2+) sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio...
April 5, 2016: Cell Reports
Natalie Trump, Amy McTague, Helen Brittain, Apostolos Papandreou, Esther Meyer, Adeline Ngoh, Rodger Palmer, Deborah Morrogh, Christopher Boustred, Jane A Hurst, Lucy Jenkins, Manju A Kurian, Richard H Scott
BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate the diagnostic yield and mutation spectrum in previously reported genes for early-onset epilepsy and disorders of severe developmental delay. METHODS: In 400 patients with these disorders with no known underlying aetiology and no major structural brain anomaly, we analysed 46 genes using a combination of targeted sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform and targeted, exon-level microarray copy number analysis. RESULTS: We identified causative mutations in 71/400 patients (18%)...
May 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Xiang-Qian Che, Zhan-Fang Sun, Xiao Mao, Kun Xia, Xin-Xiang Yan, Hong Jiang, Lu Shen, Nan Li, Bei-Sha Tang
Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 gene (PRRT2) mutations are reported to cause common paroxysmal neurological disorders and show a remarkable pleiotropy. Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is considered to be the most common epilepsy syndrome in childhood. It is placed among the idiopathic localization related epilepsies. Recently, it was reported that a girl with a PRRT2 mutation c.649_650insC developed infantile focal epilepsy with bilateral spikes which resembled the rolandic spikes. Hereby we performed a comprehensive genetic mutation screening of PRRT2 gene in a cohort of 53 sporadic BECTS patients...
April 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Axel Weber, Jonas Kreth, Ulrich Müller
BACKGROUND: Mutations in PRRT2 cause autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC). CASE PRESENTATION: A previously not recognized intronic PRRT2 mutation (c.880-35G > A; p.S294Lfs*29) was found in an 18 month old girl with IC and in her mother with classical presentation of PKD. The mutation results in a novel splice acceptor site in intron 2 of PRRT2. Due to frameshift and a subsequent premature stop-codon the resulting transcript appears to render the PRRT2 protein non/dysfunctional and is the likely cause of disease in this family...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Ilenia Maini, Alessandro Iodice, Carlotta Spagnoli, Grazia Gabriella Salerno, Gianna Bertani, Daniele Frattini, Carlo Fusco
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene PRRT2 have been identified in a variety of early-onset paroxysmal disorders. To date associations between PRRT2 mutations and benign myoclonus of early infancy have not been reported. CLINICAL REPORT: We describe a baby affected by PRRT2 mutation and benign infantile epilepsy, with an episode of focal status epilepticus. During follow-up he developed benign myoclonus of early infancy. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize a pathogenic role of PRRT2 mutation in inducing benign myoclonus of early infancy, similarly to that at the origin of other PRRT2-related paroxysmal movement disorders, such as paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ayuko Igarashi, Akihisa Okumura, Keiko Shimojima, Shinpei Abe, Mitsuru Ikeno, Toshiaki Shimizu, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
We describe a girl with Down syndrome who experienced focal seizures and epileptic spasms during infancy. The patient was diagnosed as having trisomy 21 during the neonatal period. She had focal seizures at five months of age, which were controlled with phenobarbital. However, epileptic spasms appeared at seven months of age in association with hypsarrhythmia. Upon treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone, her epileptic spasms disappeared. Her younger brother also had focal seizures at five months of age...
June 2016: Brain & Development
Hui Zhang, Weili Shi, Hai Xiao, Dong Wu, Litao Qin, Shixiu Liao
OBJECTIVE: To screen potential mutations of PRRT2 gene in a Chinese family affected with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and restriction endonuclaese analysis were used to analyze all members of the family. RESULTS: A heterozygous mutation c.649dupC was identified in the PRRT2 gene in all patients, while no similar mutation was found in healthy members from the family. CONCLUSION: The c...
February 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Pia Rossi, Bruno Sterlini, Enrico Castroflorio, Antonella Marte, Franco Onofri, Flavia Valtorta, Luca Maragliano, Anna Corradi, Fabio Benfenati
Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xiaoling Yang, Yuehua Zhang, Xiaojing Xu, Zhixian Yang, Shuang Wang, Ye Wu, Xiru Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene mutation in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). METHOD: Clinical information was collected at Peking University First Hospital from January 2004 to July 2014. In total, 10 patients with PKD were recruited, and all were males. Among them, four patients were the probands from four PKD families and the other six patients were sporadic cases. Clinical information was analyzed...
August 2015: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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