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"Human endogenous retroviruses"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133530/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-new-take-on-a-retro-idea
#1
EDITORIAL
Miranda K Culley, Stephen Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118853/identification-of-a-novel-herv-k-hml10-comprehensive-characterization-and-comparative-analysis-in-non-human-primates-provide-insights-about-hml10-proviruses-structure-and-diffusion
#2
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Maria Paola Pisano, Francesca Esposito, Jonas Blomberg, Enzo Tramontano
Background: About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075249/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-tdp-43-expression-bridges-als-and-hiv-neuropathology
#3
Renée N Douville, Avindra Nath
Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068492/trials-of-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
J Lycke
There is increasing evidence that human herpes viruses and human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to acquire the ultimate evidence to confirm such a relationship, it is probably required to use specific antiviral drugs in clinical trials of MS. The results of published antiviral clinical trials in patients with MS are summarized in this review. None of them showed statistically significant effects on primary outcomes of disease activity or on disability development...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068488/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-the-aetiology-of-ms
#5
REVIEW
T Christensen
Several lines of investigation have provided strong indications for an association between the immune-mediated, neurologic disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Whether the relationship is causal is yet to be established. Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic-in other species than the human. Several aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been documented, both for cells in the periphery and in the central nervous system...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982120/identification-of-sapovirus-gv-2-astrovirus-va3-and-novel-anelloviruses-in-serum-from-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-of-unknown-aetiology
#6
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, N Timoneda, X Fernandez-Cassi, A Caballero, J F Abril, M Buti, F Rodriguez-Frias, R Girones
Hepatitis is a general term meaning inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by a variety of viruses. However, a substantial number of cases remain with unknown aetiology. We analysed the serum of patients with clinical signs of hepatitis using a metagenomics approach to characterize their viral species composition. Four pools of patients with hepatitis without identified aetiological agents were evaluated. Additionally, one pool of patients with hepatitis E (HEV) and pools of healthy volunteers were included as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharpe, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William H Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic, or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue, and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without a clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated, and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#8
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878130/an-ancestral-retroviral-protein-identified-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-type-1-diabetes
#10
Sandrine Levet, Julie Medina, Julie Joanou, Amandine Demolder, Nelly Queruel, Kevin Réant, Matthieu Normand, Marine Seffals, Julie Dimier, Raphaële Germi, Thomas Piofczyk, Jacques Portoukalian, Jean-Louis Touraine, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), remnants of ancestral viral genomic insertions, are known to represent 8% of the human genome and are associated with several pathologies. In particular, the envelope protein of HERV-W family (HERV-W-Env) has been involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Investigations to detect HERV-W-Env in a few other autoimmune diseases were negative, except in type-1 diabetes (T1D). In patients suffering from T1D, HERV-W-Env protein was detected in 70% of sera, and its corresponding RNA was detected in 57% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870557/retroviral-envelope-proteins-involvement-in-neuropathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Dorte Tranberg Hansen, Thor Petersen, Tove Christensen
The primary disease caused by infection with the exogenous human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), may overlay manifestations of additional autoimmune pathogenesis. Currently, a role for human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is also emerging in some autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses have the potential to elicit the processes leading to autoimmune disease. The pathogenicity of the retroviral envelope protein (Env) is a key player with notable importance in neuroimmune diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868516/analysis-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-plaques
#12
P J Bhetariya, J D Kriesel, K F Fischer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to broadly evaluate the expression of HERV core (GAG) and envelope (ENV) genes in diseased brain white matter samples from MS patients compared to normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight HERV GAG and 88 ENV gene sequences were retrieved, classified by phylogeny, and grouped into clades. Consensus qPCR primers were designed for each clade, and quantitative PCR was performed on 33 MS and 9 normal control frozen brain samples...
August 2017: J Emerg Dis Virol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858759/effects-of-metal-rich-particulate-matter-exposure-on-exogenous-and-endogenous-viral-sequence-methylation-in-healthy-steel-workers
#13
Roberta Mercorio, Matteo Bonzini, Laura Angelici, Simona Iodice, Serena Delbue, Jacopo Mariani, Pietro Apostoli, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
BACKGROUND: Inhaled particles have been shown to produce systemic changes in DNA methylation. Global hypomethylation has been associated to viral sequence reactivation, possibly linked to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways occurring after exposure. This observation provides a rationale to investigate viral sequence (both exogenous and endogenous) methylation in association to metal-rich particulate matter exposure. To verify this hypothesis, we chose the Wp promoter of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-Wp) and the promoter of the human-endogenous-retrovirus w (HERV-w), respectively as a paradigm of an exogenous and an endogenous retroviral sequence, to be investigated by bisulfite PCR Pyrosequencing...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840564/human-leukemia-antigen-a-0201-restricted-epitopes-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-family-envelope-herv-w-env-induce-strong-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#14
Xiaoning Tu, Shan Li, Lijuan Zhao, Ran Xiao, Xiuling Wang, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201(+) restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy...
August 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830571/anti-herv-k-hml-2-capsid-antibody-responses-in-hiv-elite-controllers
#15
Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant "15mer" HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity...
August 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821995/expression-of-the-pol-gene-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-herv-k-and-w-in-leukemia-patients
#16
Massimiliano Bergallo, Paola Montanari, Katia Mareschi, Chiara Merlino, Massimo Berger, Ilaria Bini, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Franca Fagioli
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a family of endogenous retroviruses that integrated into the germ cell DNA of primates over 30 million years ago. HERV expression seems impaired in several diseases, ranging from autoimmune to neoplastic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall endogenous retroviral transcription profile in bone marrow (BM) samples. A total of 30 paediatric high-risk leukaemia patients (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies) were tested for HERVs virus gene expression...
December 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781951/ifitm1-suppresses-expression-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Yudong Fu, Zhongcheng Zhou, Hua Wang, Peng Gong, Renpeng Guo, Jinmiao Wang, Xinyi Lu, Feng Qi, Lin Liu
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a member of the IFITM protein family, is a component of a multimeric complex involved in the transduction of antiproliferation and cell adhesion signals. IFITM1 is thought to play a role in antiproliferation and immune surveillance, and has been shown to restrict infection by numerous viruses. It is highly expressed in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) but its role in hESCs remains to be elucidated. In this study, knockout of IFITM1 mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in hESCs did not affect self-renewal, pluripotency, telomerase activity or telomeres...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#18
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#19
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the X region, which was derived from Felis catus endogenous gammaretrovirus 4 (FcERV-gamma4). The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capabilities, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755681/ebv-and-ms-major-cause-minor-contribution-or-red-herring
#20
REVIEW
Sean Burnard, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) has been closely associated with MS but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. Some of the evidence for EBV involvement in MS includes: almost 100% of MS patients showing past EBV infection, an association with Infectious Mononucleosis (acute EBV infection), higher titres of EBV antibodies associated with an increased risk of MS development, and an overall altered immune response to EBV found in peripheral blood and the CNS of MS patients...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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