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"Human endogenous retroviruses"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774123/the-association-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-h-long-terminal-repeat-associating-protein-2-hhla2-expression-with-gastric-cancer-prognosis
#1
Masataka Shimonosono, Takaaki Arigami, Shigehiro Yanagita, Daisuke Matsushita, Yasuto Uchikado, Yuko Kijima, Hiroshi Kurahara, Yoshiaki Kita, Shinichiro Mori, Ken Sasaki, Itaru Omoto, Kosei Maemura, Yoshikazu Uenosono, Sumiya Ishigami, Shoji Natsugoe
Currently, immune checkpoint blockade against members of the B7/CD28 family is being used as a new molecular-targeted therapy, in patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. Although human endogenous retrovirus-H long terminal repeat-associating protein 2 (HHLA2) is a novel molecule of the B7/CD28 family, the clinical impact of its expression remains uncertain in gastric cancer. Consequently, we examined HHLA2 expression in blood specimens from patients with gastric cancer, and investigated the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological factors to assess its potential power as a prognostic blood predictor...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749030/a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-type-1-diabetes-rationale-for-gnbac1-an-anti-herv-w-env-monoclonal-antibody
#2
REVIEW
Francois Curtin, Corinne Bernard, Sandrine Levet, Hervé Perron, Hervé Porchet, Julie Médina, Sam Malpass, David Lloyd, Richard Simpson
We describe a newly identified therapeutic target for type 1 diabetes: an envelope protein of endogenous retroviral origin called Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Envelope (HERV-W-Env). HERV-W-Env was found to be detected in the blood of around 60% of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and is expressed in acinar pancreatic cells of 75% of T1D patients at post-mortem examination. Preclinical experiments showed that this protein displays direct cytotoxicity on human β-islet cells. In vivo HERV-W-Env impairs the insulin and glucose metabolism in transgenic mice expressing HERV-W-Env...
May 10, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743595/transactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-herv-k-by-kshv-promotes-kaposi-s-sarcoma-development
#3
Lu Dai, Luis Del Valle, Wendell Miley, Denise Whitby, Augusto C Ochoa, Erik K Flemington, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of several human cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which represents the most common AIDS-associated malignancy that lacks effective treatment options. Despite its clear role in AIDS malignancies, the fact that only a small set of KSHV-infected patients will eventually develop these tumors implies that additional co-factors are required for the development of KSHV-related cancers. In the current study, we demonstrate for the first time that KSHV de novo infection or viral latent proteins are able to transactivate human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) through a variety of cellular signaling pathways and transcriptional factors...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706951/transcriptional-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-primary-cd4-t-cells-following-vorinostat-treatment
#4
Cory H White, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Steven M Lada, Michael S Breen, Tara P Hurst, Celsa A Spina, Douglas D Richman, John Frater, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Christopher H Woelk
The greatest obstacle to a cure for HIV is the provirus that integrates into the genome of the infected cell and persists despite antiretroviral therapy. A "shock and kill" approach has been proposed as a strategy for an HIV cure whereby drugs and compounds referred to as latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are used to "shock" the silent provirus into active replication to permit "killing" by virus-induced pathology or immune recognition. The LRA most utilized to date in clinical trials has been the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-vorinostat...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624084/recent-developments-in-interferon-based-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Laura Dumitrescu, Cris S Constantinescu, Radu Tanasescu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Beta-interferons are the first approved and still the most widely used first-line disease-modifying treatment in MS. Areas covered: Here we focus on recent developments in pharmacology and delivery systems of beta-interferons, and discuss their place within current state of the art therapeutic approaches. We briefly review the clinical trials for classical and PEGylated formulations, emphasizing effectiveness, safety concerns, and tolerability...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603839/humoral-immunity-response-to-herv-k-w-differentiates-between-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-other-neurological-diseases
#6
Giannina Arru, Giuseppe Mameli, Giovanni Andrea Deiana, Anna Laura Rassu, Rosanna Piredda, Elia Sechi, Elisa Caggiu, Marco Bo, Enri Nako, Daniele Urso, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Gianluigi Zanusso, Salvatore Monaco, GianPietro Sechi, Leonardo A Sechi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human endogenous retroviruses-K/W seem play a role in fostering and exacerbation of some neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given these findings, we investigated the immunity response against HERV-K and HERV-W envelope surface (env-su) glycoprotein antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and in healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Four antigenic peptides derived respectively from HERV-K and HERV-W env surface proteins were studied in twenty-one definite or probable ALS, twenty-six possible or definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, eighteen patients with AD and thirty-nine HCs...
March 31, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593697/herv-envelope-proteins-physiological-role-and-pathogenic-potential-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#7
REVIEW
Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are relics of ancient infections accounting for about the 8% of our genome. Despite their persistence in human DNA led to the accumulation of mutations, HERVs are still contributing to the human transcriptome, and a growing number of findings suggests that their expression products may have a role in various diseases. Among HERV products, the envelope proteins (Env) are currently highly investigated for their pathogenic properties, which could likely be participating to several disorders with complex etiology, particularly in the contexts of autoimmunity and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567431/immunomodulating-peptides-derived-from-different-human-endogenous-retroviruses-hervs-show-dissimilar-impact-on-pathogenesis-of-a-multiple-sclerosis-animal-disease-model
#8
Shervin Bahrami, Elzbieta Anna Gryz, Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Anne Troldborg, Kristian Stengaard Pedersen, Magdalena Janina Laska
Retroviruses including Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), contain a conserved region with highly immunomodulatory functions in the transmembrane proteins in envelope gene (env) named immunosuppressive domain (ISU). In this report, we demonstrate that Env59-GP3 peptide holds therapeutic potential in a mouse model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The results show that this specific HERV-H derived ISU peptide, but not peptide derived from another env gene HERV-K, decreased the development of EAE in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by reduced demyelination and inhibition of inflammatory cells...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551251/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-neurological-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Patrick Küry, Avindra Nath, Alain Créange, Antonina Dolei, Patrice Marche, Julian Gold, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Hervé Perron
The causes of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have long remained elusive. A new category of pathogenic components, normally dormant within human genomes, has been identified: human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). These represent ∼8% of the human genome, and environmental factors have reproducibly been shown to trigger their expression. The resulting production of envelope (Env) proteins from HERV-W and HERV-K appears to engage pathophysiological pathways leading to the pathognomonic features of MS and ALS, respectively...
April 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531256/transcriptional-landscape-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-hervs-and-other-repetitive-elements-in-psoriatic-skin
#10
Freddy Lättekivi, Sulev Kõks, Maris Keermann, Ene Reimann, Ele Prans, Kristi Abram, Helgi Silm, Gea Kõks, Külli Kingo
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences make up at least 8% of the human genome. Transcripts originating from these loci as well as proteins encoded by them have been detected in various tissues. HERVs are believed to be implicated in autoimmune diseases, however the extent to which, has remained unclear. Differential expression studies have so far been limited to certain HERV subfamilies with conserved sequences. No studies have been published describing the genome-wide expression pattern of HERVs and repetitive elements in the context of psoriasis...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515560/investigation-of-endogenous-retrovirus-sequences-in-the-neighborhood-of-genes-up-regulated-in-a-neuroblastoma-model-after-treatment-with-hypoxia-mimetic-cobalt-chloride
#11
Christine Brütting, Harini Narasimhan, Frank Hoffmann, Malte E Kornhuber, Martin S Staege, Alexander Emmer
Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515547/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-their-putative-role-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders-such-as-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Victoria Gröger, Holger Cynis
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of retroviral germ line infections of human ancestors and make up ~8% of the human genome. Under physiological conditions, these elements are frequently inactive or non-functional due to deactivating mutations and epigenetic control. However, they can be reactivated under certain pathological conditions and produce viral transcripts and proteins. Several disorders, like multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with increased HERV expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487589/elevated-herv-k-expression-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma-is-associated-with-worsened-relapse-free-survival
#13
Maria Giebler, Martin S Staege, Sindy Blauschmidt, Lea I Ohm, Matthias Kraus, Peter Würl, Helge Taubert, Thomas Greither
A wide variety of endogenous retroviral sequences has been demonstrated in the human genome so far, divided into several different families according to the sequence homology to viral strains. While increased expression of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) elements has already been linked to unfavorable prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian carcinoma yet less is known about the impact of the expression of different HERV elements on sarcomagenesis in general as well as the outcome of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#14
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423611/up-to-date-knowledge-about-the-association-between-multiple-sclerosis-and-the-reactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-infections
#15
REVIEW
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: Although existing studies show that reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) plays a leading role in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, the practitioners are yet to establish effective approaches for managing MS without jeopardizing the patients' immune systems. AIM: To provide up-to-date knowledge on the specific roles played by the reactivation of the HERVs in the pathogenesis of MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of 70 peer-reviewed journals accessed via PubMed was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379122/rheumatoid-arthritis-patient-antibodies-highly-recognize-il-2-in-the-immune-response-pathway-involving-irf5-and-ebv-antigens
#16
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Gian Luca Erre, Marco Piras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Pierangela Manchia, Mario Manca, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive joint damage due to largely unknown environmental factors acting in concert with risk alleles conferring genetic susceptibility. A major role has been attributed to viral infections that include past contacts with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, more recently, to non-protein coding sequences of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) integrated in the human genome. Molecular mimicry between viral and self proteins is supposed to cause the loss of immune tolerance in predisposed hosts...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363161/subsets-of-activated-monocytes-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-incipient-and-progressed-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Mikkel Carstensen Gjelstrup, Morten Stilund, Thor Petersen, Holger Jon Møller, Eva Lykke Petersen, Tove Christensen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Substantial evidence points toward monocytes and macrophages playing prominent roles early in disease, mediating both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Monocytes are subdivided into three subsets depending on the expression of CD14 and CD16, representing different stages of inflammatory activation. To investigate their involvement in MS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 patients with incipient or progressed MS and 20 healthy controls were characterized ex vivo...
February 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330412/high-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-from-intrauterine-life-to-adulthood-in-two-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Chiara Cipriani, Laura Ricceri, Claudia Matteucci, Alessia De Felice, Anna Maria Tartaglione, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Francesca Pica, Sandro Grelli, Gemma Calamandrei, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Emanuela Balestrieri
Retroelements, such as Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), have been implicated in many complex diseases, including neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated a distinctive expression profile of specific HERV families in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) patients, suggesting their involvement in ASD. Here we used two distinct ASD mouse models: inbred BTBR T+tf/J mice and CD-1 outbred mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid. Whole embryos, blood and brain samples from the offspring were collected at different ages and the expression of several ERV families (ETnI, ETnII-α, ETnII-β, ETnII-γ, MusD and IAP), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR4) was assessed...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315213/identification-of-transposable-elements-contributing-to-tissue-specific-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#19
Takafumi Chishima, Junichi Iwakiri, Michiaki Hamada
It has been recently suggested that transposable elements (TEs) are re-used as functional elements of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). This is supported by some examples such as the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) elements contained within lncRNAs and expressed specifically in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as required to maintain hESC identity. There are at least two unanswered questions about all lncRNAs. How many TEs are re-used within lncRNAs? Are there any other TEs that affect tissue specificity of lncRNA expression? To answer these questions, we comprehensively identify TEs that are significantly related to tissue-specific expression levels of lncRNAs...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313202/monitoring-the-transcriptional-activity-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family-using-pna-strand-invasion-into-double-stranded-dna
#20
Grzegorz Machnik, Estera Skudrzyk, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Witold Szkróbka, Marcin Basiak, Aleksandra Bołdys, Helena Sławska, Bogusław Okopień
In the presented assay, we elaborated a method for distinguishing sequences that are genetically closely related to each other. This is particularly important in a situation where a fine balance of the allele abundance is a point of research interest. We developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion technique for the differentiation between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) and ERVWE1 sequences, both molecularly similar, belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. We have found that this method may support the PCR technique in screening for minor alleles which, in certain conditions, may be undetected by the standard PCR technique...
February 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
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