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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#1
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514121/-shift-work-and-its-health-hazards
#2
David Rabinerson, Lizy Markovitch, Rinnat Gabbay-Ben-Ziv
Work in repeated changing shifts, in general, and night-shifts, in particular, is considered a necessity, encompassing many professions, among them physicians and nurses. This type of work has been shown to adversely affect the normal function of the human body circadian rhythm. This negative influence in turn, is considered to increase characteristic types of morbidity such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and increased rate of cardiovascular morbidity. Women working in night-shifts in particular, have been found to face increased rates of breast cancer, as well as menstrual disturbances and decreased fertility...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506403/an-on-road-study-of-sleepiness-in-split-shifts-among-city-bus-drivers
#3
Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Jonas Ihlström, Göran Kecklund
Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation)...
May 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495465/the-effect-of-blue-enriched-white-light-on-cognitive-performances-and-sleepiness-of-night-shift-workers-a-field-study
#4
Majid Motamedzadeh, Rostam Golmohammadi, Reza Kazemi, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
INTRODUCTION: Night-shift works are basically accompanied by reduced cognitive performance, sleepiness, and higher possibility for human error and related incidents. It is therefore crucial to improve individuals' performance and alertness in sensitive places like industries' control room with the ultimate goal of increasing efficiency and reducing the number of possible incidents. Previous research has indicated that blue light is a critical cue for entraining circadian rhythm. As a result, the present study was an attempt to investigate whether blue-enriched white light illumination was a practical strategy to decrease sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during night shifts...
May 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488901/association-of-shiftwork-and-immune-cells-among-police-officers-from-the-buffalo-cardio-metabolic-occupational-police-stress-study
#5
Michael D Wirth, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, James B Burch, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, John M Violanti
Shift workers suffer from a constellation of symptoms associated with disruption of circadian rhythms including sleep abnormalities, and abnormal hormone secretion (e.g. melatonin, cortisol). Recent, but limited, evidence suggests that shift workers have elevated levels of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) compared to their day working counterparts. Interestingly, recent reviews highlight the strong linkage between the immune system and circadian rhythms which includes, but is not limited to, circulating cell populations and functions...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470121/shift-work-and-cognitive-flexibility-decomposing-task-performance
#6
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Thomas John Bender, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Christopher L Drake
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460138/the-relative-impact-of-sleep-and-circadian-drive-on-motor-skill-acquisition-and-memory-consolidation
#7
Matthew A Tucker, Christopher J Morris, Alexandra Morgan, Jessica Yang, Samantha Myers, Joanna Garcia Pierce, Robert Stickgold, Frank A J L Scheer
Study Objectives: Sleep during the biological night facilitates memory consolidation. Here we determined the impact of sleep and wake on motor skill learning (acquisition) and subsequent off-line skill improvement (memory consolidation), independent of circadian phase, and compared this to the impact of the endogenous circadian system, independent of whether sleep occurred during the biological night or day. Methods: Participants completed two 8-day sleep laboratory visits, adhering on one visit to a circadian aligned ("normal") sleep schedule for the full duration of the protocol, and on the other to a circadian misaligned (12-hour inverted) schedule, with alignment during the first 3 days, a 12-hour 'slam shift' on Day 4, followed by circadian misalignment during the last 4 days of the protocol...
April 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454871/time-of-day-effects-on-railroad-roadway-worker-injury-risk
#8
Clark Calabrese, Bianka Mejia, Catherine A McInnis, Megan France, Eric Nadler, Thomas G Raslear
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine how time of day affects injury risk of railroad maintenance of way employees and signalmen (roadway workers). Railroads reported 15,654 serious roadway worker injuries between 1997 and 2014. Roadway workers primarily work outdoors on or near railroad tracks and frequently encounter hazardous conditions. To avoid closing an active rail line during peak hours, railroads sometimes require roadway workers to work at night. Previous studies of roadway worker injury have not adequately accounted for exposure to time of day effects, nor have they investigated the human factors issues contributing to roadway worker injury...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443630/accelerating-recovery-from-jet-lag-prediction-from-a-multi-oscillator-model-and-its-experimental-confirmation-in-model-animals
#9
Hiroshi Kori, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Okamura
The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one's internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431447/-return-to-work-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Rona Reibis, Annett Salzwedel, Johannes Falk, Heinz Völler
Vocational reintegration provides a key goal for patients after myocardial infarction both from social as well as from individual perspective. Return to work rate is determined by medical parameters such as left ventricular function, residual ischemia and rhythm stability, as well as by occupational requirement profile such as the blue or white collar work, night shifts and the way capacity. Psycho-social factors including depression, self-assessment of their own situation and pre-existing cognitive impairment to a large extent determine the reintegration...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420807/effects-of-modifications-to-the-health-and-social-sector-s-collective-agreement-on-the-objective-characteristics-of-working-hours
#11
Annina Ropponen, Päivi Vanttola, Aki Koskinen, Tarja Hakola, Sampsa Puttonen, Mikko Härmä
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention on objective working-hour characteristics. The intervention involved making modifications to the collective agreement that would limit employees' entitlement to time off as compensation. The intervention group consisted of 493 and the control group of 2303 health and social care shift workers, respectively. We analysed the objective pay roll-based working-hour data for 2012-2013, which we obtained from employers' records, using the repeated measures mixed model...
April 14, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395687/perceptions-of-healthcare-professionals-regarding-their-own-body-weight-in-selected-public-hospitals-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#12
M C Phetla, L Skaal
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been cited as a public health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is evidence that rates of obesity have increased among healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa (SA), especially those who do night shifts, with a negative effect on health. Perceptions of body weight contribute significantly to the desire to lose weight or not to do so. OBJECTIVE: To determine perceptions of HCWs regarding their own body weight in selected public hospitals in Mpumalanga Province, SA...
March 29, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362457/shift-work-and-cognitive-aging-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Kathleen Bokenberger, Peter Ström, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Nancy L Pedersen
Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012...
March 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355702/-prevalence-of-breast-and-gynecological-diseases-in-female-workers-in-the-administrative-office-and-workshop-of-an-automobile-part-factory
#14
L X Bai, L Yang, D P Duan, X Y Xu, Z Li, Y M Liu
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory, and to provide a basis for promoting the health of female workers. Methods: In March 2015, color ultrasound examination of the breast, uterus, and bilateral adnexa was performed for all female workers, and routine gynecological examination, routine leucorrhea examination, and thinprep liquid-based cytology test were performed for married female workers...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347188/circadian-misalignment-increases-c-reactive-protein-and-blood-pressure-in-chronic-shift-workers
#15
Christopher J Morris, Taylor E Purvis, Joseph Mistretta, Kun Hu, Frank A J L Scheer
Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336582/high-mammographic-density-in-long-term-night-shift-workers-ddm-spain-var-ddm
#16
Ana Maria Pedraza-Flechas, Virginia Lope, Carmen Sánchez-Contador, Carmen Santamariña, Carmen Pedraz-Pingarrón, Pilar Moreo, María Ederra, Josefa Miranda-García, Carmen Vidal, Rafael Llobet, Nuria Aragonés, Dolores Salas-Trejo, Marina Pollán, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez
Background:Night-shift work (NSW) has been suggested as a possible cause of breast cancer (BC), and its association with mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest risk factors for BC, has been scarcely addressed. This study examined NSW and MD in Spanish women. Methods:The study covered 2752 women aged 45-68 years recruited in 2007-2008 in 7 population-based public BC screening centers, which included 243 women who had performed NSW for at least one year. Occupational data and information on potential confounders was collected by personal interview...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287629/metabolic-disturbances-due-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-a-non-insulin-resistant-animal-model
#17
L Ramalho, M N da Jornada, L C Antunes, M P Hidalgo
OBJECTIVE: Shift workers have metabolic changes more often than day workers. It is also known that night workers prefer foods high in saturated fat. Such data suggest that shift workers are prone to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose an animal model to test the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) based on shift workers' diet. METHODS: This is an experimental study with 20 Wistar rats. Ten rats were allocated to the control group (CG) and were fed standard diet...
March 13, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287446/sitting-time-physical-activity-and-sleep-by-work-type-and-pattern-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#18
Bronwyn K Clark, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Mitch J Duncan, Wendy Brown
Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31-36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59-64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271382/maximal-tachycardia-and-high-cardiac-strain-during-night-shifts-of-emergency-physicians
#19
Frédéric Dutheil, Fouad Marhar, Gil Boudet, Christophe Perrier, Geraldine Naughton, Alain Chamoux, Pascal Huguet, Martial Mermillod, Foued Saâdaoui, Farès Moustafa, Jeannot Schmidt
PURPOSE: To compare tachycardia and cardiac strain between 24-hour shifts (24hS) and 14-hour night shifts (14hS) in emergency physicians (EPs), and to investigate key factors influencing tachycardia and cardiac strain. METHODS: We monitored heart rate (HR) with Holter-ECG in a shift-randomized trial comparing a 24hS, a 14hS, and a control day, within a potential for 19 EPs. We also measured 24-h HR the third day (D3) after both shifts. We measured perceived stress by visual analog scale and the number of life-and-death emergencies...
March 7, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270559/a-single-night-light-exposure-acutely-alters-hormonal-and-metabolic-responses-in-healthy-participants
#20
Mohammed S Albreiki, Benita Middleton, Shelagh M Hampton
Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d.) and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years) were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL) (<5 lux) and bright light (BL) (>500 lux) sessions, separated by at least seven days...
February 2017: Endocrine Connections
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