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"Human endogenous retroviruses"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-herv-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharp, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew A Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
Background -Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
September 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#2
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878130/an-ancestral-retroviral-protein-identified-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-type-1-diabetes
#4
Sandrine Levet, Julie Medina, Julie Joanou, Amandine Demolder, Nelly Queruel, Kevin Réant, Matthieu Normand, Marine Seffals, Julie Dimier, Raphaële Germi, Thomas Piofczyk, Jacques Portoukalian, Jean-Louis Touraine, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), remnants of ancestral viral genomic insertions, are known to represent 8% of the human genome and are associated with several pathologies. In particular, the envelope protein of HERV-W family (HERV-W-Env) has been involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Investigations to detect HERV-W-Env in a few other autoimmune diseases were negative, except in type-1 diabetes (T1D). In patients suffering from T1D, HERV-W-Env protein was detected in 70% of sera, and its corresponding RNA was detected in 57% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870557/retroviral-envelope-proteins-involvement-in-neuropathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Dorte Tranberg Hansen, Thor Petersen, Tove Christensen
The primary disease caused by infection with the exogenous human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), may overlay manifestations of additional autoimmune pathogenesis. Currently, a role for human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is also emerging in some autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses have the potential to elicit the processes leading to autoimmune disease. The pathogenicity of the retroviral envelope protein (Env) is a key player with notable importance in neuroimmune diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868516/analysis-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-plaques
#6
P J Bhetariya, J D Kriesel, K F Fischer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to broadly evaluate the expression of HERV core (GAG) and envelope (ENV) genes in diseased brain white matter samples from MS patients compared to normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight HERV GAG and 88 ENV gene sequences were retrieved, classified by phylogeny, and grouped into clades. Consensus qPCR primers were designed for each clade, and quantitative PCR was performed on 33 MS and 9 normal control frozen brain samples...
August 2017: J Emerg Dis Virol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858759/effects-of-metal-rich-particulate-matter-exposure-on-exogenous-and-endogenous-viral-sequence-methylation-in-healthy-steel-workers
#7
Roberta Mercorio, Matteo Bonzini, Laura Angelici, Simona Iodice, Serena Delbue, Jacopo Mariani, Pietro Apostoli, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
BACKGROUND: Inhaled particles have been shown to produce systemic changes in DNA methylation. Global hypomethylation has been associated to viral sequence reactivation, possibly linked to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways occurring after exposure. This observation provides a rationale to investigate viral sequence (both exogenous and endogenous) methylation in association to metal-rich particulate matter exposure. To verify this hypothesis, we chose the Wp promoter of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-Wp) and the promoter of the human-endogenous-retrovirus w (HERV-w), respectively as a paradigm of an exogenous and an endogenous retroviral sequence, to be investigated by bisulfite PCR Pyrosequencing...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840564/human-leukemia-antigen-a-0201-restricted-epitopes-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-family-envelope-herv-w-env-induce-strong-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#8
Xiaoning Tu, Shan Li, Lijuan Zhao, Ran Xiao, Xiuling Wang, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201(+) restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy...
August 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830571/anti-herv-k-hml-2-capsid-antibody-responses-in-hiv-elite-controllers
#9
Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant "15mer" HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity...
August 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821995/expression-of-the-pol-gene-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-herv-k-and-w-in-leukemia-patients
#10
Massimiliano Bergallo, Paola Montanari, Katia Mareschi, Chiara Merlino, Massimo Berger, Ilaria Bini, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Franca Fagioli
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a family of endogenous retroviruses that integrated into the germ cell DNA of primates over 30 million years ago. HERV expression seems impaired in several diseases, ranging from autoimmune to neoplastic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall endogenous retroviral transcription profile in bone marrow (BM) samples. A total of 30 paediatric high-risk leukaemia patients (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies) were tested for HERVs virus gene expression...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781951/ifitm1-suppresses-expression-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Yudong Fu, Zhongcheng Zhou, Hua Wang, Peng Gong, Renpeng Guo, Jinmiao Wang, Xinyi Lu, Feng Qi, Lin Liu
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a member of the IFITM protein family, is a component of a multimeric complex involved in the transduction of antiproliferation and cell adhesion signals. IFITM1 is thought to play a role in antiproliferation and immune surveillance, and has been shown to restrict infection by numerous viruses. It is highly expressed in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) but its role in hESCs remains to be elucidated. In this study, knockout of IFITM1 mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in hESCs did not affect self-renewal, pluripotency, telomerase activity or telomeres...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#12
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#13
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the "X-region", which was derived from FcERV-gamma4, a feline endogenous gammaretrovirus. The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capability, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755681/ebv-and-ms-major-cause-minor-contribution-or-red-herring
#14
REVIEW
Sean Burnard, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) has been closely associated with MS but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. Some of the evidence for EBV involvement in MS includes: almost 100% of MS patients showing past EBV infection, an association with Infectious Mononucleosis (acute EBV infection), higher titres of EBV antibodies associated with an increased risk of MS development, and an overall altered immune response to EBV found in peripheral blood and the CNS of MS patients...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700586/systematic-identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-elements-derived-from-human-endogenous-retroviruses
#15
Jumpei Ito, Ryota Sugimoto, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Shiro Yamada, Tetsuaki Kimura, Takahide Hayano, Ituro Inoue
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and other long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposons (HERV/LTRs) have regulatory elements that possibly influence the transcription of host genes. We systematically identified and characterized these regulatory elements based on publicly available datasets of ChIP-Seq of 97 transcription factors (TFs) provided by ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects. We determined transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) using the ChIP-Seq datasets and identified TFBSs observed on HERV/LTR sequences (HERV-TFBSs)...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679769/down-regulation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-herv-k-viral-env-rna-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#16
Ming Li, Laszlo G Radvanyi, Bingnan Yin, Jia Li, Raghavender Chivukula, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, David Z Chang, Donghui Li, Gary L Johanning, Feng Wang-Johanning
We investigated the role of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) envelope (env) gene in pancreatic cancer (PC). <p>Experimental Design: shRNA was employed to knockdown (KD) the expression of HERV-K in PC cells.</p> <p>Results: HERV-K env expression was detected in seven PC cell lines and in 80% of PC patient biopsies, but not in two normal pancreatic cell lines or uninvolved normal tissues. A new HERV-K splice variant was discovered in several PC cell lines. RT activity and virus-like particles were observed in culture media supernatant obtained from Panc-1 and Panc-2 cells...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656540/human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-env-increases-nitric-oxide-production-and-enhances-the-migration-ability-of-microglia-by-regulating-the-expression-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#17
Ran Xiao, Shan Li, Qian Cao, Xiuling Wang, Qiujin Yan, Xiaoning Tu, Ying Zhu, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655292/insertionally-polymorphic-sites-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-hml-2-with-long-target-site-duplications
#18
Tomoaki Kahyo, Hidetaka Yamada, Hong Tao, Nobuya Kurabe, Haruhiko Sugimura
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) belong to the LTR-retrotransposon family, where the complete HERV sequence contains two long terminal repeats (LTRs) located at each end. Intact LTRs possess highly conserved transcriptional promoter and enhancer sequences, so analyses of HERV insertional polymorphisms are expected to provide greater insights into human genomic variation compared with the conventional analysis of single nucleotide variations. High-throughput sequencing technology is developing but genome-wide investigations of HERVs are methodically challenging, and thus a comprehensive understanding of HERV insertional polymorphisms and target site duplications (TSDs) remains elusive...
June 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653997/type-w-human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-w-integrations-and-their-mobilization-by-l1-machinery-contribution-to-the-human-transcriptome-and-impact-on-the-host-physiopathology
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano
Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient infection relics constituting ~8% of our DNA. While HERVs' genomic characterization is still ongoing, impressive amounts of data have been obtained regarding their general expression across tissues. Among HERVs, one of the most studied is the W group, which is the sole HERV group specifically mobilized by the long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) machinery, providing a source of novel insertions by retrotransposition of HERV-W processed pseudogenes, and comprising a member encoding a functional envelope protein coopted for human placentation...
June 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#20
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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