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"Human endogenous retroviruses"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#1
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302141/dna-hypomethylation-and-aberrant-expression-of-the-human-endogenous-retrovirus-ervwe1-syncytin-1-in-seminomas
#2
Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Dana Kučerová, Jiří Hejnar
BACKGROUND: Syncytin-1 and 2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast in chorionic villi. In non-trophoblastic cells, however, the expression of syncytins has to be suppressed to avoid potential pathogenic effects. Previously, we have shown that the transcriptional suppression of ERVWE1 promoter is controlled epigenetically by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications...
March 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261031/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-chosen-disease-parameters-in-morphea
#3
Michał J Kowalczyk, Aleksandra Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Beata Szramka-Pawlak, Ryszard Żaba, Agnieszka Osmola-Mańkowska, Wojciech Silny
INTRODUCTION: Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. AIM: In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index)...
February 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245871/conserved-expression-of-transposon-derived-non-coding-transcripts-in-primate-stem-cells
#4
LeeAnn Ramsay, Maria C Marchetto, Maxime Caron, Shu-Huang Chen, Stephan Busche, Tony Kwan, Tomi Pastinen, Fred H Gage, Guillaume Bourque
BACKGROUND: A significant portion of expressed non-coding RNAs in human cells is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Moreover, it has been shown that various long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which come from the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH), are not only expressed but required for pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). RESULTS: To identify additional TE-derived functional non-coding transcripts, we generated RNA-seq data from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of four primate species (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and rhesus) and searched for transcripts whose expression was conserved...
February 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241767/multiple-sclerosis-an-example-of-pathogenic-viral-interaction
#5
REVIEW
Walter Fierz
A hypothesis is formulated on viral interaction between HHV-6A and EBV as a pathogenic mechanism in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Evidence of molecular and genetic mechanisms suggests a link between HHV-6A infection and EBV activation in the brain of MS patients leading to intrathecal B-cell transformation. Consequent T-cell immune response against the EBV-infected cells is postulated as a pathogenic basis for inflammatory lesion formation in the brain of susceptible individuals. A further link between HHV-6A and EBV involves their induction of expression of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K18-encoded superantigen...
February 28, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207850/the-association-between-human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Elena Morandi, Radu Tanasescu, Rachael E Tarlinton, Cris S Constantinescu, Weiya Zhang, Christopher Tench, Bruno Gran
BACKGROUND: The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is crucial to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are endogenous viral elements of the human genome whose expression is associated with MS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis and to assess qualitative and quantitative evidence on the expression of HERV families in MS patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for published studies on the association of HERVs and MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191285/autoantibodies-against-oncogenic-erg-protein-in-prostate-cancer-potential-use-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-a-panel-with-c-myc-amacr-and-herv-k-gag
#7
Anshu Rastogi, Amina Ali, Shyh-Han Tan, Sreedatta Banerjee, Yongmei Chen, Jennifer Cullen, Charles P Xavier, Ahmed A Mohamed, Lakshmi Ravindranath, Jigisha Srivastav, Denise Young, Isabell A Sesterhenn, Jacob Kagan, Sudhir Srivastava, David G McLeod, Inger L Rosner, Gyorgy Petrovics, Albert Dobi, Shiv Srivastava, Alagarsamy Srinivasan
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer (CaP) is attributable to widespread reliance on PSA screening in the US. This has prompted us and others to search for improved biomarkers for CaP, to facilitate early detection and disease stratification. In this regard, autoantibodies (AAbs) against tumor antigens could serve as potential candidates for diagnosis and prognosis of CaP. Towards this, our goals were: i) To investigate whether AAbs against ERG oncoprotein (overexpressed in 25-50% of Caucasian American and African American CaP) are present in the sera of CaP patients; ii) To evaluate an AAb panel to enhance CaP detection...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187417/a-machine-learning-approach-for-microrna-precursor-prediction-in-retro-transcribing-virus-genomes
#8
Müserref Duygu Saçar Demirci, Mustafa Toprak, Jens Allmer
Identification of microRNA (miRNA) precursors has seen increased efforts in recent years. The difficulty in experimental detection of pre-miRNAs increased the usage of computational approaches. Most of these approaches rely on machine learning especially classification. In order to achieve successful classification, many parameters need to be considered such as data quality, choice of classifier settings, and feature selection. For the latter one, we developed a distributed genetic algorithm on HTCondor to perform feature selection...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165135/multiple-sclerosis-associated-retrovirus-epstein-barr-virus-and-vitamin-d-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Aliehossadat Mostafa, Somayeh Jalilvand, Zabihollah Shoja, Ahmad Nejati, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Sayed Mahdi Marashi
The relationship between infections and autoimmune diseases is complex and there are several reports highlighting the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in these patients. The levels of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV)-type DNA of Env gene was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 52 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 40 healthy controls using specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed the status of HERV-W/MSRV in these patients with regards to both EBV (DNA load and anti-EBNA1 IgG antibody) and vitamin D concentration...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165048/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-strongly-associated-with-the-basal-like-breast-cancer-phenotype
#10
Gary L Johanning, Gabriel G Malouf, Xiaofeng Zheng, Francisco J Esteva, John N Weinstein, Feng Wang-Johanning, Xiaoping Su
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which make up approximately 8% of the human genome, are overexpressed in some breast cancer cells and tissues but without regard to cancer subtype. We, therefore, analyzed TCGA RNA-Seq data to evaluate differences in expression of the HERV-K family in breast cancers of the various subtypes. Four HERV-K loci on different chromosomes were analyzed in basal, Her2E, LumA, and LumB breast cancer subtypes of 512 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The results for all four loci showed higher HERV-K expression in the basal subtype, suggesting similar mechanisms of regulation regardless of locus...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154780/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-cancer
#11
María Gonzalez-Cao, Paola Iduma, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Julià Blanco, Rafael Rosell
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are retroviruses that infected human genome millions of years ago and have persisted throughout human evolution. About 8% of our genome is composed of HERVs, most of which are nonfunctional because of epigenetic control or deactivating mutations. However, a correlation between HERVs and human cancer has been described and many tumors, such as melanoma, breast cancer, germ cell tumors, renal cancer or ovarian cancer, express HERV proteins, mainly HERV-K (HML6) and HERV-K (HML2)...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139237/retrotransposon-expression-and-incorporation-of-cloned-human-and-mouse-retroelements-in-human-spermatozoa
#12
Leandros Lazaros, Chrysoula Kitsou, Charilaos Kostoulas, Sofia Bellou, Elissavet Hatzi, Paris Ladias, Theodoros Stefos, Sofia Markoula, Vasiliki Galani, Georgios Vartholomatos, Theodore Tzavaras, Ioannis Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratories and academic hospital...
March 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132025/long-non-coding-rnas-transcribed-by-erv-9-ltr-retrotransposon-act-in-cis-to-modulate-long-range-ltr-enhancer-function
#13
Tianxiang Hu, Wenhu Pi, Xingguo Zhu, Miao Yu, Hongseok Ha, Huidong Shi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Dorothy Tuan
LTR retrotransposons are repetitive DNA elements comprising ∼10% of the human genome. However, LTR sequences are disproportionately present in human long, non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Whether and how the LTR lncRNAs serve biological functions are largely unknown. Here we show that in primary human erythroblasts, lncRNAs transcribed from the LTR retrotransposons of ERV-9 human endogenous retrovirus activated transcription of key erythroid genes and modulated ex vivo erythropoiesis. To dissect the functional mechanism of ERV-9 lncRNAs, we performed genome-wide RNA and ChIRP analyses before and after global knockdown or locus-specific deletion of ERV-9 lncRNAs in human erythroblasts carrying ∼4000 copies of the ERV-9 LTRs and in transgenic mouse erythroblasts carrying a single copy of the primate-specific ERV-9 LTR in the 100 kb human β-globin gene locus...
January 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128856/experimental-arthritis-in-the-rat-induced-by-the-superantigen-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-sea
#14
Kristina Gerlach, Christian Tomuschat, Rainer Finke, Martin Sebastian Staege, Christine Brütting, Jörg Brandt, Berit Jordan, René Schwesig, Angela Rosemeier, Karl-Stefan Delank, Malte Erich Kornhuber, Alexander Emmer
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is incompletely understood. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and their superantigenic envelope protein (env) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. In the present investigation the arthritogenic potential of the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been investigated. In the present investigation, the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was injected into the right knee joint of 15 Lewis rats. Further 9 animals received saline...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125999/herv-k-activation-is-strictly-required-to-sustain-cd133-melanoma-cells-with-stemness-features
#15
Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Emanuela Balestrieri, Annalucia Serafino, Chiara Cipriani, Ilaria Bucci, Roberta Sorrentino, Ilaria Sciamanna, Alessandra Gambacurta, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Claudia Matteucci
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor in which phenotype-switching and CD133 marker have been associated with metastasis promotion and chemotherapy resistance. CD133 positive (CD133+) subpopulation has also been suggested as putative cancer stem cell (CSC) of melanoma tumor. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) has been described to be aberrantly activated during melanoma progression and implicated in the etiopathogenesis of disease. Earlier, we reported that stress-induced HERV-K activation promotes cell malignant transformation and reduces the immunogenicity of melanoma cells...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017222/association-between-human-herpesvirus-human-endogenous-retrovirus-and-ms-onset-progression
#16
REVIEW
Chunrong Tao, Steve Simpson, Bruce V Taylor, Ingrid van der Mei
This review discusses the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although EBV has been established as one of the causal factors in MS onset, its role in MS progression is still uncertain. Moreover, interactions between EBV and other risk factor on MS development still need more investment. With less consistent evidence than EBV, HHV6 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS; moreover, it showed a closer connection with the disease activity...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#17
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885560/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-w-in-babies
#18
L H S Nali, A C S Oliveira, D O Alves, G S Caleiro, C F Nunes, D Gerhardt, R C M Succi, Camila M Romano, D M Machado
Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01)...
March 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870643/yellow-fever-vaccine-17d-administered-to-healthy-women-aged-between-40-and-54-years-halves-breast-cancer-risk-an-observational-study
#19
Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Sofia Pavanello, Emanuela Fadda, Alessandra Buja, Ugo Fedeli
Transcripts of human endogenous retrovirus K are expressed in most breast cancers (BCs). Yellow fever vaccine 17D (YFV) expresses a protein with a closely homologous epitope. Cross-reactive immunity could hypothetically inhibit BC growth at least in women aged around 50 years at diagnosis, in whom the prognosis of BC was found to be better than that in women younger or older. A cohort of 12 804 women who received YFV in the Veneto Region, Italy, was divided into two subcohorts according to age at vaccination and followed up through the Veneto Tumor Registry...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704146/first-evidence-of-herv-h-transcriptional-activity-reduction-after-methylphenidate-treatment-in-a-young-boy-with-adhd
#20
Elisa D'Agati, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Augusto Pasini
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention...
July 2016: New Microbiologica
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