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"Human endogenous retroviruses"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330412/high-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-from-intrauterine-life-to-adulthood-in-two-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Chiara Cipriani, Laura Ricceri, Claudia Matteucci, Alessia De Felice, Anna Maria Tartaglione, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Francesca Pica, Sandro Grelli, Gemma Calamandrei, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Emanuela Balestrieri
Retroelements, such as Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), have been implicated in many complex diseases, including neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated a distinctive expression profile of specific HERV families in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) patients, suggesting their involvement in ASD. Here we used two distinct ASD mouse models: inbred BTBR T+tf/J mice and CD-1 outbred mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid. Whole embryos, blood and brain samples from the offspring were collected at different ages and the expression of several ERV families (ETnI, ETnII-α, ETnII-β, ETnII-γ, MusD and IAP), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR4) was assessed...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315213/identification-of-transposable-elements-contributing-to-tissue-specific-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#2
Takafumi Chishima, Junichi Iwakiri, Michiaki Hamada
It has been recently suggested that transposable elements (TEs) are re-used as functional elements of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). This is supported by some examples such as the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) elements contained within lncRNAs and expressed specifically in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as required to maintain hESC identity. There are at least two unanswered questions about all lncRNAs. How many TEs are re-used within lncRNAs? Are there any other TEs that affect tissue specificity of lncRNA expression? To answer these questions, we comprehensively identify TEs that are significantly related to tissue-specific expression levels of lncRNAs...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313202/monitoring-the-transcriptional-activity-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family-using-pna-strand-invasion-into-double-stranded-dna
#3
Grzegorz Machnik, Estera Skudrzyk, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Witold Szkróbka, Marcin Basiak, Aleksandra Bołdys, Helena Sławska, Bogusław Okopień
In the presented assay, we elaborated a method for distinguishing sequences that are genetically closely related to each other. This is particularly important in a situation where a fine balance of the allele abundance is a point of research interest. We developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion technique for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) and ERVWE1 sequences, both molecularly similar, belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. We have found that this method may support the PCR technique in screening for minor alleles which, in certain conditions, may be undetected by the standard PCR technique...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311362/novel-transcriptional-activity-and-extensive-allelic-imbalance-in-the-human-mhc-region
#4
Elizabeth Gensterblum-Miller, Weisheng Wu, Amr H Sawalha
The MHC region encodes HLA genes and is the most complex region in the human genome. The extensively polymorphic nature of the HLA hinders accurate localization and functional assessment of disease risk loci within this region. Using targeted capture sequencing and constructing individualized genomes for transcriptome alignment, we identified 908 novel transcripts within the human MHC region. These include 593 novel isoforms of known genes, 137 antisense strand RNAs, 119 novel long intergenic noncoding RNAs, and 5 transcripts of 3 novel putative protein-coding human endogenous retrovirus genes...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274460/human-endogenous-retrovirus-env-genes-potential-blood-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer
#5
Mokhtar Zare, Shayan Mostafaei, Ali Ahmadi, Sadegh Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Atefeh Abedini, Zahra Esfahani-Monfared, Ruhollah Dorostkar, Mojtaba Saadati
Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer mortality, needs urgent development of newly qualified diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. Recently, Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) have been introduced for cancer diagnosis. In this case-control study, we have collected blood samples from 60 lung cancer patients and 20 healthy controls. Quantitative gene expression analysis of various HERV env genes, including HERV-R, HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-P was performed by real-time PCR. Results indicate that expression of all four HERV env mRNAs is significantly increased in the blood of lung cancer patients than healthy controls (P-values<0...
December 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221178/cytotoxic-stress-induces-transfer-of-mitochondria-associated-human-endogenous-retroviral-rna-and-proteins-between-cancer-cells
#6
David Díaz-Carballo, Jacqueline Klein, Ali H Acikelli, Camilla Wilk, Sahitya Saka, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Phillip Dammann, Urs Giger-Pabst, Veria Khosrawipour, Joachim Rassow, Mikalai Nienen, Dirk Strumberg
About 8 % of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are relicts of ancient exogenous retroviral infections incurred during evolution. Although the majority of HERVs have functional gene defects or epigenetic modifications, many of them are still able to produce retroviral proteins that have been proposed to be involved in cellular transformation and cancer development. We found that, in chemo-resistant U87RETO glioblastoma cells, cytotoxic stress induced by etoposide promotes accumulation and large-scale fission of mitochondria, associated with the detection of HERV-WE1 (syncytin-1) and HERV-FRD1 (syncytin-2) in these organelles...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202119/enrichment-of-retroviral-sequences-in-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-severe-demyelinating-diseases
#7
J D Kriesel, P J Bhetariya, B K Chan, T Wilson, K F Fischer
Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Objectives: Identify RNA sequences and new antigens involved in the pathogenesis of MS...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199607/transposable-elements-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#8
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Transposable elements (TEs) have shown a great significance in regulatory elements research, being responsible for different types of cancers. They are divided into three classes on the basis of their mode of transposition, structural properties, and their homology with DNA sequence. In evaluating their role in cancers and other pathologies, researchers have found extensive evidence of their involvement. TEs can also be used as genetic markers for cancers and help in identifying potential therapeutic targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133530/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-new-take-on-a-retro-idea
#9
EDITORIAL
Miranda K Culley, Stephen Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118853/identification-of-a-novel-herv-k-hml10-comprehensive-characterization-and-comparative-analysis-in-non-human-primates-provide-insights-about-hml10-proviruses-structure-and-diffusion
#10
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Maria Paola Pisano, Francesca Esposito, Jonas Blomberg, Enzo Tramontano
Background: About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075249/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-tdp-43-expression-bridges-als-and-hiv-neuropathology
#11
Renée N Douville, Avindra Nath
Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068492/trials-of-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
J Lycke
There is increasing evidence that human herpes viruses and human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to acquire the ultimate evidence to confirm such a relationship, it is probably required to use specific antiviral drugs in clinical trials of MS. The results of published antiviral clinical trials in patients with MS are summarized in this review. None of them showed statistically significant effects on primary outcomes of disease activity or on disability development...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068488/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-the-aetiology-of-ms
#13
REVIEW
T Christensen
Several lines of investigation have provided strong indications for an association between the immune-mediated, neurologic disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Whether the relationship is causal is yet to be established. Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic-in other species than the human. Several aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been documented, both for cells in the periphery and in the central nervous system...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982120/identification-of-sapovirus-gv-2-astrovirus-va3-and-novel-anelloviruses-in-serum-from-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-of-unknown-aetiology
#14
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, N Timoneda, X Fernandez-Cassi, A Caballero, J F Abril, M Buti, F Rodriguez-Frias, R Girones
Hepatitis is a general term meaning inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by a variety of viruses. However, a substantial number of cases remain with unknown aetiology. We analysed the serum of patients with clinical signs of hepatitis using a metagenomics approach to characterize their viral species composition. Four pools of patients with hepatitis without identified aetiological agents were evaluated. Additionally, one pool of patients with hepatitis E (HEV) and pools of healthy volunteers were included as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharpe, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William H Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic, or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue, and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without a clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated, and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#16
Rafael Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV type K (HERV-K) HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germ line and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878130/an-ancestral-retroviral-protein-identified-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-type-1-diabetes
#18
Sandrine Levet, Julie Medina, Julie Joanou, Amandine Demolder, Nelly Queruel, Kevin Réant, Matthieu Normand, Marine Seffals, Julie Dimier, Raphaële Germi, Thomas Piofczyk, Jacques Portoukalian, Jean-Louis Touraine, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), remnants of ancestral viral genomic insertions, are known to represent 8% of the human genome and are associated with several pathologies. In particular, the envelope protein of HERV-W family (HERV-W-Env) has been involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Investigations to detect HERV-W-Env in a few other autoimmune diseases were negative, except in type-1 diabetes (T1D). In patients suffering from T1D, HERV-W-Env protein was detected in 70% of sera, and its corresponding RNA was detected in 57% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870557/retroviral-envelope-proteins-involvement-in-neuropathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Dorte Tranberg Hansen, Thor Petersen, Tove Christensen
The primary disease caused by infection with the exogenous human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) or human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), may overlay manifestations of additional autoimmune pathogenesis. Currently, a role for human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is also emerging in some autoimmune/immune-mediated diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses have the potential to elicit the processes leading to autoimmune disease. The pathogenicity of the retroviral envelope protein (Env) is a key player with notable importance in neuroimmune diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868516/analysis-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-plaques
#20
P J Bhetariya, J D Kriesel, K F Fischer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to broadly evaluate the expression of HERV core (GAG) and envelope (ENV) genes in diseased brain white matter samples from MS patients compared to normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight HERV GAG and 88 ENV gene sequences were retrieved, classified by phylogeny, and grouped into clades. Consensus qPCR primers were designed for each clade, and quantitative PCR was performed on 33 MS and 9 normal control frozen brain samples...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
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